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Hakluytus   Posthumus 


Purchas   His   Pilgrimes 

In   Twenty   Volumes 
Volume   I 












One  thousand  copies  of  this  book  have  been  printed 

for  sale  in  Great  Britain   and    Ireland,  of  which  one 

hundred  copies  are  on   hand-made  paper 

Hakluytus   Posthumus 


Purchas   His   Pilgrimes 

Contayning    a    History    of  the    World 

in    Sea    Voyages    and    Lande    Travells 

by    Englishmen    and    others 



James    MacLehose    and    Sons 

Publishers  to  the  University 



Publishers'  Note,  ......       xxi 

The  Will  of  the  Rev.  Samuel  Purchas,  B.D.,       .      xxix 

The    Epistle    Dedicatorie    to    Charles,    Prince    of 

Wales,      .  .  .  .  .  .  .   xxxvii 

To  the  Reader, xxxix 

A  Note  touching  the  Dutch,        ....      xlix 

The  Contents  of  the  Chapters  and  Paragraphs 
in  the  First  Volume  of  Purchas  His 

CHAP.  I. 

A  Large  Treatise  of  King  Salomons  Navie  sent  from 
Eziongeber  to  Ophir  :  Wherein  besides  the  Typicall 
Mysteries  briefly  unvailed,  and  many  Morall  specu- 
lations observed  ;  the  Voyage  is  largely  discussed  out 
of  Divine,  Ecclesiasticall  and  Humane  Testimonies : 
Intended  as  an  historicall  Preface  to  the  Histories 
following.     .......  I 

Ophirian  voyage  intended  as  a  Preface  to  this  whole 
Worke.  The  History  and  Mystery  of  Salomons 
Ophirian  Voyage, 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  page 

§.  I.  The  Allegorlcall  and  Anagogicall  sense  or  applica- 
tion of  Salomons  Ophirian  Navigation.  .  .  5 

Mysteries  of  the  Temple  unvailed.     Mans  naturall  right. 

§.  2.  The  Tropologicall  use  of  the  Story;  and  of  Dis- 
coveries and   negotiations   by   Sea.  ...  9. 

Merchandising  &  Sea  trade  proved  by  Gods  Law, 
Nature,  Nations.  Best  traffique.  Mans  foure-fold 
Right  or  Tenure. 

§.  3.  The  Tropologicall  or  Morall  use  enlarged  and  am- 
plified ;  and  a  view  taken  of  Mans  diversified 
Dominion  in  Microcosraicall,  Cosmopoliticall,  and 
that  Spirituall  or  Heavenly  right,  over  himselfe  and 
all  things,  which  the  Christian  hath  in  and  by 
Christ.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .14, 

Mans  Microcosmicall  state  or  tenure  examined.  The 
Christian  Man  an  universall  possessor  of  the 
Universe.  Christians  grace  and  glorie.  Vanity  of 
other  things  compared.  Microcosmicall,  Cosmopo- 
liticall   &  Christian  tenure  compared  with  propriety. 

§.  4.  The  Christian  and  Philosopher  compared  in  that 
challenge  to  be  rich,  free,  a  King  ;  that  this  hinders 
not  but  furthers  Politicall  subjection  :  and  of  the 
happie  combination  of  wisdome  and  royaltie  in 
Salomon,  as  likewise  in  our  dayes.         .  .  .25 

The  Christian,  how  both  Free  and  a  King.  The 
Christian  free,  rich,  a  King.  Heroicall  Kings. 
Q.  Elizabeth  and  K.  James  Englands  two  great 
Lights.  Englands  blessed  shade  under  the  Jacobajan 

§.  5.  Of  the  propriety  which  Infidels  have  in  their  lands 
and  goods  :  of  propriety  in  the  Sea,  and  of  Salomons 
propriety  of  the  Sea  and  Shoare  at  Ezion  Geber.    .  38 

Christians  hold  in  Capite.     Ethnicks  in  Villenage.     Image 
of  God.      Keyes   of   Religion    lock   from    heaven   not 
earth.     Meum   &  Tuum. 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  page 

§.  6.  The  commendations  of  Navigation,  as  an  Art  worthie 
the  care  of  the  most  Worthie  ;  the  Necessitie, 
Commoditie,  Dignitie  thereof.    ....  45 

Navigation  necessary.  Seas  manifold  serviceablenesse. 
Excellencie  of  Navigation,  of  the  Sea  and  Salomon. 
The  Tyrians.  Sea-monopoly.  Sea  addes  true  great- 
nesse  to  greatest  Kings.  Sea-greatnesse  of  English 
and  Dutch.  Mariners,  why  unruly.  Concent  and 
consent   of  Elements  to  Navigation. 

§,  7,  Of  Ezion  Geber,  Eloth,  and  the  Red  Sea  :  that 
of  Edom  it  received  that  name,  and  communicated 
it  to  the  Indian  Ocean,  by  the  Phoenician  Naviga- 
tions frequent  in   those  times  to  India.  .  .  58 

Eziongeber  where.  Eloth  &  Esiongeber.  Red  Sea  named 
of  Idumaea,  &  that  of  Edom.  Elath.  Sinus  Elani- 
ticus.  The  Phoenix  true  in  Mystery,  not  in 
History.  Sinai-desert  and  Ophir-voyage,  mysteries 
of  faith  and  free  grace. 

§.  8.  Of  Ophir,  divers  opinions  weighed  and  censured ; 
whether  the  Compas  was  knowne  to  the  old  World  ; 
that  the  remote  parts  were  lately  inhabited,  the  new 
World  but  newly,  and  a  great  part  thereof  not  yet. 

Peru  why  and  whence  so  named.  It  was  not  Ophir. 
No  new  thing  under  the  Sunne,  how  to  be  under- 
stood. The  Ancients  had  not  the  Compasse.  Peru 
is  not  Ophir.  Columbus  and  Cabot  mistaken.  Sofala 
is  not  Ophir.  Discourse  of  the  confusion  of  Lan- 
guages ;  of  the  Ebrew  and  Punick.  The  World 
peopled  by  degrees.     America  but  newly. 

§.  9.  Joctans  posteritie  seated  in  the  East  parts  of  Asia, 
amongst  them,  Ophir  in  India  ultra  Gangem,  where 
Chryse  was  of  old,  and  now  is  the  Kingdome  of 
Pegu,  and  the   Regions  adjoynlng. 

Name-search  of  Joctans  Posterity  in  India.  Ophirs  deriva- 
vatives.  Mesha,  Sephar,  Ophir.  Gold-Ants  and 
Gryphans,  Emblems.  Reports  ancient,  midle  and 
moderne  of  the  Gold  in  those  parts.  Store  of  Gold 
in  Pegu  and  Sumatra,   the  head  and  foot  of  Ophir. 



The  Contents  of  the  Chzpters^Contmuet^.  page 

§.  lo.  Of  the  Gold,  Silver,  Gemmes,  Ivorie,  Almug  trees, 
Apes  and  Peacockes,  which  Salomons  Fleet  brought 
from  Ophir,  with  divers  other  profitable  observa- 
tions inserted.  ......  95 

Excellence  of  Metals,  superexcellence  of  Gold.  Greatest 
Ethnick  sums.  Davids  talents,  Salomons  Revenue, 
audited.  Davids  Husbandry,  Salomons  Navigation, 
2.  wings  of  Magnificence.  Varietie  of  Indian 
Gemmes  ;  which  prove  Ophir  to  be  India.  India 
yeelds  store  of  the  things  brought  from  Ophir. 

§.  II.  Probable  conjectures  of  the  course  taken  in  the 
Ophirian  Voyage,  and  accounts  given  of  the  three 
yeeres  time  spent  there  :  also  of  the  course  taken  in 
like  Voyages  by  the  Romans  :  and  the  divers  Ports 
whereto  the  Spices  and  riches  of  India  have  in 
divers  Ages  beene  brought,  and  thence  dispersed  to 
the  severall  parts  of  Europe.        .  .  .  .108 

Roman  Navigations  to  the  Indies.  Arabian  Gulfe. 
Ophirian  Voyage  discussed,  and  accounts  of  the 
time  and  course.  D.  Dees  calculation.  Salomons 
servants  who.  First  Spice-Merchants.  Severall  Ports 
of  Indian  Merchandise,  changing  with  the  Empires. 
Succession  of  Ports  and  Staples  for  the  Indian  Spice- 

§.  1 2.  Of  Tharsis  or  Tharshish,  whether  it  be  the  same 
with  Ophir,  and  both,  some  indefinite  remoter 
Countrie  ;  whether  it  be  the  Sea,  or  Tartessus,  or 
any  place  in  Spaine.  Of  the  ancient  Navigations 
about  Africa,  and  of  the  Phoenician  Antiquities.        .        123 

Ophir  and  the  voyage  to  Ophir.  Opinions  of  Ophir 
and  Tharshish.  Tarshish  what  and  where  it  was, 
discussed.  Tartessus  not  Tharshish.  Circumnaviga- 
tions of  Africa.  Phaenician  and  Spanish  Antiquities. 
Q.   Elizabeth  and  King  James. 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  page 


Mans  life  a  Pilgrimage.  The  Peregrinations  of  Christ, 
and  the  first  Encompassing  the  habitable  or  then 
inhabited  World  by  the  holy  Apostles  and  first 
Planters  of  the  Gospell.    .  .  .  .  -135 

§.  I.  Man  by  sinne  becomne  a  Worldly  Pilgrime  ;  Christs 
Pilgrimage  in  the  Flesh  to  recover  him  :  Mans  Spiri- 
tual! Pilgrimage  in  and  from  the  World.         .  .        135 

Mans  Creation,  Fall,  Recoverie  by  an  invaluable  price. 
Christs  peregrinations.      Mans  pilgrimage. 

§.  2.  How  Apostles  differed  from  Bishops  :  their  preach- 
ing the  Gospell  to  all  Nations.  .  .  -139 

Apostles  preeminence.  Apostles  preached  thorow  all  the 
World  in  proper  sense. 

§.  3.  The  Peregrination  of  S.   Peter.  .  .  .  .142 

Peter  not  Bishop  of  Rome.  Difference  of  an  Apostle  and 

§.  4.   Of  Saint  Andrew,  John,  the  two  Jacobi,  Philip  and 

Simon  Zelotes.        .  .  .  .  .  .146 

Apostles  tongues  and  miracles.  Saints,  Andrew,  John, 
James.  Saints,  Jacobus,  Justus,  Philip  and  Simon 

§.  5.   Of  S.  Thomas,  Bartholomew,  Matthew,  Jude,  Matthias: 

and  of  counterfeit  Writings  in  the  Apostles  names.        .        151 

Saints,  Thomas,  Barthol.  Matthew.  Leaden  legends  & 
Counterfeits.  Changelings  fathered  on  Apostles.  S. 
Paul   &  his  Evangelists.      S.  Mark. 

§.  6.   Of  Saint  Paul:  Of  Apostolicall  Assistants:  some  doubts 

discussed.       .  .  .  .  .  .  -^55 

The  Apostles  preached  onely  in  the  old  knowne  World. 
Alexander.     Christians  much  fewer  since  the  Tartars. 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  pack 

§.  7.   Of  America,  whether  it  were  then  peopled.  .  '159 

America  new-peopled.  Conquerors  the  conquest  of 
Religion.  Americas  peopling  and  progresse.  Multi- 
plication of  the  Israelites  in  Egypt,  and  of  Americans. 

§.  8.  The  glorie  of  Apostolicall  Conquests :  the  hopes 
of  enlarging  the  Church  in  this  last  Age,  by  know- 
ledge of  Arts  and  Languages  through  the  benefit 
of  Printing  and  Navigation.         .  .  .  .166 

Apostolicall  Acts  and  Conquest  compared  with  greatest 
Captaines.  Two  Hirams  Paralel  of  Tabernacle  and 
Temple ;  Printing  &  Navigation.  Learning  revived 
by  printing,  by  navigations  help  preacheth  to  the 
World.  Romish  and  Jewish  Church  compared. 
Spaine  fitted  against  Rome.  Praier  for  more  full 
Conversion  of  the   World. 

CHAP.   in. 

Of  divers  other  principall  Voyages,  and  Peregrinations 
mentioned  in  holy  Scripture.  Of  the  travels  and 
dispersions  of  the  Jewes  ;  and  of  Nationall  trans- 
migrations.  .  .  .  .  .  .179 

History  and  Mystery  of  the  Patriarkes  Travells.  Jewes 
Travells  and  dispersions.  Hope  of  their  conversion. 
World  peopled  by  peregrination.      National  Travels. 


Fabulous  Antiquities  of  the  Peregrinations  and  Naviga- 
tions of  Bacchus,  Osiris,  Hercules,  the  Argonauts, 
Cadmus,  the  Grascian  Navie  to  Troy,  Menelaus, 
Ulysses,  yEneas,  and  others.         .  .  .  .186 

Truth  occasion  of  Fables.  Travells  of  Bacchus,  Theseus, 
Hercules,  the  Argonauts.  Argonauts  Arts.  Cadmus. 
Muster  of  the  Grecian  ships  against  Troy.  The 
Travells  of  Menelaus,  Ulysses,  Daedalus,  ^Eneas. 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  page 

CHAP.  V. 

A  briefe  recitall  of  the  famous  expeditions  mentioned  in 
ancient  Histories,  of  the  Assyrians,  Egyptians,  Scy- 
thians, Ethiopians,   Persians,  and  others.  .  ,        195 

Ninus  his  conquests  and  Ninive.  Semiramis  invadeth  India. 
Sesostris  Pillars.  Zerah.  Tearcon.  Cyrus.  Xerxes. 
Rom.   Emperors  travels. 

CHAP.    VI. 

The  travels  of  the  antient  Philosophers  and  learned  men 
briefly  mentioned.  ..... 

The  Author  a  great-little  Traveller.  Thales  his  Epistle. 
Solon.  Solon  and  Croesus.  Travells  of  Philosophers. 
Basenesse  of  Flatterers.  Travels  of  Zeno,  Pytha- 
goras, Apollonius,  Histaspis,   &  of  Historians. 

CHAP.    VII. 

Phoenician    Voyages,    and     especially     that     of    Hanno,    a 

Carthaginian  Captaine.      .....        207 

Phasnician  Hand.  Hanno  &  Himilco  discover  the  South  & 
North  parts. 

The  Navigation  of  Hanno  a  Carthaginian  Captaine  on  the 
Coasts  of  Africa,  without  Hercules  Fillers,  which  he 
dedicated,  written  in  the  Punick  tongue  in  the  Temple 
of  Saturne,  after  translated  into  the  Greeke,  and  now 
into  the  English,  with  briefe  annotations.  .  .        210 

Hanno  voyage,  acts  and  discoveries  on  the  African-Atlantine 
Coast.  Discourse  on  the  Voyages  of  Hanno  and 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued. 


lambulus  his  Navigation  to  Arabia,  and  Ethiopia,  and 
thence  to  a  strange  Hand,  from  whence  he  sayled 
to  Palimbothra  in   India.  .... 

Description  of  lambuli  Insula,  the  people,  rites,  creatures, 
lambulus  his  reports  of  his  Indian  Travels. 


CHAP.    IX. 

Great  Alexanders  Life,  Acts,  Peregrinations  and  Con- 
quests briefly  related.         .  .  .  .  .220 

Alexander.  Bucephalus.  Alexander  the  Great  his  Acts, 
Arts,  Persian  Expedition.  Alexanders  sicknesse, 
battels  with  Darius,  Ammon-voyage.  Darius  slaine. 
Amazonian  fable.  Crueltie.  Fountaine  of  Oile. 
Alexanders  Ambition  frustrate ;  danger,  escape,  view 
of  the  Ocean.  Alexanders  returne,  Mariage,  Feasts, 
Guard,  mourning,  rage,  death. 

The  Voyage  of  Nearchus  and  his  Fleet  set  forth  by  Alex- 
ander the  Great,  from  the  River  Indus  to  the  bottome 
of  the  Persian  Gulfe.  .  .  .  .  .232 

Journall  of  Nearchus  his  voyage  from  Indus  to  the  Persian 
Gulfe.  Nearchus  his  Voyage  from  Indus  to  Tigris: 
honoured  by  Alexander. 

CHAP.    X. 

The  travels  of  Musaeus,  Thebseus,  and  others  mentioned 
by  Saint  Ambrose  ;  of  others  also  mentioned  in  the 
Ecclesiasticall  Histories  of  Eusebius,  Ruffinus,  Socrates, 
and  Sozomen.  .  .  .  .  .  .239 

Indian  voyages  of  Musaeus  and  Thebaeus.  Epistle  of 
Calanus.  Frumentius.  Conversion  of  Indians  and 
Iberians.     Palladius  his  posting. 

CHAP.    XI. 

A  briefe  and  generall  consideration  of  Europe.       .  .        24.4 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  page 

§.  I.  Of  Europe   compared    with    the   other    parts   of  the 

World 244- 

§.  2.  The  names  of  Europe.      .  .  .  .  .245 

Bounds  of  Europe  and  Etymologies  of  the  name,  with  their 

§.  3.   The  Ouantitie  and  Bounds.        ....        247 

Frankes  and  Romanes.      Quantitie,  Qualitie,   Conquests  of 

8.  4.  The  Oualitie  and  Excellencies.  ....        248 
Europes  Arts  and  Inventions.      Religion,  Civility. 

§.  5     Of  the  Languages  of  Europe.     .  .  .  .252 

Languages.     The  Languages   of  Europe.      Authors  excuse 
for  Europaean  promise. 

CHAP.  xn. 

Enquiries    of   Languages  by  Edw.   Brerewood,  lately  pro- 
fessor of  Astronomie  in  Gresham  Colledge.      .  .        256 

Extent  of  the  Greeke  tongue  in  antient  times.  Extent  of 
the  Greeke  tongue  in  vulgar  use.  Decay  of  the  old 
Greeke,  where  and  whence.  How  corrupted.  Differ- 
ence of  the  old  and  moderne  Greeke.  Extent  of  the 
Latine.  Roman  tongue  spread  by  Roman  Colonies. 
The  Latine  abolished  not  the  vulgar  Languages. 
African,  Gallike,  Spanish,  Panonian  and  Roman 
tongues.  Latine,  not  vulgarly  spoken  in  all  places  o\ 
the  Roman  Empire.  When  the  Latine  degenerated 
into  Italian,  French  &  Spanish.  Roman  Emp.  when 
and  by  whom  it  fell.  Threefold  corruption  of 
Latines.  Extent  of  the  Latine  tongue,  discussed. 
Change  of  the  Roman  and  English  tongues. 
Tongues  of  Italy  and  France.  Originall  of  French, 
Walsh  language  of  the  Celtas.  Spanish,  &c.  Punike 
or  Phoenician  language,  that  of  Canaan  &:  Hebrew, 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued. 

Punike,  the  same,  or  neere  to  Hebrew.  Extent  of 
Slavonian,  The  Arabike,  Syriake  &  Turkish  languages 
where  spoken.  Chaldee  paraphrase.  Hebrew  not 
vulgarly  understood  after  Captivity. 


Master  Brerewoods  Enquiries  of  the  Religions  professed 
in  the  World  :  Of  Christians,  Mahumetans,  Jewes, 
and  Idolaters  ;  with  other  Philosophical!  specula- 
tions, and  divers  Annotations  added.     .  .  .        304 

Almost  all  Europe  Christian.  Almost  all  Afrike  Mahumetan 
or  Gentiles.  Christians  of  Egypt.  Habassia  and 
other  African  Lands  and  Hands.  Scaligers  errour 
touching  Presbyter  John.  Christians  in  Asia.  The 
Christians  in  America,  and  their  poore  Christianity. 
The  World  of  Mahumetan  professors  in  the  World. 
Mahumetans  in  Asia.  The  cause.  Christianitie  ad- 
vanced other  wayes.  Idolatrous  Nations  in  Europe, 
Africa  and  Asia.  Idolatry  in  Asia  and  America. 
Judaisme  in  what  Regions.  Traditionary  and  Karaim 
Jewes  and  Samaritans.  Tartars  not  Israelites.  Tar- 
tarians  not  Israelites.  Saracens  not  of  Sara.  Their 
Circumcision.  Tartars  not  Israelites.  Esdras  his 
allegation  discussed.  Jewish  Fables  of  Inclosed  Jews  & 
of  the  Sea.  Behemoth  &  Liviathan.  Hyperbolicall 
Whales.  Depth  of  the  Sea  more  then  the  height 
of  Hils.  Land  not  levell :  where  highest.  Declivitie 
of  the  Chanels  of  Rivers.  Christians,  Mahumetans 
and  Gentiles  how  proportioned  in  the  World. 
Centre  of  the  Earth  and  Sea,  the  same.  Divers 
sorts  of  Christians.  Patriarke  of  Constantinople 
why  so  great.  Opinions  of  Greeke  Church.  Tyrus 
gave  name  to  the  Syrians :  Now  subject  to  the 
Pat.  of  Antiochia.  Georgians,  Circassians,  Russians, 
their  Rites  and  Opinions.  Greeke  faith  in  Russia 
and  Poland.  Nestorians  in  the  East.  Muzal  Patri- 
archal! See  of  Nestorians.  Their  opinions  and 
rites.  Patriarcke  of  Mozal,  or  Seleucia.  Nestorian 
opinions  and  rites.  Syriake  Testament.  Jacobites 
whence  called.  Their  opinions  and  rites.  Opinions 
of  Jacobites.  Of  the  Egyptian  Cophti.  Rites  and 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued. 

opinions  of  the  Cophti,  or  Egyptian  Christians. 
Alvarez  taxed.  Patt.  &  BB.  of  the  East.  Monks  of 
SS.  Antony  &  Basil.  Rites  and  Opinions  of  the 
Ethiopian  Church.  Abassine  Circumcision  and  annuall 
Baptisme.  Armenian  Church.  Rites  and  opinion 
of  the  Armenian  and  Maronite  Christians.  Patriarch, 
rites  and  opinions  of  the  Maronite  Christians.  Suc- 
cession of  Easterne  heresies.  Saracens  scourge  amending 
the  posteritie.  Christian,  Jewish,  and  Mahumetan,  in 
what  Languages.  Armenians.  Scriptures  and  Liturgie 
in  vulgar  tongues,  of  divers  sorts  of  Christians.  Scrip- 
ture-translations. Greeke,  Latine,  Chaldee,  Syriake 
Liturgies.  What  Liturgies  in  the  Syriake,  Chaldee, 
Greek,  or  Latine  tongues. 


Relations  of  divers  Travellers,  touching  the  diversities  of 
Christian  Rites  and  Tenents  in  divers  parts  of  the 
World.  .......        403 

§.  I.   Tecla  Maria  an   Abassine,  his   answeres  to   questions 

touching  the  Religion    of  the  Abassines  and  Cophti.        403 

Christians  divided  into  foure  parts,  Greeks,  Romists,  Pro- 
testants, &c.  Ethiopian  Rites  and  Faith  declared 
by  Tecla  Maria  an  Ethiopian.  Difference  between 
the  Cophti  &  Ethiopians.     Their  Orders  how  given. 

§.  2.  Relations  of  the.  Jacobites  and  Armenians,  written 
by  Leonard  Bishop  of  Sidon,  Pope  Gregorie  the  1 3. 
his  Nuncio  to  the  Easterne  parts,  .  .  .411 

Jacobite  rites,  Patriark  &  BB.  Two  Armenian  Patriarks  & 
their  BB. 

§.  3.  Of  Simon  Sulaka  a  Papall  Easterne  Patriarke  amongst 
the  Chaldaeans  :  and  of  divers  others  thither  sent.  Of 
Abdesu,  Aatalla,  Donha  his  successor?.  .  .        414 

Titular  Patriarks  obeying  Rome. 



The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  page 

§.  4.  Of  the  Cophti,  their  Synode  at  Cairo,  the  Jesuites 
being  the  Popes  Agents,  and  of  Stephen  Colinzas 
message  to  the  Georgians,  and  two  Jesuites  sent  to 
the  Maronites.         .  .  .  .  .  .415 

Synods  of  the  Cophti.  Georgians.  Popes  Messengers  and 
gifts  to  the  Maronites. 

Errores  ex  libris  Maronitarum  excerpti    1580   sunt 

autem  hujusmodi.  .  .  .  .418 

A  Jesuites  collection  of  opinions  ascribed  to  the  Maronites. 

§.  5.  Of  the  condition  of  life  in  which  the  Greeks  now 
live,  and  of  their  Rites  of  Fasts,  Feasts,  and  other 
observations,  gathered  out  of  the  booke  of  Christo- 
pheros  Angelos,  a  Greekish  Monke  and  Priest.  .        422 

Scripture  mis-applied.  Greekes  tributes  divers.  Tithing 
of  children.  Greeke  Rites  observed  in  their  foure 
Lents.  Their  manner  of  fasting.  Wed.  Frid.  Sat. 
Sunday,  Twelfdaies  rites.  Holy  Bread  and  Water. 
Grascian  giving  of  Orders,  rites  of  Prayer,  Confes- 
sion, &c.  Greekish  manner  of  administring  the 
Sacraments,  their  Excommunication.  Patriarch  of 
Alexandria  drinketh  poison  unhurt;  Jew  poisoned 
by  it.  Greeke  Menkes  hand-labour,  habit,  diver- 
sitie,  fasts :  no  begging.  Life  of  Greek-Monks, 
penance,  fasts,  night-prayers,  probation.  Greekes 
Monk-sharing,  Forgivenesse,  Easter,  conceits  of  the 
Crosse.      Maintenance  of  the   Greeke  Clergie. 

CHAP.    XV. 

Collections  out  of  Peter  Stroza,  Secretarie  to  Pope 
Paul  the  Fifth,  his  Treatise  of  the  Opinions  of  the 
Chaldsans,  touching  the  Patriarke  of  Babylon,  and 
the   Nestorians   in   Asia.     .....        449 

From     the     Patriarchall     Chamber,     Prayers     and 

Blessings  be  given  to  you.  .  .  .        450 

Elias  Patriarke  of  Babylon.     Flattering  Letter  of  the  poore 
Babylonian  Patriarch  to  the  Pope.      Elias  beliefe.      In 
what  things   Easterne  Nestorians  differ  from  us. 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters — Continued.  page 

CHAP.    XVI. 

A  briefe  Survey  of  the  Ecclesiasticall  Politic  ancient  and 
moderne,  or  of  the  severall  Patriarchs,  Archbishops 
and  Bishops  Sees  thorow  the  Christian  world  :  also 
of  the  Jesuites  Colledges  and  numbers,  and  of  other 
Monasticall  Orders.  .....        456 

Beginning  and  alteration  of  the  number  and  power  of 
Christian  Patriarkes.  Division  of  the  Easterne  world  ; 
Patriarchs  of  Constantinople,  &c.  One  Patriarchall 
See  made  five.  Bishopricks  Sc  Jesuits  Colledges  in 
Italic.  Catalogue  of  Bishoprickes  and  Jesuites  in 
Italy  and  Sicilia.  Bishoprickes  of  Spaine  and  their 
Revenues,  as  also  of  Dukes,  &:c.  Catalogue  of  Bishop- 
rickes and  Jesuites  in  Spaine  and  France.  Belgian, 
German  and  Switzer  Bishops  and  Jesuits.  Catalogue 
of  Bishoprickes  and  Jesuites  in  Europe  and  India. 
Bishops  Sees.  Jesuits  upstarts.  Orders  of  Knight- 
hood. Other  disorders.  Numbers,  kinds,  and  be- 
ginnings of  Papall-religious  Orders.      Papall  Orders. 


A  Discourse  of  the  diversitie  of  Letters  used  by  divers 
Nations  of  the  world  :  the  Antiquitie,  manifold  use 
and  varietie  thereof:  with  exemplarie  descriptions 
of  very  many  strange  Alphabets.  .485 

Letters,  how  ancient  and  usefull  ;  by  whom  invented. 
Samaritan  Letters  whether  ancienter  then  the  present 
Hebrew.  Greeke  Inscriptions  in  lonikc  Letters. 
Inventers  of  Letters.  Diversity  of  Letters,  and  of 
the  posture  or  reading  of  them.  Phoenician,  Hebrew, 
lonike,  Greeke  and  Latine  Letters  compared.  Hiero- 
glyphicall  Obeliske.  Hebrew  Letters.  Israel-Samari- 
tan Coines.  Divers  kindes  of  Alphabets.  Divers 
Alphabets,  old  and  new.  Divers  kinds  of  Easterne 
Alphabets.  Malabar  writing.  Gotike,  Saxon  and 
English  Alphabets. 




Facsimile  of  the  Engraved  Title  Page,  .  .    xxxvi 

Facsimile  of  the  Title  Page  to  the  First  Part,      .       xliv 

Hondius    his    Map    of    the    Deserts    and     Israels 

Peregrination    therein,  .  .  .  .72 

Hondius  his  Map   of  Saint    Pauls    Peregrinations,      160 

Hondius  his  Map  of  the  Christian  World,  ,  .176 

Hondius    his    map    of   the    Navigation    of  -^neas 

the  Trojan,  .  .  .  .  .  ,192 

Hondius  his  Map  of  the  Roman  Empire,    .  .      200 

Hondius  his  Map  of  Alexanders  Expedition,  .      232 

Hondius  his  Map  of  the  World,  .     '     .  .      312 

The    Alphabets   of  the    Phoenicians,    Greeks,    and 

Latins,  .......      495 



The  Hebrew  Letters  and  Names  thereof,     .  .      497 

Coins  of  the  Old  Samaritan  Letters,    .  .  -497 

Very  many  strange  Alphabets,      .  •  .  499-503 

Malabar  Writing, 5^4 

Ulphila's  Gothic,  and  the  Saxon  Alphabet,   .  .      505 



Samuel  Purchas,  son  of  George  Purchas,  Yeoman, 
was  born  at  Thaxted  in  Essex.  The  date  of  his  birth 
is  uncertain  ;  in  his  Marriage  Allegation,  dated  2nd 
December,  1601,  his  age  is  given  at  *  about  27,'  but  in 
the  Thaxted  Baptismal  Register  the  date  of  his  baptism 
is  entered  as  *  20th  November,  1577.'  The  use  of  the 
word  *  about'  points  to  some  uncertainty  in  the  mind 
of  the  writer,  and  it  is  probable  that  his  baptism  took 
place  shortly  after  his  birth,  and  that  at  the  time  of 
his  marriage  he  was  really  only  in  his  twenty-fifth  year. 
This  is  confirmed  by  the  statement  on  the  engraved  title 
page  of  his  '  Pilgrimes,'  that  at  the  date  of  its  publication 
in  1625  he  was  aged  forty-eight.  He  was  educated  at  St. 
John's  College,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the  degree  of 
M.A.  in  1600,  and  afterwards  proceeded  to  that  of  B.D. 
In  1 60 1  he  was  Curate  of  Purleigh  in  Essex,  where  he 
married  in  December  of  that  year  Jane  Lease,  daughter 
of  Vincent  Lease  of  Westhall,  Co.  Suffolk,  Yeoman. 
Both  Purchas  and  his  bride  are  described  as  household 
servants  of  Dr.  Freake,  Parson  of  Purleigh.  On  the 
24th  August,  1604,  he  was  instituted  to  the  Vicarage 
of  Eastwood  on  the  presentation  of  the  King,  and  there 

he  remained  until   16 14. 

I  xxi  i 


It   was    doubtless    during   his  residence    at   Eastwood 
that  he  commenced    to    gather    materials    for    his    *  Pil- 
grimes.'     Eastwood    is    only  two    miles   from  Leigh   on 
the  Thames,  and  Leigh,  at  that  time,  was  a  flourishing 
seaport    '  well    stocked     with    lusty    seamen.'  ^       There 
lived,    when     they    were    not    afloat,    the    Cockes,    the 
Bonners,  the  Goodlads,  and  many  other  seafarers  whose 
names    are    mentioned    in    the    '  Pilgrimes,'    and    there 
Purchas  took  down  from  '  his  owne  reports  to  myself 
the  '  strange  adventures  of  Andrew  Battell,  of  Leigh,  sent 
by  the  Portugals  prisoner  to  Angola.'     Purchas  himself 
was  no  traveller  :  he  tells  us  indeed  that  'least  Travellers 
may  be  greatest  writers — Even  I,  which  have  written  so 
much  of  travellers  and  travells,  never  travelled  200  miles 
from   Thaxted   in   Essex  where  I  was  borne.' ^     But  he 
made  up  for  his  want  of  experience  as  a  traveller  by  his 
untiring   industry.     He  was   never   able  to   maintain   '  a 
Vicarian  or  Subordinate  Scribe,'  but  '  his  own  hands  had 
to  worke  as  well  as  his  head  to  contrive  these  voluminous 
Buildings  [his  books]  except  in  some  few  Transcriptions 
or   Translations,    the    most   also    of  them    by  his   sonne 
S.  P.   that    one   and  the  same   name  might   both   father 
and    further    the    whole.'     When    it    is    mentioned    that 
his  *  Pilgrimage  '  and  '  Pilgrimes '  together  fill  over  five 
thousand  folio  pages  of  close  print,  his  industry  becomes 
impressive.     In  1614  he  was  appointed  Chaplain  to  George 
Abbot,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  in  the  same  year 
he   was  inducted    Rector   of  St.    Martin's,    Ludgate,   by 
the    patronage    of    John    King,    'late    Lord    Bishop    of 
London,  to  whose  bountie  under  God,  I  willingly  ascribe 

1  Camden's  Britannia,  ed.  Gibson,  1695,  column  341. 

2  '  Pilgrimes,'  I.  i.  74. 



my  life,  delivered  from  a  sickly  Habitation,  and  con- 
sequently (as  also  by  opportunities  of  a  London  Benefice) 
whatsoever  additions  in  my  later  editions  of  my  Pil- 
grimage ;  these  present  Pilgrimes  also  with  their  pere- 
grinations,' The  latter  preferment  '  afforded  him  the 
opportunities  of  bookes,  conference,  and  manifold  in- 
telligence ;  and  as  the  benefice  was  not  the  worst,  so 
was  it  the  best  suited  in  the  world  to  his  content.' 
On  July  nth,  1615,  he  was  incorporated  B.D.  of  Oxford. 
He  died  in  1626,  aged  49,  leaving  behind  him  a  son 
Samuel,  and  a  daughter  Martha,  another  daughter,  Mary, 
having  predeceased  him  in  161 9. 

Anthony  a  Wood  in  his  Fasti  Oxonienses^  (and  most 
of  Purchas's  biographers  follow  him)  says  of  his  ventures 
that  '  by  the  publishing  of  which  books  he  brought 
himself  into  debt,  but  died  not  in  prison  as  some  have 
said,  but  in  his  own  house  (a  little  while  after  the  king 
had  promised  him  a  deanery).'  Purchas  was  not  a  rich 
man ;  he  says,  '  If  I  had  not  lived  in  great  part  upon 
Exhibition  of  charitable  friends,  and  on  extraordinary 
labours  of  Lecturing  (as  the  terme  is)  the  Pilgrime  had 
beene  a  more  agreeing  name  to  me,  than  Purchas';  yet 
from  his  Will,  which  is  here  reprinted,^  it  would  seem 
that  when  it  was  drawn  up  on  the  31st  May,  1625,  in 
the  year  before  his  death,  he  had  considerable  property 
to  dispose  of,  and  there  is  no  evidence  to  show  that  in 
the  interval  his  affairs  had  become  embarrassed.  The 
misunderstanding  has  probably  arisen  from  the  statement 
in  the  Preface  to  the  '  Microcosmus,'  where  Purchas  men- 
tions the  death  of  his  brother-in-law,  Wilham  Pridmore, 
in   161 8,  'leaving  Mee  the  cares  of  another  Family,  the 

^Wood's  Athenae  Oxonienses,  ed.  Bliss,  181  5,  Vol.  II.  column  363. 
^  Page  xxix. 


Widdow  and  the  Fatherlesse,'  and  a  few  weeks  after,  the 
death  of  '  my  dearest  Brother  (Daniel)  whose  intangled 
Booke-estate  perplexed  Me  in  a  new  kind  of  Bookishnes, 
with  Heterogenean  toyle  of  Body,  and  unacquainted 
vexations  of  Minde,  to  pay  manifold  debts,  and  to  provide 
for  his  foure  litde  Fatherlesse  and  Motherlesse  Orphans.* 
But  as  this  happened  seven  years  before  his  Will  was 
made,  it  would  appear  that  Purchas  had  overcome 
whatever  temporary  difficulties  the  death  of  his  brother 
and  brother-in-law  had  occasioned. 

The  only  original  portrait  of  Purchas  now  known  is 
that  on  the  engraved  tide  page  of  the  '  Pilgrimes,'  the 
portraits  by  Boissard  and  Richardson  being  copies  of  it. 
The  Wiir  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Purchas  (brother  of 
Samuel,  and  his  successor  in  the  Vicarage  of  Eastwood), 
shows  that  there  were  in  1657  portraits  both  of 
Samuel  Purchas,  '  with  the  Coat  of  Arms,'  and  of  his 
father,  but  these,  if  still  in  existence,  have  not  been 

Of  Samuel  Purchas's  books  the  first  to  be  published 
was  '  Purchas  His  Pilgrimage  or  Relations  of  the  World 
and  the  Religions  observed  in  all  Ages  and  Places 
Discovered,  from  the  Creation  unto  this  Present.'  This 
volume  was  first  published  in  16 13,  a  second  edition 
appeared  in  16 14,  a  third  in  161 7,  and  the  fourth  and 
last  in  1626.  This  fourth  edition  being  printed  uniform 
in  size  and  type  with  the  '  Pilgrimes '  is  frequently  bound 
and  lettered  as  the  Fifth  Volume  of  that  work  :  it  is, 
however,  a  distinct  work. 

'  Purchas  his  Pilgrim.     Microcosmus,  or  the  Historie  of 

'^Transactions    of  the    Essex    Archaeological   Society,    1869,    Vol.    IV. 
p.  178. 



Man.  Relating  the  Wonders  of  his  Generation,  Vanities 
in  his  Degeneration,  Necessity  of  his  Regeneration. 
Meditated  on  the  Words  of  David.  Psalm  39,  5.' 
was  published  in  161 9,  as  a  thick  foolscap  8vo.,  and 
has  never  been  reprinted.  '  The  King's  Tower,  and 
Triumphant  Arch  of  London,'  a  Sermon  on  2  Samuel 
xxii.   51,  appeared  in    1623. 

*  Hakluytus  Posthumus,  or  Purchas  his  Pilgrimes,  Con- 
tayning  a  History  of  the  World,  in  Sea  Voyages,  & 
lande  Travells,  by  Englishmen  and  others,'  was  '  Imprinted 
at  London  for  Henry  Fetherston  at  ye  signe  of  the  rose 
in  Pauls  Churchyard  1625.'  It  has  an  engraved  title 
page,  and  also  four  other  title  pages  which  detail  the 
general  contents  of  the  four  volumes  into  which  the 
work  is  divided. 

In  the  Preface  To  the  Reader  (p.  xli)  Purchas  says 
*  As  for  Master  Hakluyts  many  yeeres  Collections,  and 
what  stocke  I  received  from  him  in  written  Papers,  in 
the  Table  of  Authours  you  shall  find ;  whom  I  will 
thus  farre  honour,  that  though  it  be  but  Materials,  and 
that  many  Bookes  have  not  one  Chapter  in  that  kind, 
yet  that  stocke  encouraged  me  to  use  my  endevors  in 
and  for  the  rest.  I  was  therein  a  Labourer  also,  both 
to  get  them  (not  without  hard  conditions)  and  to  forme 
and  frame  those  Materials  to  their  due  place  and  order 
in  this  iEdifice,  the  which  Artifice  (such  as  it  is)  being 
mine  owne.'  From  this  it  may  be  inferred  that  Purchas 
was  assisting  Hakluyt  to  collect  the  materials  which 
were  left  unpublished  at  Hakluyt's  death  in  1 6 1 6  ;  it 
accounts,  too,  for  the  bequest  of  Hakluyt's  papers  to 
Purchas,  and  for  the  title  '  Hakluytus  Posthumus '  on 
the  engraved  title  page  of  the  'Pilgrimes.' 


Purchas  tells  us  that  the  book  was  four  years  in 
printing,  and  that  '  it  had  not  beene  possible  for  me 
in  London  distractions  to  have  accomplished  so  great  a 
Designe,  but  for  the  opportunities  of  His  Majestie's 
Colledge  at  Chelsie,  where  these  foure  last  Summers 
I  have  retired  my  selfe  (without  Pulpit  Non-residence) 
to  this  Worke.'  He  pays  a  well-deserved  tribute  to 
'Master  Henry  Fetherstone '  in  these  words:  'And  for 
the  price,  as  I  cannot  set  it,  so  I  must  acknowledge 
the  adventurous  courage  of  the  Stationer  Master  Henry 
Fetherstone  (like  Hercules  helping  Atlas)  so  long  to 
beare  this  my  heavy  world  at  such  expense.' 

The  first  book  of  the  '  Pilgrimes,'  which  is  intended 
as  an  introduction  to  the  whole,  is  paged  separately, 
as  it  was  printed  after  the  greater  part  of  the  other 
nine  books.  Some  copies  of  the  first  book  contain  on 
page  6^  a  map  entitled  '  Hondius,  his  Map  of  the 
Christian  World '  with  the  Latin  title  '  Designatio  Orbis 
Christiani.'  This  map  is  repeated  on  page  115.  Other 
copies  contain  on  page  65  a  difi^erent  map  entitled  'Typus 
Orbis  Terrarum,'  with  the  motto  beneath  'Domini  est 
Terra  &  Plenitudo  ejus,  Orbis  Terrarum  &  Universi 
qui  habitant  in  eo.  Psalmo  24.'  Both  maps  are  here 

The  text  of  this  edition  is  an  exact  reprint  of  that  of 
1625  with  the  following  exceptions  :  the  letters  i,  j,  u, 
and  v  are  used  according  to  modern  custom,  contracted 
forms  of  letters  have  been  extended,  and  obvious  printers' 
errors,  both  of  spelling  and  punctuation,  have  been 
corrected.  The  quaint  headlines  to  the  pages  of  the 
original  edition,  which  Purchas  states  were  partly  his 
work,  and   partly   '  such    as    pleased   the   Corrector,'   are 



given  in  the  Table  of  Contents.  References  to  the 
volumes  and  pages  of  the  original  text  have  been 
inserted  in  square  brackets  in  the  margin,  following 
the  suggestion  of  Professor  Skeat  regarding  Messrs. 
MacLehose's  edition  of  Hakluyt's  '  Principall  Naviga- 
tions.' The  five  indexes  of  the  original  edition  of 
the  '  Pilgrimes '  will  be  superseded  by  a  fuller  index  in 
this  edition. 

January,  1905. 



Dated   31    May,    1625,   Proved  21    Oct.,    1626 
[P.C.a   137  Hek.] 

In  the  Name  of  God,  Amen.  May  31,  a.d.,  1625, 
I  Samuell  Purchas,  Clarke,  Rector  of  the  Church  of  St. 
Martin's,  neere  Ludgate  in  London,  often  admonished  of 
the  present  to  provide  for  a  better  life  and  nowe  in  toller- 
able  health,  blessed  be  God,  doe  make  and  constitute  and 
ordaine  this  my  Last  will  and  testament.  Imprimis,  I 
commend  my  soule  to  God  my  Father  in  the  name  of 
his  Sonne  Jesus  my  saviour,  through  the  sanctifyinge  of 
the  Holy  and  Coeternall  spirit,  beleevinge  that  Christ, 
(God  manifested  in  the  flesh),  hath  died  for  my  sinnes, 
risen  againe  for  my  justification,  hath  ascended  in  tryumph 
leadinge  captivity  captive,  and  beinge  sett  at  the  right 
hand  of  power  farre  above  all  heavens,  there  appeareth 
before  God  for  all  saints  and  for  me,  lesse  than  the 
least  of  all,  to  make  intercession  for  us  synners  and  in 
his  Fathers  house  to  take  possession  for  us  mortalls  that 
where  he  is  wee  may  bee  also ;  and  from  whence  I  expect 
with  hope  his  glorious  cominge  to  Judgment,  my  soule 
meane  while  shall  out  of  his  body  of  death  returne  to 
God  that  gave  it,  and  rest  with  the  spiritts  of  just  and 
perfect  men  whose  names  are  written  in  the  booke  of  life ; 
My  body  also  shall  rest  in  hope  of  a  better  resurrection, 
whereby  this  vile  body  shalbe  made  like  to  his  glorious 


body  who  hath  loved  me  and  hath  given  himselfe  for  me. 
O  Lord  I  have  waited  for  thy  salvation,  I  live  not  but 
Christ  liveth  in  me,  and  to  me  to  live  is  Christe  and 
to  dye  is  gayne,  nor  desire  I  to  live  but  to  do  his  worke, 
and  so  doe  service  to  his  servants,  nor  feare  I  to  dye 
because  I  serve  soe  mightie,  soe  mercifuU  a  Lord.  Even 
soe  come  L:  Jesu,  come  into  me  the  worst  of  the  worst 
of  synners  that  where  my  synnes  have  abounded,  thy 
grace  may  in  the  pardon  and  mortification  of  them  super- 
abounde,  that  whensoever  thou  shalt  come  unto  me,  I 
may  be  ready  with  my  loynes  girded  with  oyle  in  my 
lampe  and  my  lampe  burninge,  my  soule  also  wakinge 
to  enter  with  the  Bridegroom,  that  what  by  faith  I  have 
beleeved  by  hope  as  an  ancor  of  the  soule  sure  and  sted- 
faste  laid  hold  on,  I  maye  in  his  presence  where  is  fullnes 
of  ioye  enioye  in  super  excessive  charitie.  Amen  & 
Amen  ;  the  waie,  the  truth,  the  life,  come  L:  Jesus,  come 
quicklie,  with  with  the  spiritt  of  grace  and  power  unto 
thy  whole  Church  ;  enlarge  the  bounds  thereof  to  the 
worlds  end  and  now  make  it  truly  Catholike  in  sinceritie 
of  truth  and  in  extension  of  thy  charitie  unto  Jewes, 
Turks,  Infidells  that  thou  mayest  be  the  light  to  en- 
lighten the  Gentiles,  and  the  glory  of  thine  Israeli  ; 
Protect  thy  people  in  peace,  unite  the  disagreeinge  harts 
and  disioynted  states  of  Christendome,  recover  those 
which  have  fallen  by  Mahametan  impiety  and  thy  ser- 
vantes  which  groane  under  Turkish  tyranny  ;  Bringe  out 
of  Babilon  those  which  are  involved  in  the  misteries 
of  Papall  impurity  ;  Let  God  arise  and  lett  his  enemyes 
bee  scattered,  that  Babell  may  be  Ruined  and  Syon 
repaired  ;  Putt  into  the  harts  of  Christian  princes 
to  hate  the  whore  and  to  love  thy  spouse,  that  they 
may  be  nursinge  Fathers  and  nursinge  mothers  to 
the  Israeli  of  God,  And  as  wee  blesse  thy  name  for 
our  late  godly  princes  Q,  Elizabeth  and  Kinge  James 
of  happy  memory,  soe  lett  this  testimony  of  love  and 
duty  be  inserted  as  a  christian  legacie,  my  prayer  for 
his  gratious  Majestie  Kinge  Charles,  that  from  the  pre- 


sent  hopes  he  may  daily  proceede  In  grace  and  godlines, 
still  growinge  noe  lesse  in  piety  then  in  yeares,  filled 
with  the  spiritt  of  wisdome  and  understanding,  the 
spiritt  of  counsell  and  fortitude,  the  spirit  of  knowledge 
of  the  feare  of  the  Lord,  that  under  him  thy  people 
of  this  citty  and  kingdome  maye  live  in  all  godlynes 
&  honesty.  The  Lord  make  our  gratious  Queene  now 
cominge  unto  his  house  like  Rachell  &  like  Lea,  which 
two  did  build  the  house  of  Israeli,  that  through  them 
Create  Brittaine  may  bee  famous  and  Ireland  may 
reioice,  and  their  posteritie  may  swaye  these  scepters  till 
the  endes  of  time.  To  this  Citty  lett  me  bequeath 
prayers  for  thy  mightie  protection  &  manifold  bounties 
and  deliverance  from  the  present  pestilence,  and  from 
all  hardnes  of  hart  in  sacrilege,  usury  and  other  synnes, 
and  to  that  litle  flocke  committed  to  thy  servantes  un- 
worthy ministery,  give  O  Lord  fructifyinge  grace,  the 
ymortall  seede  which  the  mortall  seedman  hath  sowen 
in  their  eares,  still  sproutinge  and  multiplyinge  in  theire 
harts  and  lives  when  he  shall  have  passed  the  possibilitye 
of  further  mortalitye,  and  double  thy  spirit  in  the 
succeedinge  Pastor.  Now  for  the  rest,  thou,  O  Lord, 
art  my  rest,  my  hope,  my  happenes,  my  love,  my  life, 
thou  art  the  husband  of  the  widdowe,  and  father  of 
the  fatherles,  the  God  of  thy  servantes  and  of  their  seede, 
and  thou  art  the  porcion  of  the  livinge  and  of  the  dead, 
in  confidence  of  whose  free  grace  and  meere  mercy  thy 
servant  is  bold  to  bequeath  this  legacie  which  thou 
hast  written  in  thy  testament  and  ratified  by  the  death 
of  the  testator,  and  whereof  thou  ever  livest  the  ex- 
ecutor, that  thou  wilt  never  faile  nor  forsake  them  and 
that  thou  wilt  bee  their  shield  and  their  exceedinge  great 
reward,  Blessed  be  thy  name  O  Lord  which  out  of 
nakednes  and  nothinge  hast  created  and  raised  unto  me 
this  estate  of  worldlie  goodes,  and  though  I  am  lesse  than 
the  least  of  all  thy  mercies,  borne  naked  into  the  world 
at  first,  and  onely  not  naked  when  I  entered  into  the 
affairs   of  the    world    in    the  state  of   matrymonie  after 


beinge  then  without  porcion  or  purchase  of  either  fide 
(sic)  without  house,  lands,  livinge,  or  any  ritches  else,  but 
thy  gracious  promise  to  those  which  seeke  the  Kingdome 
of  God  first  and  his  righteousnes  that  all  these  things 
shalbee  added  ;  yet  hast  thou  given  me  house  and  landes 
with  other  goodes  to  bequeath  to  myne  (or  rather  to 
thine)  after  me  :  my  will  is,  (for  thine  is  such)  that 
all  my  debts  be  first  trulie  and  fully  satisfied  and  the 
charges  of  my  Funerall  in  moderate  sorte  discharged, 
Also  I  bequeath  five  poundes  to  be  given  to  the  poore 
people  of  Thaxted  where  I  first  receaved  light.  Item  I 
give  will  and  bequeath  to  my  sonne  Samuell  all  that  my 
messuage  and  tenement  in  the  parish  of  Thaxted  in 
Essex  which  I  latelie  bought  of  Absolon  Onion,  with  the 
lands,  mill  and  other  the  appurtenances  nowe  in  the  occu- 
pation of  the  said  Absolon  or  his  assignes  conteyninge 
about  tenn  acres  more  or  lesse.  To  have  and  to  hold  to 
him  and  his  heires  for  ever.  Item,  I  give,  will  and  bequeath 
one  other  porcion  of  land  of  tenn  acres  or  thereabouts 
lyinge  neere  to  the  former  which  I  lately  bought  of  my 

brother  William  Purchas,  by  him  purchased  of  one 

Kent  alias  Reynolds  who  formerlie  had  bought  the  same 
of  Absolon  Onyon  aforesaid,  unto  Martha  my  daughter 
and  to  her  heires  for  ever.  Moreover  I  bequeath  unto 
the  said  Martha  all  those  landes  in  fower  croftes  or  closes 
neere  to  a  hamlett  called  Boyton  end  (which  latelie  were 
belonginge  to  my  Father  George  Purchas  of  pious  memory) 
in  the  parish  of  Thaxted  aforesaid,  nowe  in  the  tenure 
of  my  brother  William  above  mentioned  and  containing 
about  tenn  acres  more  or  lesse,  with  all  the  commodities 
and  appurtenances  thereto.  To  have  and  to  hold  to  the 
said  Martha  and  her  heires  for  ever.  Provided  alwaies, 
and  my  will  is  that  my  wife  Jane  shall,  so  longe  as  she 
shall  contynue  a  widdowe,  have,  hold  and  enioye  the 
profittes  and  disposicion  of  the  same  house  and  landes 
before  bequeathed  to  my  sonne  Samuell  and  my  daughter 
Martha,  to  inhabite,  sett,  or  lett,  and  to  the  use  of  the 
same  as  shall  seeme  best  to  her,  payinge  yearlie  duringe 


the  said  terme,  unto  my  son  Samuell  £^  and  to  my 
daughter  Martha  other  three  poundes  yearlie  by  even 
and  equall  porciones  every  quarter  (that  is  to  saye  at 
Christmas,  our  Lady  daie  in  March,  Midsummer  day 
and  Michaelmas  daie)  to  be  paid  unto  each  of  them 
exceptinge  such  yeares  or  quarters  of  yeares  as  my  said 
Sonne  or  daughter  shall  live  in  house  with  their  said 
mother  or  shall  receave  soe  much  or  more  from  her 
towardes  or  to  his  or  her  maintenance.  But  if  my 
said  wife  Jane  shall  after  my  death  be  married  to 
another  husband,  then  my  will  is  that  she  shall  from 
thenceforth  have  the  thirdes  onely  of  the  premised  houses 
and  landes,  and  that  my  sonne  and  daughter  shall  have 
present  power  to  enter  on  the  same  tenementes  &  landes 
according  as  is  before  bequeathed,  and  the  same  to  have 
hold  and  enjoie  to  their  best  behoofe.  Item,  my  will 
is  that  if  one  of  my  children  die  before  the  other  seized 
and  in  possession  of  any  part  of  the  premisses,  that  the 
survivor  shall  inherite  the  same,  except  the  deceased  left 
legitimate  issue,  but  if  (which  God  forbidd)  both  my 
Sonne  and  daughter  shall  dye  without  issue,  my  will  is 
that,  whatsoever  of  the  premisses  shall  not  be  alienated 
by  them  or  either  of  them  before  their  said  death,  shall 
descend  unto  Daniell  Purchas  the  sonne  of  my  brother 
William  and  to  his  heires  for  ever,  And  if  the  said 
Daniell  be  then  dead  or  leave  noe  issue,  I  bequeath  the 
same  to  Samuell  Purchas  the  sonne  of  the  said  William 
and  to  his  heires  for  ever.  And  if  it  should  happen  that 
my  brother  William's  posterity  should  faile  (which  God 
forbidd)  I  bequeath  the  said  landes  and  remainder  of  landes 
with  the  appurtenances  unto  the  heires  of  my  brother 
George  Purchas,  that  is  to  his  eldest  sonne  John  and  his 
heires  for  ever.  And  in  defect  of  such  yssue  of  my  brother 
George,  I  bequeath  the  said  landes  and  remainder  of  landes 
as  afore  said  to  Samuell,  sonne  of  my  brother  Thomas 
Purchas  of  Eastwood,  and  to  his  heires  for  ever,  Provided 
alwaie  and  my  will  is  that  in  such  succession  of  Daniell 
Purchas  or  any  other  which  shall  inherite  the  premisses 


or  any  part  thereof  by  defect  of  yssue  of  my  sonne  and 
daughter  aforesaid,  the  fifte  parte  of  the  profittes  and 
rentes  reasonably  valued  and  without  fraude  shalbe  yearlie 
paid  at  Christmas  to  the  Vicar  and  Church  Wardens  of 
Thaxted  aforesaid  for  the  time  beinge,  successively,  to 
be  distributed  to  the  poore  of  that  parish  at  their  dis- 
crecion,  And  in  defect  of  such  payment  my  will  is 
that  the  said  Vicar  and  churchwardens  or  any  two  of 
them  shall  and  may  enter  and  distraine  on  the  pre- 
misses soe  much  as  maye  make  satisfaction  for  such 
defect  or  defects  from  time  to  time  and  for  ever.  Item,  I 
will  and  hereby  charge  my  said  sonne  and  daughter 
that  in  case  of  unliklynes  of  yssewe  of  their  own 
bodies  that  neither  of  them  do  alienate  or  sell  awaye 
any  parte  of  the  premisses  with  intent  to  frustrate  the 
intents  before  mentioned  of  the  said  Daniell  or  the  rest, 
except  uppon  such  cause  or  necessitye  or  other  just 
motive  as  in  the  feare  of  God  and  in  good  conscience 
they  shall  finde  reasonable  and  meete,  without  indirect 
dealinge  or  fraudulent  carriage  herein,  that  as  I  would 
not  abridge  their  libertie  in  case  of  honestie  for  their 
iust  good,  soe  they  doe  not  wilfully  abuse  it  to  pleasure 
others  and  needlesly  or  wantonly  to  hinder  the  pre- 
mised intent.  Item,  I  give  and  bequeath  to  Daniell  the 
sonne  of  my  brother  William  aforesaid,  the  somme  of 
twentie  marks  to  be  paid  to  his  Father  or  mother  when 
he  or  they  shall  resume  him  into  their  tuition  and 
maintenance,  for  the  use  and  benefitt  of  the  said  Daniell. 
Item,  I  give  my  library  and  all  my  books,  globes, 
mapps  and  chartes  unto  Samuell  my  sonne,  except  those 
bookes  or  workes  or  any  part  of  them  whereof  I  have 
beene  the  author,  namely  my  Pilgrimage,  Pilgrim  and 
Pilgrimes  of  which  he  hath  already  had  one  printed 
coppie  of  each  of  them.  The  other  printed  bookes 
thereof  nowe  in  my  custody,  or  nowe  due,  or  hereafter 
to  be  due  uppon  reckoninges  from  Mr.  Fetherstone,  I 
reserve  and  bequeath  to  the  performance  of  my  will, 
that   is,  one  of  each  to  my  daughter    Martha,  Item,  to 


my   brethren   George    and  William,  and   to   my    brother 
in    law    William    Perkins    to    each    of  them    one    entire 
worke  of  my  Pilgrimes  in  fower  bookes   nowe  in  their 
handes,  and  if  any  reckonings  they  or  any  of  them   have 
alreadye    paid    anye    thinge    for    any    of  them,    or   shall 
pay  hereafter    (except    the    charges    of   bindinge)    I    will 
that    the    same    or    the    worth    thereof    shalbe    repaied 
to  them   againe.     The  rest  of  those  bookes  reserved  as 
aforesaid,  I  bequeath    to    my  wife    to    doe    with    as    she 
shall  thinke  fitt.     Alsoe  I  except  out  of  the  former  guifte 
to    my   Sonne   such   English   bookes   of  devotion   as  my 
said  wife  Jane   shall    reserve  for    her  own  use    and    her 
daughters.     Item,  I  give  and  bequeath  to  Martha  my  said 
daughter    thirtie  poundes  of  English  money  to   be   paid 
her  out  of  the   said   bookes  by  her  brother  for  recom- 
pense and   consideration   of  so   great    a  guifte   given   to 
him,  the  same  thirtie  poundes  to  be  paid  to  her  assignes 
by  her   said    brother   Samuell  my  sonne  at   the  daie    of 
her    marriage,  or   when    she   shall   bee  one    and    twentie 
yeares  old,  which  shall  first  happen.      Item,  I  give  and 
bequeath  to  the  said   Martha  my  best   bedd   and   bedd- 
stedd    with  curtaines,  valence  and   coverlett,  a    paire    of 
blanketts  a  paire  of  pillowes  and  pillowbeers,  two  paire 
of  sheetes,   a    boulster,    one    damaske    tablecloth    and    a 
dozen   of  napkins  (all  which    peeces    of  household    and 
naperie    I    will    to    bee    of    the    best    I    have).      Alsoe 
my    best    bowle    ot    silver    guilt    with    the    cover,    one 
double    salt    of  silver    guilte    and    sixe    guilded   spoones 
of  silver.     Item,  if  my  wife  Jane  shalbe  married  againe 
my    will    is    that    my   said    daughter    Martha    shall    and 
maye    demande,    challenge    and    carry    awaye    the    one 
moiety  or  halfe  of  all  my  goodes  and  moveables  which 
shalbe   left   after   the  debtes  and   Funerall  paid  and   dis- 
charged, or  in  defect  thereof,  soe  much  money  as  they 
shalbe  valued  at  in  equall  and  iust  estimacion.     Item,  I 
make  and  ordaine  my  wife  Jane   sole  Executrix  of  this 
my    last    will,    and    my    brethren    George,    William    and 
William  Perkins  aforesaid  overseers,  desiringe  their  care 


and  assistance  therein.  Item,  I  give  my  seale  ringe  to 
my  Sonne  Samuell  and  my  ringe  with  the  deatheshead 
to  my  brother  William.  Alsoe  I  give  to  my  sonne 
Samuell  whatsoever  bookes  household  or  other  goodes 
nowe  in  his  possession  at  Cambridge.  Item,  my  will  is  con- 
cerninge  that  peece  of  land  at  Monkes  streete  bequeathed 
to  my  daughter  Martha,  which  I  bought  of  my  brother 
William,  that  if  my  sonne  Samuell  shall  like  to  hold  it 
and  to  contynue  it  to  the  house,  that  then  he  shall  paye 
or  cause  to  be  paid  to  my  daughter  Martha  or  her 
assignes  the  somme  of  a  hundred  and  tenn  poundes  for 
the  same  landes  within  sixe  monethes  after  his  mother's 
decease  or  marriage,  which  shall  first  happen,  or  else  the 
same  to  remaine  to  Martha  as  above  is  in  this  my  testa- 
ment declared.  This  my  last  will  and  testament,  written 
all  with  mine  owne  hand,  was  sealed,  subscribed  and 
acknowledged  the  daie  and  yeare  above  written  in  the 
presence  of  Wm.  Slatyer,  Theodore  Heape,  John  Gee, 
Richard  Wossencrofte  by  his  marke,  William  Purchas, 
Mary  Bullivant  her  marke,  Mary  Colson  her  marke. 


Probatum  fuit  testamentum  suprascriptum  Apud  Lon- 
don, coram  Magistro  Thoma  Eden,  Legum  Doctore, 
Surrogato  venerabilis  viri  Domini  Henrici  Marten,  Mili- 
tis,  Legum  etiam  Doctoris,  Curiae  Prerogativas  Cantu- 
aniensis  Magistri  custodis  sive  Commissarii  legitime 
constituti,  vicesimo  primo  die  mensis  Octobris  Anno 
Domini  millesimo  sexcentesimo  vicesimo  sexto,  Juramento 
Janae  Purchas  relictae  dicti  defuncti  et  executricis  in 
hujusmodi  testamento  nominatae,  cui  commissa  fuit 
administratio  omnium  et  singulorum  bonorum,  jurium 
et  creditorum  antedicti  defuncti,  de  bene  et  fideliter 
administrand'  eadem  ad  Sancta  Dei  EvangeHa  juratae. 



Prince  of  Wales. 

Most  Excellent  Prince, 

Ay  a  poore  Pilgrime  salute  Your  High- 
nesse  in  the  words  of  a  better  Samuel  and  \.  Sam.  c).  20. 
Seer,  On  whom  is  the  desire  of  all 
Israel?  is  it  not  on  Thee  and  all  thy 
Fathers  House?  In  this  House  we  ad- 
mire the  innumerable  Royall  Ancestrie, 
wee   triumph   in   His    Majesties    present 

Kin.  7.  2  1. 


light,    wee    praise    God    and  pray  for    the   two    hopefull 
Columnes,   that    they    may    be    Pillars    of  Stabilitie    and 
Strength    in    the    Lords    House,    firmer    then    Salomons  ^"^^  3-  ' 
Jachin  and  Boaz. 

Sir,  having  out  of  a  Chaos  of  confused  intelligences 
framed  this  Historicall  World,  by  a  New  way  of  Eye- 
evidence  ;  Your  Princely  pietie,  innate  clemency,  and 
the  Time  it  selfe  (festivall  both  in  the  ordinarie  season  and 
extraordinarie  preparation)  emboldned  my  obtrusion  on 
Your  Highnesse.  The  Magnificence  of  Your  Princely 
Court  hath  entertayned  Men  of  many  Nations,  yea  hath 
admitted  (in  Parkes  and  Places  fitting)  Beasts,  Fowles, 
Plants  of  remoter  Regions :  and  now  much  more,  in  a 
World  of  acclamations  to  Your  joyfuU  designes,  a  world 



of  Pilgrimes  seemed  sutable ;  each  of  which  presents  one 
or  other  Countrey ;  and  all,  the  rarities  and  varieties  of 
all.  Here  also  Your  Highnesse  may  refresh  Your  weari- 
nesse  from  State-affaires  (if  any  of  these  Lines  may  at 
any  time  be  ambitious  of  such  lustre)  in  seeing  at  leisure 
and  pleasure  Your  English  Inheritance  dispersed  thorow 
the  World,  whereof  these  Twentie  Bookes  are  the  Evi- 
dence and  Records :  the  English  Martialist  everywhere 
following  armes,  whiles  his  Countrey  is  blessed  at  home 
with  Beati  Pacifici ;  the  Merchant  coasting  more  Shoares 
and  Hands  for  commerce,  then  his  Progenitors  have  heard 
off,  or  himselfe  can  number  ;  the  Mariner  making  other 
Seas  a  Ferry,  and  the  widest  Ocean  a  Strait,  to  his  dis- 
covering attempts  ;  wherein  wee  joy  to  see  Your  Highnesse 
to  succeed  Your  Heroike  Brother,  in  making  the  fur- 
thest Indies  by  a  New  Passage  neerer  to  Great  Britaine. 
Englands  out  of  England  are  here  presented,  yea  Royall 
Scotland,  Ireland,  and  Princely  Wales,  multiplying  new 
Scepters  to  His  Majestie  and  His  Heires  in  a  New 
World.  In  all,  the  glorie  of  His  Majesties  happy 
Raigne,  and  thereby  of  the  English  Name  and  Nation, 
by  a  poore  Zelote  of  both,  is  truly  and  amply  related, 
beyond  the  conjectures  of  the  passed  Ages,  to  the  ad- 
miration of  the  present,  and  amusing  (if  not  amazing)  of 
the  future.  In  which  so  long  a  Worke  humbly  craveth 
pardon  for  other  errors,  for  this  presumption. 

Your  Highnesse 

most  humbly 



To  the  Reader 

Isdome  is  said  to  bee  the  Science  of  things  The  profit  to 
Divine   and  humane.     Divine  things  are  ^^J'^^p^jh 
either    naturall    or    supernaturall :     these 
such,   as   the   naturall  man  knoweth  not, 
nor  can  know,  because  they  are  spiritually 
(with  a  spirituall  Eye)   discerned;  called   i.Cor.  2. 14. 
wisedome  to  salvation,  the  proper  subject 
of   Theologie,    and   not    the    peculiar   argument    of   this  ^-  ^'^-  3- 
Worke;  which   notwithstanding   beeing    the   labour  of  a  '5* 
professed  Divine,  doth  not  abhorre  from  the  same;  but 
occasionally   every   where   by   Annotations,  and    in  some 
parts  professedly  by  special!  Discourses,  insinuateth  both 
the  Historic  and  Mystery  of  Godlinesse,  the  right    use 
of  History,  and  all  other  Learning. 

Naturall  things  are  the  more  proper  Object,  namely 
the  ordinary  Workes  of  God  in  the  Creatures,  preserving 
and  disposing  by  Providence  that  which  his  Goodnesse 
and  Power  had  created,  and  dispersed  in  the  divers  parts 
of  the  World,  as  so  many  members  of  this  great  Bodie. 
Such  is  the  History  of  Men  in  their  diversified  hewes 
and  colours,  quantities  and  proportions ;  of  Beasts,  Fishes, 
Fowles,  Trees,  Shrubs,  Herbs,  Minerals,  Seas,  Lands, 
Meteors,  Heavens,  Starres,  with  their  naturall  affections : 
in  which  many  both  of  the  Antient  and  Moderne  have 
done  worthily ;  but  if  neernesse  of  the  Object  deceive 
me  not,  this  surmounteth  them  all  in  two  Priviledges, 
the  veritie  and  varietie,  especially  of  things  in  this  kind 
remotest  and  rarest. 


It   is   true,   that  as  every   member   of  the  bodie  hath 

somewhat    eminent,    whereby   it    is    serviceable    to    the 

whole ;    so   every   Region    excelleth    all    others    in    some 

peculiar    Raritie,    which    may    be    termed    extraordinary 

respectively,  though  otherwise  most  common  and  ordinary 

See  of  the        in   its  owne  place.       So    Our    England    in    the    naturall 

Wonders  of     temper,  accidentall  want   of  Wolves,   artificiall   Rings  of 

Harrison's       Bels,   Sheepe  not  at  all  or  seldome  drinking,  Lands  and 

Description  of  Waters  turning  Wood  in  some  parts  to  Stone,  Wonders 

Brit.  /.  2.       of  the  Peke  and  other  parts,  doth  not  degenerate  from 

/7  ^f'rf°^^    nature,  but  hath  a  peculiar  nature,  almost  miraculous  to 

other  Countries,  as  the  naturall  Wonders  of  their  Regions 

are  to  us :   so  also  Irelands  want  of  venome  in  Creatures, 

fulnesse  of  it,  and  barbarousnesse  in  many  of  her  wilder 

Natives,  after  so  long  trayning  in  Civilitie,  and  so  ancient 

Renowme  for  Sanctitie :  and  so  each  part  is  to  other  part 

in  some  or  other  part,  and  particular  respect  admirable. 

What  a  World  of  Travellers  have  by  their  owne  eyes 
observed   in   this   kinde,   is   here    (for   the   most   part   in 
their    owne    words   transcribed    or    translated)    delivered. 
What  kinde  of  not  by  one  professing  Methodically  to  deliver  the  Historie 
^Hiftorie  this     °^  Nature  according  to  rules  of  Art,  nor  Philosophically 
is^  to  discusse  and  dispute ;  but  as  in  way  of  Discourse,  by 

each  Traveller  relating  what  in  that  kind  he  hath  scene. 
And  as  David  prepared  materials  for  Salomons  Temple ; 
or  (if  that  be  too  arrogant)  as  Alex,  furnished  Aristotle 
with  Huntsmen  and  Observers  of  Creatures,  to  acquaint 
him  with  their  diversified  kinds  and  natures;  or  (if  that 
also  seeme  too  ambitious)  as  Sense  by  Induction  of  par- 
ticulars yeeldeth  the  premisses  to  Reasons  Syllogisticall 
arguing ;  or  if  we  shall  be  yet  more  homely,  as  Pioners 
are  employed  by  Enginers,  and  Labourers  serve  Masons, 
and  Bricklayers,  and  these  the  best  Surveyers  and  Archi- 
tects: so  here  Purchas  and  his  Pilgrimes  minister 
individuall  and  sensible  materials  (as  it  were  with  Stones, 
Brickes  and  Mortar)  to  those  universall  Speculators  for 
their  Theoricall  structures.  And  well  may  the  Author 
be  ranked  with  such  Labourers  (howsoever  here  a  Master- 



builder  also)  for  that  he  hath  beene  forced  as  much  to 
the  Hod,  Barrow  and  Trowel,  as  to  contemplative  sur- 
vaying:  neither  in  so  many  Labyrinthian  Perambulations 
thorow,  and  Circumnavigations  about  the  World  in  this 
and  his  other  Workes,  was  ever  enabled  to  maintaine 
a  Vicarian  or  Subordinate  Scribe,  but  his  own  hands  to 
worke,  aswell  as  his  head  to  contrive  these  voluminous 
Buildings ;  except  in  some  few  Transcriptions  or  Trans- 
lations, the  most  also  of  them  by  his  sonne  S.  P.  that 
one  and  the  same  name  might  both  father  and  further 
the  whole. 

As  for  Master  Hakluyts  many  yeeres  Collections,  and 
what  stocke  I  received  from  him  in  written  Papers,  in 
the  Table  of  Authours  you  shall  find :  whom  I  will  thus 
farre  honour,  that  though  it  be  but  Materials,  and  that 
many  Bookes  have  not  one  Chapter  in  that  kind,  yet 
that  stocke  encouraged  me  to  use  my  endevours  in  and 
for  the  rest.  I  was  therein  a  Labourer  also,  both  to  get 
them  (not  without  hard  conditions)  and  to  forme  and 
frame  those  Materials  to  their  due  place  and  order  in 
this  Edifice,  the  whole  Artifice  (such  as  it  is)  being  mine 
owne.  Traduce  mee  not,  nor  let  any  impute  to  boasting 
what  I  have  said  of  my  sole  working  (I  know  there  is 
a  vae  soli)  but  I  am  compelled  to  doe  it  to  prevent  an 
Objection  of  my  promised  Europaean  supply  to  my 
Pilgrimage.  I  confesse,  I  was  too  forward  to  promise, 
because  others  have  beene  so  backward  to  assist :  which 
I  have  in  former  Editions  signified,  but  to  blind  Eyes 
and  deafe  Eares.  Whose  Librarie,  whose  Purse  hath 
beene  opened  to  me,  let  his  mouth  be  opened  against 
me  also :  Europe  otherwise  could  not,  nor  now  upon 
any  price  (it  is  too  late)  can  be  Purchased.  I  would 
not  be  misconstrued  to  ungratitude.  Many  have  ap- 
plauded my  endevours,  but  probitas  laudatur  &  alget. 
If  I  had  not  lived  in  great  part  upon  Exhibition  of 
charitable  friends,  and  on  extraordinary  labours  of  Lec- 
turing (as  the  terme  is)  the  Pilgrime  had  beene  a  more 
agreeing  name  to  me,  then  Purchas.     Yet  let  my  name 



be  for  ever  forgotten,  if  I  remember  not  his,  which  the 
Adversaries  have  (seeking  to  steale  him  from  us  after 
his  death)  by  their  calumnie  made  more  memorable ;  I 
meane,  my  decessed  Patron  Doctor  King,  late  Lord 
Bishop  of  London,  to  whose  bountie  under  God,  I 
willingly  ascribe  my  life,  delivered  from  a  sickly  Habita- 
tion, and  consequently  (as  also  by  opportunities  of  a 
London  Benefice)  whatsoever  additions  in  my  later 
Editions  of  my  Pilgrimage ;  these  present  Pilgrimes  also 
with  their  peregrinations.  Yet  such  is  ordinarily  the 
greatnesse  of  the  Epha,  and  smalnesse  of  the  Shekel, 
in  London  Cures  (especially  within  the  wals)  that  wee 
are  inabled  thereby  to  disablings  for  workes  of  that 
kinde,  whiles  we  must  preach  in  season  and  out  of 
season,  (I  say  not  out  of  reason)  that  wee  may  live. 

One  wing  that  Reverend  and  bountifull  hand  gave  in 
hope  that  some  blessed  hand  would  adde  the  other,  to 
fit  me  for  an  Europaean  flight,  wherein  not  finding  his 
hopes  seconded,  he  promised  to  right  me  himselfe  (these 
were  his  syllables)  but  death  righted  him,  and  I  am 
forced  to  wrong  the  World.  I  speake  not  to  accuse  any, 
for  of  whom,  to  whom  can  I  complaine,  but  to  plaine 
and  excuse  my  selfe,  and  withall  to  dedicate  my  thanke- 
fulnesse  with  the  continuance  of  this  Monument  to  that 
worthy  Name. 
Acts  17,  21.  But  to  returne  to  our  Philosopher ;  I  also  have  beene 
an  Athenian  with  these  Athenians,  one  delighting  to 
tell,  the  others  to  heare  some  new  thing.  I  have  there- 
fore either  wholly  omitted  or  passed  dry  foot  things 
neere  and  common;  Far  fetched  and  deare  bought  are 
the  Lettice  sutable  to  our  lips.  Common  and  ordinarie 
plants  I  remit  to  the  Herbarists.  Europaean  Rarities 
(except  in  the  remoter  Regions  both  from  our  habitation 
and  knowledge,  as  Island,  Norway,  Sueden,  Constanti- 
nople, the  Mediterranean  Hands,  &c.)  to  the  Historians 
peculiar  to  each  Countrey  therein.  My  Genius  delights 
rather  in  by-wayes  then  high-wayes,  and  hath  therein  by 
Tracts  and    Tractates    of   Travellers    made    Causies    and 



High-wayes,  every  where  disposing  these  Pilgrime- 
Guides,  that  men  without  feare  may  travell  to  and  over 
the  most  uncouth  Countries  of  the  World :  and  there 
be  shewed  with  others  Eyes,  the  Rarities  of  Nature, 
and  of  such  things  also  as  are  not  against  Nature,  but 
either  above  it,  as  Miracles,  or  beside  the  ordinarie 
course  of  it,  in  the  extraordinary  Wonders,  which  Gods 
Providence  hath  therein  effected  according  to  his  good 
and  just  pleasure.  And  thus  much  for  the  workes  of 

Things  humane,  are  such  as  Men  are,  or  have,  or  have 
done  or  suffered  in  the  World.  Here  therefore  the 
various  Nations,  Persons,  Shapes,  Colours,  Habits,  Rites, 
Religions,  Complexions,  Conditions,  Politike  and  Oecon- 
omike  Customes,  Languages,  Letters,  Arts,  Merchandises, 
Wares,  and  other  remarkeable  Varieties  of  Men  and 
humane  Affaires  are  by  Eye-witnesses  related  more  amply 
and  certainly  then  any  Collector  ever  hath  done,  or  per- 
haps without  these  helpes  could  doe.  And  thus  we  have 
shewed  the  scope  of  the  Author,  and  profitable  use  of 
the  Worke  :  which  could  not  but  be  voluminous,  having 
a  World  for  the  subject,  and  a  World  of  Witnesses  for 
the  Evidence  :  and  yet  (except  where  the  Author  or 
Worke  it  selfe  permitted  not)  these  vast  Volumes  are 
contracted,  and  Epitomised,  that  the  nicer  Reader  might 
not  be  cloyed.  Here  also  both  Elephants  may  swimme 
in  deepe  voluminous  Seas,  and  such  as  want  either  lust 
or  leisure,  may  single  out,  as  in  a  Library  of  Bookes,  what 
Author  or  Voyage  shall  best  fit  to  his  profit  or  pleasure. 
I  might  adde  that  such  a  Worke  may  seeme  necessarie 
to  these  times,  wherein  not  many  Scholers  are  so  studious 
of  Geographic,  and  of  Naturall  and  Universall  know- 
ledge in  the  diversified  varieties  which  the  various  Seas 
and  Lands  in  the  World  produce,  seeming  as  exceptions 
to  Generall  Rules,  which  Aristotle  the  best  Scholer  in 
Natures  Schoole  and  her  principall  Secretarie  could  not 
so  punctually  and  individually  see  in  the  Ocean,  the 
Remoter    Lands    and    New   Worlds,   none    of  which    he 


to   THE   READER 

ever  saw,  nor  till  this  last  Age  were  knowne.  And  for 
the  most  part,  those  which  are  studious  know  not  either 
to  get,  or  to  read  the  Authors  of  this  kinde,  of  which 
so  few  speake  Latine. 

As  for  Gentlemen,  Travell  is  accounted  an  excellent 
Ornament  to  them  ;  and  therefore  many  of  them  comming 
to  their  Lands  sooner  then  to  their  Wits,  adventure  them- 
selves to  see  the  Fashions  of  other  Countries,  where  their 
soules  and  bodies  find  temptations  to  a  twofold  Whore- 
dom, whence  they  see  the  World  as  Adam  had  knowledge 
of  good  and  evill,  with  the  losse  or  lessening  of  their 
estate  in  this  English  (and  perhaps  also  in  the  heavenly 
Paradise)  &  bring  home  a  few  smattering  termes,  flatter- 
ing garbes.  Apish  crings,  foppish  fancies,  foolish  guises 
and  disguises,  the  vanities  of  Neighbour  Nations  (I  name 
not  Naples)  without  furthering  of  their  knowledge  of 
God,  the  World,  or  themselves.  I  speake  not  against 
Travell,  so  usefull  to  usefull  men,  I  honour  the  industrious 
of  the  liberall  and  ingenuous  in  arts,  bloud,  education  : 
and  to  prevent  exorbitancies  of  the  other,  which  cannot 
travell  farre,  or  are  in  danger  to  travell  from  God  and 
themselves,  at  no  great  charge  I  offer  a  World  of  Travel- 
lers to  their  domestike  entertainment,  easie  to  be  spared 
from  their  Smoke,  Cup,  or  Butter-flie  vanities  and  super- 
fluities, and  fit  mutually  to  entertaine  them  in  a  better 
Schoole  to  better  purposes.  And  for  the  price,  as  I 
cannot  set  it,  so  I  must  acknowledge  the  adventurous 
courage  of  the  Stationer  Master  Henry  Fetherstone 
(like  Hercules  helping  Atlas)  so  long  to  beare  this  my 
heavy  World  at  such  expenses. 

The  Method  IVTOw  for  the  Method,  I  confesse,  I  could  not  be  there- 
and  order  of  \f\  \^  exact  :  first  because  I  had  such  a  confused  Chaos 
of  printed  and  written  Bookes,  which  could  not  easily  be 
ordered  :  partly  because  this  Method  by  way  of  Voyages 
often  repeates  the  same  Countries  and  (though  I  have 
often  pruned  repetitions)  yet,  sometimes  admitted  for 
more  full  testimonie  the  same  things,  by  divers  of  our 


this  Works. 






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Authors  travelling  the  same  parts,  observed,  in  which 
my  Method  brings  in  ordinarily  the  Authours  whole 
Voyage  there,  where  that  part  or  Countrey,  in  which 
and  for  which  we  entertaine  him,  principally  occasioneth 
his  memorie  ;  and  partly  because  in  this  long  space  of 
imprinting  (from  August  162 1.)  many  things  have  comne 
to  my  hand  by  diligent  enquiry,  which  were  not  enrolled, 
nor  in  possession  to  be  mustered  in  their  due  file  and 
ranke  ;  yea,  divers  things  have  beene  done  since  our  other 
passages  of  like  nature  were  printed  off :  And  thus  divers 
Dutch  quarrels  are  related,  which  yet  since  the  Impression 
of  that  part  have  beene  composed.  Yet  are  we  not  alto- 
gether without  Order. 

First,  we  have  divided  the  World  in  our  Method  The  first 
into  the  Old  and  New,  alloting  to  each  his  owne  Tome,  ^'^''^• 
the  first  Ten  Books  to  the  former,  the  later  to  the  other. 
But  the  Worke  growing  more  voluminous  then  was 
expected,  we  are  forced  to  cut  each  of  them  asunder  in 
the  midst,  the  figures  in  the  top  and  Alphabets  in  the 
bottome,  and  some  marginall  references  and  annotations 
intimating  but  two  Tomes,  which  only  the  quantitie 
hath  made  Foure.  Againe  in  the  Elder  World,  that  is, 
Asia,  Africa,  and  Europe,  we  observe  Antiquities  and 
Generalities  in  the  First  Booke,  one  of  the  last  printed, 
though  first  placed  :  universall  Circumnavigations  (all 
knowne  in  that  kind)  in  the  Second  ;  which  though  they 
containe  many  things  of  America  and  the  South  Continent, 
yet  being  from  and  for  Europe,  and  spending  most  of 
their  time  on  the  Asian  and  African  Coasts,  are  thither 
referred  :  in  the  Third,  Fourth,  and  Fifth,  are  Indian 
Voyages  and  Affaires  of  the  English,  with  Portugall  and 
Dutch  intercourse  ;  in  which  is  observed  a  tolerable  order 
of  time  from   Queene  Elizabeths  Times  to  the  present. 

In  the  Second  Part  you  have  first  Africa  in  Two  Bookes  The  Second 
(the   East   Indie   ships   but   touched   on   the  Coasts)  the  ^'^^'• 
Sixth  Booke  handling  the    Northerne   parts,    whatsoever 
of  Africa  is  not  termed  Ethiopia,  and  the  seventh  the 
-Ethiopian    part.     The    Eighth    Booke    enters    into    the 



Continent  of  Asia ;  in  the  first  Chapters  relating  the 
History  of  the  Franks  (as  all  Asia  since  cals  the  Western 
Christians)  in  the  Holy  Land  Wars  ;  in  the  later,  some 
Pilgrimages  thither  and  the  parts  adjoyning,  with  divers 
Turkish  Observations.  The  Ninth  proceedeth  thorow 
the  mayne  land  of  Asia  into  Persia,  Arabia,  India,  taking 
large  view  of  those  and  other  Asian  Regions,  returning 
by  Africa  with  later  and  larger  intelligence  of  the  Easterne, 
Westerne  and  Northerne  shores  thereof;  New  view  of 
the  Turkish  Dominion  and  Seraglio,  as  also  of  the 
Maldivae  Hands  :  which  and  the  whole  Tenth  Booke 
came  later  to  hand,  and  therefore  is  rather  a  Supply  to 
all,  then  any  well  ordered  part  of  the  Worke,  being 
therefore  printed  after  the  rest. 

Now  for  the  New  World,  we  begin  at  China,  which 
the  Ancients  knew  not,  and  take  all  the  East  and  North 
parts  of  Asia  from  the  Caspian  Sea,  the  Arctoan  Regions, 
all  America  and  Terra  Australis,  comprehending  all  in 
that  New  Tide.  The  First  of  those  Bookes  beginning 
our  Third  Part,  delivereth  especially  the  Authors  of 
Tartaria  in  the  succession  of  about  three  hundred  yeeres, 
wherein  the  Second  succeedeth,  adding  also  Japan,  Corea 
and  China,  with  the  first  Discoveries  of  the  Northerne 
and  Caspian  Seas  by  the  English.  This  Arctoan  Region 
contayning  Russia,  Nova  Zembla,  the  Samoyeds,  Siberia, 
Island,  Frisland,  Norway,  with  the  Neighbour  Regions, 
Cherry  Hand,  Greenland,  Greenland,  &c.  the  Third 
Booke  relateth  ;  continued  in  the  Fourth  with  further 
Discoveries  intended  for  a  North  or  North-west  Passage. 
The  Fifth  Booke  giveth  generall  Relations  of  America, 
in  her  Mexican  or  Northerly,  and  Peruan  or  Southerly 
Moyties  (with  what  we  could  find  of  the  South  Continent) 
their  Antiquities  and  state  before,  and  since  the  Spanish 
Conquest.  The  Sixth  (which  begins  the  Fourth  Part) 
containeth  English  Voyages  to  America,  the  Great  Bay 
especially  and  the  Southerne  Moytie  to  the  Magellan 
Straits  ;  which  in  the  Seventh  Booke  are  more  amplified, 
and  further  enlarged  with  the  Creatures,  and  Countries 



within  Land,  the  Peruan  Antiquities  related  by  one  of 
the  Inca  Linage,  the  Spanish  Conquest,  and  other  occur- 
rents  of  the  Peruan  America  and  Terra  Australis.  The 
Eighth  Booke  comes  homeward  thorow  the  Mexican 
America  and  Florida  unto  Canada,  relating  the  French 
Acts  and  English  beginnings  in  those  parts,  touching 
in  the  way  homeward  at  the  Azores.  Virginia  is 
the  Argument  of  the  Ninth  Booke,  in  the  succession 
and  successe  thereof  from  the  Plantation  1606.  to 
1624.  whereto  Summers  Hands  are  added.  The 
English  Plantations  in  New  England  and  Newfound- 
land follow  in  the  Tenth,  with  divers  Fleets  set  forth 
by  Queene  Elizabeth  of  famous  memory,  with  whose 
blessing  continued  and  confirmed  by  His  Majestie, 
wee  commit  you  to  God,  and  give  you  leave  to  rest 
at  home  in  peace,  under  the  shadow  of  your  owne  Vine 
and  Fig-tree,  which  God  for  his  Christs  sake  continue 
and  confirme   to  us  and  our  posteritie.     Amen. 

You  have  here  a  long  Preface  to  a  long  Work,  and 
yet  you  have  a  longer  touching  the  utilitie  thereof  in 
the  first  Paragraphs  of  Salomons  Ophir.  It  had  not 
beene  possible  for  me  in  London  distractions  to  have 
accomplished  so  great  a  Designe,  but  for  the  oppor- 
tunities of  His  Majesties  Colledge  at  Chelsie,  where  these 
foure  last  Summers  I  have  retired  my  selfe  (without 
Pulpit  Non-residence)  to  this  Worke  :  which  as  it  one 
way  furthered,  so  another  way  it  occasioned  many  Errata, 
by  my  absence  from  the  Presse,  as  in  the  Bodie  of  the 
Worke,  so  especially  in  the  Titles  over  each  page  ;  halfe 
of  which  I  thinke,  are  mine  owne,  the  other  such  as 
pleased  the  Corrector,  needing  correction  enough,  and 
sometimes  not  giving  sufficient  direction  to  the  Reader ; 
whom  I  intreat  to  accept  of  his  Day  and  Night,  Summer 
and  Winter  together,  pardoning  the  one  for  the  others 
sake.  A  Table  had  beene  necessary,  if  Time  and  assist- 
ance to  a  wearie  hand  had  permitted  ;  I  adde,  if  some 
had  not  committed  contrary  to  promise.  It  is  time  to 
make  an   end  of  Prefacing.     The  Authors  follow ;   such 



as  have  no  letter  annexed  are  Mine ;  such  as  have  H. 
added,  I  borrowed  from  Master  Hakluyts  papers,  and 
such  as  have  H.  and  P.  pertaine  to  both,  beeing  other- 
wise printed  or  in  my  possession  written,  wherein  yet  I 
made  use  of  some  labour  of  his.  Let  the  name  and 
glory  be  to  any  other,  so  as  above  all  and  in  all  it  bee 
to  God  the  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  (who  hath 
enabled  my  weake  bodie  beyond  hopes  ;  to  so  great  a 
Worke)  and  the  profit  to  Thee  Reader,  whom  in  the 
Lord,  I  bid  farewell. 


A  Note  touching  the  Dutch. 

THe  necessitie  of  a  Historic  is,  as  of  a  sworne  Wit- 
nesse,  to  say  the  truth,  all  the  truth  (in  just  dis- 
cretion) and  nothing  but  the  truth.  This  I  have 
indevoured  in  the  whole  Worke.  But,  Veritas  odium 
parit.  Some  perhaps  will  blame  me  for  relating  some 
Truths,  specially  the  Dutch  Zelots,  in  that  I  have 
related  such  abuses  of  some  of  that  Nation  in  the  East 
Indies  and  Greenland  to  the  English  there,  as  if  I  sought 
like  an  unseasonable  and  uncharitable  Tale-bearer  to  raise 
discord  betwixt  Neighbours.  I  answere  that  no  Nation 
is  in  this  World  so  pure,  but  hath  both  officious 
members,  and  some  bad  members  also  as  Diseases 
thereof;  which  to  impute  to  the  whole,  were  as  if  a 
man  should  kill  himselfe  for  a  felon  in  his  Thumbe,  or 
Corne  in  his  Toe  :  or  as  if  he  should  therfore  find 
fault  with  his  own  body  because  it  hath  not  only  a 
head,  heart  and  hands,  but  excrements  also,  &  a  funda- 
ment, and  other  parts  for  evacuation  ;  with  a  Palace  for 
houses  of  Office,  with  a  Citie  for  common  Sewers,  with 
the  World  which  hath  Devils  and  Hell  in  it.  I  question 
not,  but  that  the  English  have  also  such,  and  such  wee 
have  occasionally  noted.  Fugitives,  Apostataes,  Theeves, 
Murtherers,  &c.  which  yet  are  not  Nationall  faults,  but 
personall,  except  the  Nation  doth  justifie  such  unjustice, 
as  Troy  the  Rape  of  Helena,  and  the  Benjamites  those 
Beasts  of  Gibeah,  either  by  impunitie  or  defence.  Nor 
needed  wee  good  Lawes,  but  for  bad  Subjects.  If  the 
Dutch  have  such  also,  in  the  History  of  both  I  must 
mention  both,  and  yet  protest  before  God  (to  whom  I 



shall  answere  it  with   the  burning  of  bodie  and  soule, 

not  these   Bookes  alone,  if  I   bee  perfidious)  that   I  am 

not  guiltie  to  my  selfe  of  hatred  to  that  Nation,  yea  in 

these   Discourses    I    have    honoured   it  with   and   before 

others,  following  them  round  about  the  World  to   that 

purpose.     And  for  this  cause  I  have  omitted  some  odious 

Greenland  Relations,  have  altered  and  reprinted  some  more 

offensive   generall   speeches   disgorged   by   the   passionate 

loosers,  with  Titles    on   the   tops  of  pages,   intended   to 

Offenders,  but  in  such   unwarie  termes  as  might  by  ill 

willers    be    extended    to    the   whole   Nation :  yea,   I   had 

purposed  to   omit   many   things   printed   alreadie,   rather 

leaving  a  x«^/"«>   then   causing  a  Chaos,  but   that   since 

the   sore  hath   broken   out   by  that   terrible  Tragedie   at 

Amboyna.     I   could    have   wished  that   such   things   had 

never  beene   told   in   Gath,  nor  published  in  the  streets 

of  Askalon,  lest  any  enemie   of  our  State   and   Religion 

should  rejoyce.     But  seeing  the  necessities  of  the  English 

East  Indian  Societie  have  forced  such  a  publication,  my 

sparing    purpose    had    beene    in    vaine    to    conceale    the 

Shilling  where  the  Pound  was  made  manifest.     I  might 

also    have   beene   accounted    partiall    against    mine    owne 

Nation.     This  I   have  done  ;    I   for  the  most  part,   doe 

but   publish   others   Relations,   (and   Losers   perhaps   will 

speake  the  most)  and  by  Annotations  dispersed  intimate 

that  these   are   personall    faults   of  that   East   Indie 

Company,  or  some  Commanders  there,  not  of  the 

whole  Nation ;  and  if  any  Marginall  Notes  with 

Dutch  Epithetes  seeme  to  speake  more,  yet 

are  they  but  directions  to  the   Reader  to 

shew  what   in   that   page   or   place   is 

handled  without  further  intent ;  so 

with   my   Prayers   for  Peace   on 

both    sides    I    commend 

both    to    the    God 

of  Peace. 




Purchas   His   Pilgrimes 

Contayning  the  Voyages  and  Peregrinations  made 
by  Antient  Kings,  Patriarkes,  Apostles,  Philo- 
sophers, and  others.  To  and  thorow  The 
Remoter  Parts  of  the  Knowne  World : 
Enquiries  also  of  Languages  and 

The  Voyages  &f  Peregrinations     [i. 

made  by  Antient  Kings,  Patriarkes,  Apostles, 

Philosophers,  and  others,  to  and  thorow  the 

remoter  parts  of  the  knowne  World : 

Enquiries   also   of  Languages  and    Religions, 

especially  of  the  moderne  diversified 

Prosessions  of  Christianitie 



Chap.    I. 

A  large  Treatise  of  King  Salomons  Navie  sent  from 
Eziongeber  to  Ophir  :  Wherein,  besides  the 
Typicall  Mysteries  briefly  unvailed,  and  many 
Morall  Speculations  observed;  the  voyage  is 
largely  discussed  out  of  Divine,  Ecclesiasticall 
and  Humane  Testimonies:  Intended  as  an  his- 
toricall  Preface  to  the  Histories  following. 

Ntending  to  present  the  World  to  the 
World  in  the  most  certaine  view,  I 
thought  a  world  of  Authors  fitter  for 
that  purpose,  then  any  One  Author 
writing  of  the  World :  whose  discourse 
might  haply  bee  more  even,  facile, 
methodicall,  and  contracted  to  a  more 
compendious  forme  ;  but  could  not  avoid  to  be  dispendious 
(if  I   may    so  speake)    in    the    matter,    and   to   suspend 

I  I  A 


the     Readers  judgement    for    the    authoritie.      Oculatus 
testis  unus  praeestat  auritis  decern.     I    had  rather  heare 
Plaut.      the     meanest     of     Ulysses     his    followers    relating    his 
wanderings,     then     wander    from     the    certaintie     with 
Homer  after  all  his  readings  and  conjectures.     Lo  here 
then    (after    my  Pilgrimage    of  the   former    Nature,    for 
such  as  better    like    that    course)  in    open  Theatre    pre- 
sented   a  Shew    of    Discoveries   on    an    English    Stage, 
wherein      the     World      is     both      the     Spectacle     and 
Spectator;  the  Actors  are  the  Authors  themselves,  each 
[I.  i.  2.]  presenting  his  owne  actions   and    passions    in  that  kind, 
kindly  (in  generous  and    genuine    History)  acting  their 
acts ;    not   affectedly    straining,    or    scenic-all-ly    playing 
Terent.    their    part ;  the    Arts    indeed    of  the    Poet,    Maker,    or 
Composer,  aiming   at  delight   more  then   truth    (Populo 
ut    placerent,    quas    fecisset    Fabulas)   seeking   to    please 
the    vulgar    with    fabulous    wonders,    and    wonder-foole 

And     for     a    Prologue,    behold    Salomons    Ophirian 

Navigation,  that  Worthy  of   Men,    being    most    worthy 

to    bee    Our    Choragus,    whose    ayme    is    in    this    long 

Worke  to  fetch  from  Ophir  Materialls  for  the  Temples 

structure,  and  to  edifie  Christs  Church,  with    more  full 

and      evident     knowledge    of    Gods    Workes     in     the 

World,  both  of  Creation  and  Providence,  then  any  one 

Naturall  or  Humane  Historian,  yea  (absit  invidia  verbo) 

then  all  hitherto  in    this    (perhaps    in  any)    course  have 

done.     I  compare  not  with  Aristotle,  Plinie,  and  others 

in  philosophical!  and  learned  speculation  of  Reason,   but 

in  evident  demonstration  of  Sense,  and  herein  (not  to  us 

Lord,  not  to  us,   but  to   thy  Name  be  given   the  glory) 

it  exceedeth  not  modesty  to  speake  thus  much  in  behalfe 

of  this  cloud    of  witnesses    which    we    bring,    testifying 

what  they  have  seen,   that  these    exceed  the   former   in 

certainty    (relating  what  they    have    seene)    and    in    ful- 

nesse    (by    advantage    of  New   Worlds    found   in,    and 

besides  the  World  knowne  to  them)  no  lesse  then  they 

are  exceeded   in   Antiquitie  and  learning. 


For  mee,  I  say  with  Agur,  surely  I  am  more  foolish  Prov.'io.  z, 
then   any    man,   and    have    not   the    understanding  of  a  ^'  ■*■'"•    •  5- 
man  in  mee ;    Alas   Master    (I    may    proclaime    to    each 
Reader)  all   is  borrowed :    I   never  travelled  out  of  this 
Kingdome    (ingenuously    I    confesse,    it    is     the    totall 
summe   of   all   my  Travell-readings)    the  Centre  of  the 
Worlds  good  things,  and  Heart  of  her  happinesse ;    and 
yet  (yea  thereby)  have,  as  thou  seest,  conceived  (where 
Dinahs    gadding     gained     onely     losse)     and     travelled  <^^»-  34-  2. 
of  a  Gad,  a   Troup    of    Travellers;    So    said    Leah,    A  ^'"-  3°-  "• 
troup  commeth    and    shee    called  his    name    Gad.     And 
seeing  we    have    stumbled    on    that    Word,     let   it    be 
ominous,   so  others   read   it    Fceliciter,    Bagad,  being    by 
the  Hebrewes   resolved    into   *Ba    Mazal    tob,  that    is;  *SeeM.Se/- 
Good  fortune    commeth.      I    am   not   Leah,  I    take    no   f'^"^^^'}' 
such    authority    on     mee,     but     when     shee     hath    left 
bearing    (when    better    leisures,    quicker    wits,    sounder 
health,   profounder   learning,  and  all  abler  meanes  looke 
on)  let  not  Jacobs  Bed,   for   the    propagation    and    edi- 
fication   of  the    Church,    be    envied    to    Zilpah,    Leahs 
mayd ;    And    let    this    my   Service    in     conceiving     and 
nursing  up  this   Gad  be  accepted  of  all  Jacobs  Friends. 
And      that     it   might    bee    accepted,      I      have     begun 
(Dimidium    facti   qui    bene    cepit  habet)    with    the   most 
acceptable    Voyages    mentioned  in    the    Old    and    New 
Testaments ;    the  one    a  Type  of  the  other  ;   those   of 
Solomon     to    Ophir,  and    of  the    Apostles    about    the 

Salomon  was  first  in  time,  and  shall  bee  first  here ; 
the  first  in  all  things  which  usually  are  accounted  first, 
Royaltie,  Sanctitie,  Wisdome,  Wealth,  Magnificence, 
Munificence,  Politie,  Exploits,  Renowme :  Salomon  Matth.  6. 29. 
in  all  his  glory,  is  proverbiall,  and  He  first  in 
these  by  the  first  and  greatest  of  testimonies  ;  the 
particulars  of  Salomons  voyage  are  recorded  in  the  first, 
best,  and  more  then  humane  Histories ;  Yea  the  things 
recorded,  are  first  indeed,  before  other  things,  yea 
before    and    greater    then    themselves,    and    that   which 



Apoc.  I.  the  First   and   Last   hath    said,    is    true  of  them    all    in 

typicall  relation,  A  greater  then  Salomon  is  here.  Let 
Salomon  then,  as  elsewhere,  so  here  also  have  the  pre- 
eminence ;  let  Salomons  name  as  the  Character  of 
peace  and  happinesse,  boad  holy,  happy,  and  peaceable 
successe  to  this  Work ;  and  let  Thy  Name,  O  thou 
Greater  then  Salomon,  grant  protection,  assistance,  & 
some  .part  of  Salomons  wisdome  and  prosperity  to  our 
Ophirian  voyage,  that  we  may  buy  of  thee  Gold  tried 
in  the  fire  to  make  us  rich   in  grace,  so   to   prepare  us 

Jpoc.  21.  lo,  to  that  holy  Jerusalem,  descending  out  of  Heaven  from 

II,  1 8,  22,  Qod,  having  the  Glory  of  God  ;  a  Citie  of  pure  Gold 
like  unto  cleere  glasse,  where  the  Lord  God  Almighty 
and  the  Lambe  are  the  Temple,  and  the  Glory  of  God 
doth  lighten  it,  and  the  Lambe  is  the  light  thereof. 
Be  thou,  O  Christ,  in  this  our  Navigation  both 
Load-starre  and  Sunne,  for  direction  of  our  course, 
and  knowledge  of  our  true  height  and  latitude :  Let 
our  Sayles  hoised  up  in  thy  Name,  be  filled  with 
inspiration  of  thy  Spirit,  and    aspiration    of  thy   favour, 

Ac.  27.  till  they  arrive  in  the  Fair-havens  of  humane    Pleasure 

and  Profit,  thy  Churches  service  and  edifying.  Divine 
acceptance  and  glory.     Amen,   O  Amen. 

Of  Salomon  the  holy  Scriptures  have  thus  recorded. 
I.  Kings  9.  26,  27,  28.  And  King  Solomon  made  a 
Navie  of  Ships  in  Ezion  Geber,  which  is  beside  Eloth, 
on  the  shoare  of  the  Red  Sea  in  the  Land  of  Edom. 
And   Hiram  sent    in   the    Navie    his    servants,    Shipmen 

[I.  i.  3.]  that  had  knowledge  of  the  Sea  with  the  servants  of 
Solomon.  And  they  came  to  Ophir  and  set  from  thence 
Gold  420.  Talents,  and  brought  it  to  King  Solomon. 
And  Cap.  10.  11.  The  Navie  also  of  Hiram,  that 
brought  Gold  from  Ophir  brought  in  from  Ophir  great 
plenty  of  Almug  trees  and  precious  stones;  12.  And 
the  King  made  of  the  Almug  trees,  Pillars  for  the 
house  of  the  Lord,  &  for  the  Kings  House ;  Harps  also 
and  Psalteries  for  Singers :  there  came  no  such  Almug 
Trees,    nor    were    scene    unto    this    day.    13.    Now    the 



weight  of  Gold  that  came  to  Solomon  in  one  yeere  was 
666.  Talents  of  Gold.  15.  Besides  that  he  had  of  the 
Merchant-men,  and  of  the  trafficke  of  the  Spice-Merchants, 
and  of  all  the  Kings  of  Arabia,  and  of  the  Governours 
of  the  Countrey.  V.  21.  And  all  King  Solomons  drinking 
Vessells  were  of  Gold,  and  all  the  Vessells  of  the  House 
of  the  Forrest  of  Lebanon  were  of  pure  Gold :  none 
were  of  Silver,  it  was  nothing  accounted  of  in  the  dayes 
of  Solomon.  For  the  Kings  Ships  (the  cause  is  added, 
2.  Chro.  9.  21.)  went  to  Tarshish  with  the  servants 
of  Hiram :  every  three  yeerfes  once  came  the  Ships  of 
Tarshish,  bringing  Gold  and  Silver;  Ivory,  and  Apes, 
and  Peacockes.  22.  And  King  Solomon  passed  all  the 
Kings  of  the  Earth  in  Riches  and  Wisdome.  26.  And 
hee  reigned  over  all  the  Kings,  from  the  River,  even 
unto  the  Land  of  the  Philistines,  and  to  the  border  of 
Egypt.  27.  And  the  King  made  Silver  in  Jerusalem  as 
Stones,  and  Cedar  Trees  made  hee  as  the  Sycomore 
Trees,  that  are  in  the  Low  Plaines  in  abundance. 

§.  I. 

The  Allegoricall  and  Anagogicall  sense  or  applica- 
tion of  Solomons  Ophirian  Navigation. 

His  is  an  extract  of  Solomons  Story,  so  much  as 
concernes  our  present  purpose,  the  authoritie 
whereof  is  Sacred,  a  Divine,  infallible,  inviolable. 

and  undenyable  veritie ;  the  fitter  ground  for  many  high  whitak.  des- 
and  worthy  consequences  hereafter  to  be  delivered.  I  crip.  q.  5. 
shall  here  leave  to  the  Divinitie  Schooles,  in  more 
leisurely  contemplation  to  behold  the  Allegoricall  sense 
(shall  I  say,  or  application  })  wherein  Solomon  seemes 
to  signifie  Christ,  his  Navy  the  Church,  (long  before 
lively  represented  in  that  first  of  Ships,  the  Ark  of 
Noah)  which  in  the  Sea  of  this  variable  World  seekes 
for  the  golden  Treasures  of  Wisdome  and  Knowledge, 
with  (that  plentiful!  riches)  the  rich  plentie  of  good 
Workes.     The  Servants  of  Hiram,  the    Doctors   chosen 



^/^m/.  Ep.      Qut  of  the  Gentiles,  with  the  learned  Christian  Jewes  (the 

doc  Christ  1  ^^'"vants  of  Solomon)  imployed  joyntly  in  this  Ophirian 

2.  c.  40.  Discovery,    thence    bring    the    rich     materialls    (as    the 

Bns  horn.  24.    Israelites   the   Egyptian   spoyles  for    the  Tabernacle,  so 

de  legend  lib.    these)   for  building  and  adorning  the  Temple  (the  true 

Nvsensintnt    ^^"^^  °^  Scripture)  after  long  absence  by  a  troublesome 

Mosis.  Navigation  (in  the  search  of  Authors  Divine,  Ecclesiasticall 

I.  Co.  2.  14.  and    Humane,   an   Ocean    of  toyle)   from    their    homes. 

I.  T.  3.  16.     Por  the  naturall  man,  that  abides  at  home  in  himselfe, 

and    hath    not   travelled   from   his    owne   Wisdome    and 

Selfe-conceit,  knowes  not  the  things  of  God,  nor  the  great 

Mysteries   of  Godlinesse ;    he  must  leave  the  Land,  his 

Earthly    Wisdome    (Terraque    urbesque    recedant)    and 

lanch   into  the  deepe,  there  having  his  sayles  filled  with 

the  winde,  the   illumination  of  that   Spirit,   which   leads 

into    all    truth ;    the    Scriptures    being    their    Card,    the 

faithful  heart  the  Load-stone,  Christ  himselfe  the  Load- 

starre  and  Sunne  of  Truth,  as  before  is  intimated.     Thus 

shall  the  Temple,  and  Church  of  God  be  edified,  enriched, 

adorned,  after  wee  have  arrived  at  Ophir,  and  have  scene 

our  owne  weaknesse,  and  taken  paines  in  myning  Gods 

Treasures,  and  undermining  our  owne  hearts,  searching 

and  trying  our  owne  and  Gods  wayes ;  casting  off,  and 

purging  from  us  all  superfluous  Earth,  and  detaining  the 

Gold    and    richer    Mettall,    which    wee    may    carry    and 

present,  as    the  Talents   gained  by   our   Talents,  in   the 

best    improvement    of    Gods    graces,    when    wee    shall 

returne  to  our  Solomon,  the  Judge  of  quicke  and  dead, 

after    our    Navigation    and    earthly    Pilgrimage    ended. 

But  alas    how   many   make   shipwracke   of  Faith  by   the 

way,  and  either  are   split    on    the   Rockes  of  enormous 

crying  Sinnes,  or  sinke  in  the  smaller  innumerable  sands 

of  habituall    Lusts,    covered   with   the    shallowes  (meere 

shadowes)  of  civill  Righteousnesse. 

Or  if  you  had  rather  adjoyne  to  the  Allegory,  the 
Anagogicall  sense  and  use ;  this  History  will  appeare  also 
a  Mystery  and  Type  of  Eternitie.  Every  Christian  man 
is  a  ship,   a  weake  vessell,   in   this  Navie  of  Solomon, 



and  dwelling  in  a  mortall  body,  is  within  lesse  then 
foure  inches,  then  one  inch  of  death.  From  Jerusalem 
the  Word  and  Law  of  our  Solomon  first  proceeded,  by- 
preaching  of  Solomons  and  Hirams  servants,  the  Pastors 
and  Elect  vessells  to  carry  his  Name,  gathered  out  of 
Jewes  and  Gentiles,  which  guide  these  Ships  through  a 
stormy  Sea,  beginning  at  the  Red  Sea,  Christs  bloudy 
Crosse,  which  yeelded  Water  and  Bloud,  till  they  arrive 
at  Ophir,  the  communion  of  Saints  in  the  holy  Catholike 
Church.  Thither  by  the  water  of  Baptisme  first,  and  by 
the  waters  of  Repentance,  drawn  out  of  our  hearts  and 
eyes  in  manifold  Mortifications  after ;  (the  feare  of  God 
beginning  this  Wisdome,  the  windy  lusts  of  concupiscence, 
and  unstable  waves  of  the  world  in  vaine  assailing)  they 
attaine  in  the  certaintie  of  Faith  and  assurance :  where  Col.  z. 
seeking  for  Knowledge  as  for  Silver,  and  searching  for  ^'■''^-  ^• 
her  as  for  hidden  Treasures,  they  doe  as  it  were  labour 
in  the  Mynes  for  Gold,  which  they  further  purifie  by 
experimentall  practise  and  studie  of  good  Workes :  yet  i  Co.  3.  12. 
not  in  such  perfection,  but  that  to  this  foundation.  Gold, 
Silver,  precious  Stones,  some  Almug  trees  are  added  for 
the  Temples  Pillars,  oftentimes  also  of  our  owne.  Hay 
and  Stubble,  as  worse  and  more  combustible  matter 
joyned ;  the  Ivory,  being  a  dead  Bone  may  serve  for  a 
secular  Throne  and  worldly  use ;  but  here  death  is  dead ;  [I.  i.  4.] 
the  Apes  and  Peacockes  lively  expresse  Hypocrisie  and 
worldly  pompe,  which  in  the  best  of  Saints  usually 
leave  some  tincture  in  their  voyage  for  Heaven.  In 
the  returne  to  Solomon,  these  shall  be  burnt  (as  those 
were  by  Nebuzaradan)  but  he  himselfe  shall  bee  saved;  Jer.  52. 
and  the  former  admitted  by  that  Prince  of  Peace,  the 
Heavenly  Solomon  to  the  building  of  that  Temple  in 
the  new  Jerusalem,  for  charitie  never  falleth  away.  This 
is  that  holy  Citie  figured  by  that  of  Palestina,  where  all 
is  brought  to  Solomon,  that  God  may  bee  all  in  all,  as 
the  Alpha  which  set  them  forth,  so  the  Omega,  who  hath 
made  all  things  for  himselfe,  for  whose  will  and  glories 
sake,  all  things  are  and  were  created  :  And  the  Kings  of  Ap.  21.  24. 



the  Earth  bring  their  glory  and  honour  unto  this  Citie. 
Not   that  hee  needs  any  thing,   but  that   wee  need   the 
same,  who  in  seeing  him   as   hee   is,  doe  all  partake  of 
his  glory.     Happy  are  thy  men  (may  more  truly  be  said 
I  Reg.  lo.  8.  of  this  Solomons  servants)  happy  are  these  thy  servants 
which  may  stand  in  thy  presence  and  heare  thy  wisdome : 
which  may  enjoy  eternitie,  signified  by  Gold,  which  alone 
of  mettalls    neither  fire,    nor    rust,   nor    age    consumeth 
Jpoc.  2  1.  1 8.  (and  this  Citie  is  pure  Gold)  and  that  Inheritance  of  the 
Fi.  P.  Ptl.  I.    Saints  in  light,  figured  by  Silver,  the  most  lightsome  and 
delightsome    of  mettalls    to   the    eye.     As    for    precious 
Stones,  the    foundations   of  the   Wall   of  the   Citie  are 
garnished  with  all  manner  of  them.     And  touching  the 
Jpoc.  3.  12.    Almuggim  Trees,  whereof  Solomon  made  Pillars  for  the 
tffjii.         Temple  and   Psalteries,   every   Tree  which    here  beareth 
good   fruit,  and   every  one   that  overcommeth,  will  this 
Solomon  there  make  a  Pillar  in  the  Temple  of  his  God, 
and  hee  shall  goe  no  more   out.     And  they  shall  serve 
him  Day  and  Night  in  his  Temple,  and  hee  that  sitteth 
on   the   Throne   shall   dwell   among   them.     These    have 
also    the    Harps  of  God,   And    they    sing    the    Song  of 
Moses,  and   the   Song   of  the  Lamb,   nay  these  are  the 
Ps.  16.  Psalteries  and   Harpes,  which    filled  with  all  fulnesse  of 

God,  alway  resound  praises  &  thanks  unto  the  King 
of  Saints,  and  with  everlasting  harmony  in  that  Angellical 
Quire,  are  tuned  with  Alleluiah,  and  Te  Deum,  and 
Holy,  holy,  holy,  in  fulnesse  of  joy  at  his  right  hand, 
Jp.  21  22,  and  plea'sures  for  evermore.  Thus  in  divers  respects  are 
f-  3-  I-  15-  they  both  the  Citie,  and  Temple,  and  Kings  and  Priests, 
and  Instruments,  and  all  these,  and  none  of  these :  For  I 
saw  no  Temple  therein,  saith  that  Seer,  for  the  Lord  God 
Almightie,  and  the  Lambe  are  the  Temple  of  it.  Even 
God  himselfe  shall  bee  with  them,  and  God  shall  bee  all 
in  all :  and  as  hee  is  incomprehensible,  so  Eye  hath  not 
seene,  nor  eare  hath  heard,  nor  can  the  heart  of  man  con- 
ceive what  God  hath  prepared  for  them  that  love  him  : 
Coeli  coelorum  Domino,  terram  dedit  Filus  Hominem. 
And  unmeet  is  it  for  me  to  attempt  so  high  climbing. 




Not  so  the  Tropologie  or  Morall  use,  not  so  the 
History,  for  our  learning  wherein  the  same  is  written. 
And  although  the  History  in  Nature  should  precede, 
yet  because  wee  intend  the  Tropologicall  sense  or 
application  of  this  History,  as  a  kind  of  Preface  or 
preamble  to  the  many  Histories  ensuing,  wee  have  here 
given  it  the  first  place. 

§  II. 
The  Tropologicall  use  of  the  Story  ;  and   of  the 
lawfulnesse  of  Discoveries  and  Negotiation  by 

Erein  therefore  Solomon  may  become  a  wise  guide 
unto    us,  and  first  by   his  example   teach    us    the 
lawfulnesse    of    Navigation    to    remote    Regions. 
His     particular     Dominion     is     Palestina,     his     subject 
Provinces    added,    extend    not    beyond    Egypt    and    the 
River  Euphrates,  as  is  before  delivered.     But  God  which 
had    enlarged   Solomons    heart  with    Wisdome,    did    not 
enlarge  it   to   injustice   by  an   overlarge  conscience:  and 
hee  which  renounced  the  price  of  a  Dog  and  a  Whore 
in  his  offerings,  would    not    permit   the  Temple,  which 
sanctifieth  the   offerings,   to  bee  built  and  adorned  with 
robbery  and  spoyle.     It  remaines  then  that  Solomon  had 
a  right,  not  extraordinary  as  the  Israelites  to  spoyle  the 
Egyptians,  by  Divine  especiall  Precept ;  but  such  a  right 
wherein  Hiram  was  interessed  also.     The  Ebrewes  might  P^ilo  de  vita 
both   at   Gods   command,  who    is    Lord   of  all,    and    in    j"^'  '^\ 
Equitie    demand    wages  ot    the    Egyptians    tor    so    long  ^^  ^-^  ^^^^ 
and  tedious  service ;  which  had  not  Divine  Precept  and  deojubenti 
power  interposed,  the  same  tyranny  which  had  imposed  minhtenum 
the   one,  would  have  denied  the  other.     But  what  had  ^f^l"'^'"^'- 
the    Ophirians    wronged  Solomon,   of  whom  and   whose   jq.^  ^j.  '   ' 
Countrey  they  had  not  heard,   that  thus  by  a  numerous 
and  strong  Fleet  hee  should  enter  on  their  Coasts  .?     We 
must  not  thinke  godly  Solomon   to  be  Alexanders  pre- 
decessour,  whom  the  Poet  calls  Terrarum  fatale  malum  & 



fidus  iniquum   Gentibus :  whom  the  Pirat  accused  as  the 

* Civ.  greater,*   finding  no  other  difference  betwixt  them,  but 

4-  ^-  +•    a   smal  Ship   and   a  great   Fleet.     Remota   institia,   quid 

sunt  regna  saith  Augustine,  nisi  magna  latrocinia,  quia  & 

ipsa  latrocinia  quid  sunt,  nisi  parva  regna  ?     And  before 

*  Cy/>.  £■/-.  ^(Z  hini  Cyprian,*  Homicidium  cum  admittunt  singuli, 
onat.  .  2.     criiYien      est,     virtus     vocatur      cum      publice     geritur. 

Jc.  I-'.  26.  Impunitatem  acquirit  saevitiae  magnitudo.  Surely  Solomons 
right  was  his  being  a  Man,  which  as  a  wise  &  a  mightie 
King  of  Men,  hee  might  the  better  exercise  and  execute. 
For  howsoever  God  hath  given  to  every  man  &  to  every 
Nation,  a  kind  of  proprietie  in  their  peculiar  possessions  ; 
yet  there  is  an  universall  tenure  in  the  Universe,  by  the 
Lawes  of  God  and  Nature,  still  remaining  to  each  man 
as  hee  is  a  Man,  and  /cofT/jtoTroX/r;/?,  as  the  common  or 
Royall  right  of  the  King  or  State  is  neither  confounded 
nor  taken  away  by  the  private  proprietie  of  the  Subject. 

[I.  i.  5.]  True  it  is  that   God,  which  hath  made  of  one  bloud 

all  Nations  of  men  for  to  dwell  on  all  the  face  of  the 
earth,  and  hath  determined  the  times  appointed,  hath 
also  determined  the  bounds  of  their  habitation.  But 
not  so  straitly  of  Negotiation.  In  Habitation  proprietie 
is  requisite,  that  every  man  may  sit  under  his  owne 
Vine,  and  under  his  owne  Fig-tree,  and  drinke  the 
waters  out  of  his  owne  Cisterne  and  running  waters 
out    of  his    owne   Well,    and    that    they  bee    onely    his 

Prov.  5.  15,    owne,  and    not    the    strangers  with  him.     But    hee  that 

^7-  hath   made  all  Nations   of  one   bloud,  would    still    they 

should    bee    as    fellow    members    one    of   another ;    (a 

Deut.  23.  shadow  of  which  was  in  the  Law,  permitting  to  eat  in 
the  neighbours  Vineyard,  but  not  to  carry  forth ;)  and 
that  there  should  still  remaine  mutuall  Necessitie,  the 
Mother  of  mutuall  Commerce,  that  one  should  not  bee 
hungry,  and  another  drunken,  but  the  superfluitie  of 
one  Countrey,  should  supply  the  necessities  of  another, 
in    exchange    for    such     things,    which    are    here    also 

Hrg.  necessary,     and    there    abound ;    that    thus     the    whole 

World     might    bee    as    one     Body     of    mankind,    the 



Nations  as  so  many  members,  the  superabundance  in 
each,  concocted,  distributed,  retained  or  expelled  by 
merchandising  (as  by  the  Naturall  bodily  Offices  and 
Faculties  in  nourishment)  whereby  not  without  mutuall 
gaine  One  may  releeve  others  Wants.  Non  omnia 
possumus  omnes :  may  bee  said  of  Arts;  Nee  vero  Ez.zyif^ii 
terras  ferre  omnes  omnia  possunt,  may  bee  added  of 
Regions,  each  Countrey  having  her  owne,  both  Artifi- 
cial! and  Naturall  Commodities,  whereby  to  inrich 
themselves  with  enriching  of  others.  Thus  in  old 
times,  Tyrus  chief  Staple  of  the  worlds  Merchandise, 
and  consequently  chiefe  Store-house  of  the  worlds 
Treasures;  (see  the  same  elegantly  &  particularly  jBz.  27.  33. 
deciphered  by  the  holy  Ghost)  as  it  received  from  all 
parts,  so  when  her  wares  went  forth  out  of  the  Seas, 
shee  filled  many  people,  and  did  enrich  the  Kings  of 
the  Earth,  with  the  multitude  of  her  riches  and 

And  because  no  one  National  Law  could  prescribe  in 
that  wherein  all  are  interested,  God  himself  is  the  Law 
giver,  and  hath  written  by  the  stile  of  Nature  this 
Law  in  the  hearts  of  men,  called  in  regard  of  the 
efficient,  the  Law  of  Nature,  in  respect  of  the  object, 
the  Law  of  Nations,  whereto  all  Men,  Nations,  Com- 
monwealths, Kingdomes  and  Kings  are  subject.  And 
as  he  hath  written  this  Equity  in  mans  heart  by 
Nature,  so  hath  he  therfore  encompassed  the  Earth  with 
the  Sea,  adding  so  many  inlets,  bayes,  havens  and  other 
naturall  inducements  and  opportunities  to  invite  men 
to  this  mutuall  commerce.  Therefore  hath  he  also 
diversified  the  Windes,  which  in  their  shifting  quarrels 
conspire  to  humaine  trafficke.  Therefore  hath  hee 
divided  the  Earth  with  so  many  Rivers,  and  made 
the  shoares  conspicuous  by  Capes  and  promontories ; 
yea,  hath  admitted  the  Sunne  and  Starres  in  their  Firg.  y£tt. 
direction  and  assistance  unto  this  Generall  Councell, 
wherein  Nature  within  us  and  without  us,  by  ever- 
lasting Canons   hath   decreed   Communitie   of  Trade   the 


Sunt  autem 
privata  nulla 
natura.  Cic. 



Omnia  reruni 



Ov.  Met.  I.  I . 

Ov.  Met.  I.  6. 

world  thorow.  And  thus  hath  she  taught  them  who 
had  no  other  instructor,  with  disHke  and  disdaine  to 
admire  at  such  immanity  and  inhumanity,  Quod  genus 
hoc  hominum  quaeue  hunc  tam  barbar  a  morem,  Per- 
mittit  patria  ?  hospitio  prohibemur  arenae !  yea  whereas 
by  Nature  the  Earth  was  common  Mother,  and  in 
equall   community   to   be   enjoyed   of  all   hers. 

Nam  propriae   telluris  herum   Natura  nee  ilium. 

Nee  me,  nee  quenquam  statuit  : 
and  howsoever  this  case  is  since  altered  in  this  element, 
lest  the  idle  should  live  on  the  sweate  of  others  browes : 
yet  the  other  and  nobler  elements  still  remaine  in 
greatest  part  in  their  originall  communitie,  and  cannot 
so  fully  bee  appropriated  to  private  possession,  since 
the  supposed  Golden  age  is  vanished,  and  this  Iron 
(or  golden  in  another  sence)  hath  succeeded.  Yea, 
then  also  the  house,  wife,  children,  and  such  things  as 
are  wasted  or  growne  worse  in  the  use,  as  meate, 
drinke,  apparell,  were  appropriate  and  private  chattels 
to  the  possessor,  howsoever  things  immoveable  con- 
tinued the  freehold  of  every  man  in  the  common 
tenure  of  common  humanity,  as  still  in  the  life  of 
Brasilians  and  other  Savages  in  the  following  relations 
is  to  be  scene.  By  humaine  consent  and  divine  dis- 
pensation the  Earth  was  divided  among  the  Sonnes  of 

Communemque  prius  ceu  lumina  solis  &  aurae. 

Cautus   humum  longo  signavit  limite  messor. 

Thus  some  things  became  publike,  that  is,  proper  to 
the  Kingdome,  State,  or  Nation :  other  things  private,  as 
each  mans  possession,  and  that  also  in  differing  degrees, 
as  the  Commons,  and  Champaine  Countries  with  us  in 
their  differing  tenure  from  grounds  inclosed,  doe  mani- 
festly enough  argue.  But  since  that  division  of  Languages 
and  Lands;  the  Poet  still  proclaimes  Natures  right. 

Quid  prohibetis  aquas  ?  usus  communis  aquarum  est. 

Nee   solem  proprium  Natura   nee   Aera   fecit. 

Nee  tenues   undas.     In   publica   munera  veni. 


and  another 

-Cunctis  undamque  auramque  patentem. 

These  so  farre  as  they  have  not  by  possession  of  Firg.  ^n.  7. 
other  men  before,  or  otherwise  by  their  own  Nature 
cannot  be  appropriated,  are  Natures  Commons,  which 
both  Free-holders  as  Men,  and  Coppie-holders,  as  other 
Hving  creatures.  Beasts,  Fishes,  Fowles,  and  creeping 
things  according  to  their  scverall  kinds  do  communicate 
in.  If  any  quarrell  this  poeticall  Proofe ;  I  answere  that 
they  were  Natures  Secretaries  in  the  cases  of  Reason, 
and  the  Common  Law  of  Humanitie,  which  having 
not  the  Law,  were  a  Law  to  themselves,  and  in  like  Rom.  2. 
cases  therefore  produced  as  good  evidence  by  the  Planter  [I.  i.  6.] 
of  the  Gospel,  and  Doctor  of  the  Gentiles.  And  if  we 
will  surmount  Reason,  and  appeale  to  divine  censure, 
what  need  we  other  testimonie  then  this  of  Salomon  ^"f"-  2- 
in  his  best  times,  and  for  his  best  act,  imitated  herein  f^^^gj\. 
(though  with  unlike  successe)  by  godly  Jehoshaphat?  7^/^,1.' 
These  things  are  also  written  for  our  learning  to  the 
ends  of  the  World,  that  wise,  magnanimous,  fortunate, 
peaceable  and  godly  Kings  might  propound  this  pat- 
terne  to  their  industries.  Yea,  more  then  in  Salomons 
time  is  this  lawfuU  to  Christian  Kings,  in  regard  that 
the  Jewish  Pale  is  downe,  and  the  Church  is  Catholike, 
not  appropriated  to  One  people,  or  circumscribed  in  a 
circumcised  corner,  or  swadled  in  a  small  Cradle,  as 
in  that  infancie  of  the  Circumcision ;  but  open  and 
common  to  the  Communitie  of  Mankind,  to  which  in  this 
last  Age  no  better  meane  is  left  then  Navigation  and 
commerce;  wherein  though  the  most  aime  at  gaine, 
yet  God  that  can  raise  of  stones  children  to  Abraham, 
and  made  Davids  Conquests  and  Salomons  Discoveries 
serviceable  to  the  Temple,  can  no  lesse  convay  the  Gos- 
pel then  other  Wares  into  those  parts,  to  whom  hee 
hath  given  such  rich  attractives  in  the  East  and  West, 
perhaps  that  this  negotiation  might  further  another,  in 
barter  and  exchange  of  richer  treasures  for  their 



He  which  brought  the  Northerne  people  being  then 
Pagans,  into  the  Roman  Empire,  to  make  them  Lords 
of  it  and  Subjects  to  him,  can  of  Merchants  allured 
with  Gold,  make,  or  at  least  send  with  them,  Peachers 
of  his  Sonne.  And  if  the  Devill  hath  sent  the  Moores 
with  damnable  Mahumetisme  in  their  merchandizing 
quite  thorow  the  East,  to  pervert  so  many  Nations 
with  thraldome  of  their  states  and  persons,  out  of  the 
frying  panne  of  Paynim  Rites,  into  the  fire  of  Mahu- 
metrie :  Shall  not  God  be  good  to  Israel,  and  gracious 
to  the  ends  of  the  earth,  so  long  since  given  in 
inheritance  to  his  Sonne  ? 

§   III. 

The  Tropologicall  or  Morall  use  enlarged  and 
amplified;  and  a  view  taken  of  Mans  diver- 
sified Dominion  in  Microcosmicall,  Cosmo- 
politicall,  and  that  spirituall  or  heavenly  right, 
over  himselfe  and  all  things,  w^hich  the 
Christian  hath  in  and  by  Christ. 

H«^|Enerall  Rules  have  exceptions.  Salomon  was  just 
1^9  and  wise,  well  knowing  the  difference  of 
-™   **'  Ezion-Geber  and  Ophir,    and   that  difference    of 

Dominion  which  God  (that  made  Man  after  his  Image) 
hath  given  us  over  the  Creatures,  diversified  both  in 
the  subject  and  object.  E  Coelo  descendit  yvcoOi 
aeavTcov,  was  written  in  Adam  by  Creation,  in  Salomon 
by  Revelation,  before  Nature  suggested  that  sentence  to 
Chilo,  or  the  Delphian  Devill  (the  Ape  of  Divinitie) 
had  caused  it  to  be  written  in  Golden  Letters  on  the 
Frontispice  of  that  Temple.  To  know  a  mans  selfe 
aright  is  annexed  to  the  knowledge  of  God  (in  whom 
wee  live,  moove,  and  are,  of  whom  and  for  whom  are  all 
things)  not  his  essence,  but  his  expressed  Image  thereof 
in  his  workes,  of  which,  Man  is  in  this  World  the 
principall ;  what  hee  hath  received,  what  he  hath  lost, 
what  he  retaineth   by   Nature,   and   what   he   recovereth, 



and    more    then    recovereth    by    grace,   in    and   of   that 
divine    resemblance.      In    the    first  state   all  men   had  a 
naturall  right  in  common   over   the  creatures.     But  the 
Devill    (the    greatest   Incloser)    by  sinne  inclosed   these  Maninhisfall 
Commons  of  Humanitie,  and  altered  their  tenure   from  ""^^  '"^^f^  f 
Fee  Simple,  to  meere  Vdlenage:   yet  so  (God  m  justice  J.^^^^ainhis 
remembring    mercie)    that    some    ruines    remaine    since  naturall  gifts. 
the    fall,    not    only    in    the    faculties    and    substance    of  Supernaturali 
bodie  and   soule,   but   in  the  personall   rights   also   over  ^'Vf^l^^l^ 
torpid,    vegetative,  and  all  unreasonable    creatures,  con-  f;J^/„^^ 
tinued  to  him  by  that  Charter  of  Reason,   which  in    so  obtained  but 
well  ordered  furniture,  and    so   well    furnished  order   as  h-j  Gods  free 
the  name  Kotr^o'i  and  mundus  import,  could  not  but  have  gft.  and  called 
beene  confounded,  if  both  the  immortall    and    spirituall  ]^ r^^i^^^mes 
part  in  himselfe,  should  not  have  exercised  dominion  in   y  holinesse. 
some  kind  over  the  mortall  and  bodily ;   and   if  in   the  Eph,  4. 
greater  World,  the  reasonable  should  not  have  disposed  ^f.''^''fj^°lf^ 
of  the  unreasonable.     As    for    the    conformitie    of  mans  ^'  ^^J^!^^]"! 
will  and  actions  to  God  and  right,  using  of  that  right  over  ^^yed  nature. 
the  creature,  to  the  sole  glory  of  the  Creator  (to  whom 
man  is  subordinate,  as  the  creature  to  him)  this  was  by 
the  cracke  of  our  earthen  Vessell  in  Mans  Fall  lost,  and 
as  a  more  subtile  and  spirituall  liquor,  ranne  out.     Yet 
still  remaine  in  this  defaced   Image  some  obscure  linea- 
ments, and  some  embers  raked  up  in  the  ashes  of  Mans 
consumption,  which  being  by  naturall  diligence  quickned, 
give  lively  expressions  of  God ;   and  where  supernaturali 
worke   recovereth,    are    more    then    recovered,    internally 
and  inchoatively    in    the   state  of  grace,    externally  also 
and  eternally  in  that  perfection  of  glorie. 

Hence    ariseth   to    a    man    a    threefold    tenure,   more  Foure  kinds 
and     more    excellent    then    any    which    Littleton    hath  ''{j^£lJ"'^ 
related ;    a    Microcosmicall  in    respect   of  our  selves ;    a  q^^  ^   ' 
Cosmopoliticall   in    regard    of  the    World ;    a  Catholike, 
Spirituall,    and     Heavenly    in    relation    to     Christ    the 
Head,  his  Bodie  the  Church,  and  that  everlasting  inheri- 
tance;  besides  that  (which  is   the  last   and   least    of  all) 
in   reference    to    Politicall   Law  and   Societie.     The   first  [I.  i.  7.] 


costne  or  Pil- 


orlginall  of  all  dominion  and  right  is  God,  who  is  Lord  of 
all,  whose  Image  as  is  said  is  imprinted  on  and  in  Man,  as 
otherwise  so  in  this  Lordship  or  right;  which  he  hath  first 
See  my  Micro-  \^  ^nd  on  himselfe  Microcosmically  in  the  members  of 
his  bodie,  as  the  Regions  of  this  Selfe-kingdome ;  where 
the  continuall  Court  of  Conscience,  the  large  jurisdiction 
of  Reason   (without  which  a  man  is,  as  suspended  from 
the  power  of  himselfe,  termed  impos  sui,  besides  himselfe, 
as  in   drunkennesse  and   madnesse)   the  freedom  of  the 
Will  (which  is  no  longer  will,  then  willing  and  cannot  be 
constrained)    the    Naturall,    and     Vitall    actions    wrought 
within  us,  (and  yet  without  us,  without  our  owne  know- 
ledge or  direction,  and  much  lesse  subject  to  the  correction 
of  others)  the  Animall  also  in  externall  and  internall  senses, 
which  cannot  but  exercise  their  faculties  upon  their  due 
objects :  these  all  proclaime  that  the  poorest  Slave  is  Lord 
by  divine  grant,  even  since  the  fall,  of  no  lesse  then  this 
little- World ;  yea,  while  he  obeyeth  others,  he  commands 
himselfe  to  that  obedience ;  in  which  selfe-commands  is 
the  true  exercise  of  vertue  or  vice.     This  Inheritance  and 
Dominion    is    so    naturall    that    it    cannot    be    alienated, 
without  confiscation  of  the  whole  to  the  eternall  giver  of 
whom  he  holds  it.     For  even  in  and  by  his  eternaU  Law, 
is  this  made  the  rule  of  all  righteousnesse,  to  doe  as  we 
would  be  done  to,  to  love  our  Neighbours  as  our  selves ; 
and  if  there  were  no  power  in  and  of  our  selves,  there 
could  neither  be  vertue  nor  vice  in  loving  or  hating  our 
Neighbour :    if  no   freedome   of  will   and   affections,   no 
reward  with  God  or  man  ;  if  no  government  of  mans  selfe 
reserved.  Martyrs  of  all  men  were  the  most  monstrous, 
which   for  obeying  God   rather  then   man,  are   the  most 
honoured    and    admired.     Once ;    subjection    to    God    is 
absolute ;  to  Princes  as  they  are  called  Gods,  and  yet  die 
like  men,  with  reservation  ;  for  conscience  of  Gods  Com- 
mandement,  where  his  revealed  will  to  the  contrary  frees 
not ;  and  yet  even  then  we  must  by  suffering  doe  the  will 
of  Superiours,  thereby  to  shew   our   fidelitie  in   keeping 
Gods  Proviso,  though  with  losse,  of  our  Wils  where  we 



love,  and  our  lives  where  wee  feare ;  shewing  that  we  love 

&  feare  him  most  of  all,  which  yet  were  neither  love,  nor  Pro.  i6.  32. 

feare,  nor  vertue,  without  this  liberty  of  wil  and  power  in 

our  selves.     He  that  ruleth  his  owne  mind  is  better  then 

hee  that  winneth  a  Citie.     This  is  the  greatest  conquest, 

the  greatest  possession  to  be  master  of  thy  selfe.     Nor  is 

this  power  absolute  to  our  selves  over  our  selves :    Wee 

are  not  our  owne,  wee  are  Gods  who  hath  created  us ;  our 

Parents  which  have  procreated  us,  our  Countries  which 

sustayneth    us,   our    Kings   which    maintayneth    us ;    our 

Neighbours   in   common  humanity :    to   neglect  a   Mans 

fame  or  life,  (much  more  prodigally  to  reject  them)   is 

to  robbe  all  these  of  their  due  in  us. 

But  in  Christians  it  were  a  deeper  Sacriledge  :  they  are   i  Cor.  6.  20. 
not  their  owne,  they  are  bought  with  a  price  (the  greatest  ^  7-  23- 
of  prices,  the  bloud  of  God)  they  are  gained  by  conquest,  p^^  ^[ 
Christ    having    bound    the  strong   man    and    spoiled   his 
goods;    they   are    given   by   the   Father  for   the   Sonnes 
Inheritance,  and  in  Baptisme  have  by  mutuall  Covenant, 
given    over    themselves    to    his    service.      The   freedome  Christian 
which  Christ  hath  purchased  for  us,  doth  yeeld  Libertie,  ^^^^^'t"^- 
not   Licentiousnesse ;  frees  not  from  duties,  to  doe  what 
wee  lust,  but  makes  us  have  a  lust  to  doe  our  duties ; 
sweetly  inclining  the  Wil,  and   renewing  the   Minde   to 
esteeme  the  Service  of  God,  and  of  men  for  his  sake,  the 
greatest  freedome.      Hee  then  that  is  Christs,  is  a  new  Gal.  5. 
Creature,  to  which,  bondage  or  freedome  and  other  worldly   '  ^^''-  7- 
respects,  are  meere  respects  and  circumstances.     For  hee 
that  is  bond,  is  the  Lords  freeman,  and  hee  that  is  free, 
is  the  Lords  Servant.     It  is  the  Devils  Sophistry,  as  to 
separate  what  hee  hath  joyned,  so  to  confound  what  hee 
hath  distinguished ;  and  it  is  observable,  that  the  Pope  The^  Pope 
and  the  Anabaptist,  which  are  brethren  in  this  Iniquity,  ^^^^"  ^" 
have    first    denied    their    Baptisme,    the    Scale    of  their  ^^^^  ^^ 
Christianitie.     For  these  many  rights  doe  not  subject  us  other  is  re- 
to  many  Masters,  but  subordinate  our  subjection  in  the  baptised. 
beautie  of  order.     Even  in  Politicall  or  Civill  right  One 
may  be  Lord  of  the  Fee ;  another  of  the  Soile ;   a  third 
I  17  B 


*  As  is  the 
use  of  some 
Parishes  after 
Lamas,  i^c. 

Sen.  Epist.  9. 

Ad  I'ivendum 
multis  reb. 
opus  est,  ad 
bene  vivendum 
animo  sano 
y  erecto  y 

[I.  i.  8.] 
Laert.  in  Zen. 

of  the  way  by  ingresse,  egresse,  regresse ;  a  fourth, 
hath  right  in  the  same  ground,  in  time  of  Faire  or 
Market;  the  whole  Vicinity  in  Commoning*  times; 
and  others  other  wayes :  all  whose  Rights,  are  subject 
to  the  Right  Royall,  and  Sovereigne. 

And  if  in  proprietie  of  strictest  Nature,  there  may  bee 
such  communitie  of  subordinate  rights  without  tumul- 
tuous crossing  or  pernicious  confusion,  how  much  more 
in  things  more  spirituall,  and  more  easily  communicable  ? 
In  which  respect,  the  Philosophers,  held  themselves  of 
themselves  compleate,  and  (in  whatsoever  state)  sapientem 
seipso  contentum  esse,  not  dependant  (where  he  is 
properly  a  man)  of  other  men  of  the  World  :  not  con- 
tracting him  intra  cutem  suam  (to  use  Senecaes  words)  in 
this  Microcosmicall  happinesse,  but  needing  the  Cosmo- 
politicall  helpe  ad  vivendum,  not  ad  beate  vivendum  ;  to 
live  at  least,  howsoever  to  live  well,  a  sound  heart  and 
good  conscience  are  sufficient ;  to  the  other  food  and 
raiment  are  necessary,  to  this  ex  te  nascentia  bona :  the 
best  societie  is  of  vertuous  thoughts  which  make  men, 
as  Scipio  said,  nunquam  minus  solos  quam  cum  soli, 
nee  minus  otiosos  quam  cum  otiosi  sint,  but  vicious 
company  (as  the  company  of  Vices)  are  the  most  horrid 
and  desolate  Wildernesse.  No  exile  can  deprive  a  man 
of  this  Citie,  no  Prison  of  this  Societie,  no  Pillage  of 
these  Riches,  no  bondage  of  this  Libertie, 

In  this  sence  Socrates  said  he  was  Koa-fio-KoKirri^  all 
places  his  Countrie,  all  men  his  Countrimen ;  in  this, 
Bias,  when  he  had  lost  all  by  fortune  of  warre,  carried  all 
his  away  with  him  :  in  this  Zeno,  marvelled  at  nothing 
neither  in  Nature,  whose  depths  cannot  be  searched,  nor 
in  Fortune,  whose  possibilitie  of  most  licentious  effects 
must  be  the  glasse  to  view  our  owne  fortune,  and  to  make 
that  light  by  long  premeditation,  which  others  doe  by 
long  suffering:  in  this,  Seneca,  Coelo  tegitur  qui  non 
habet  urnam ;  in  this,  another  Seneca  teacheth.  Cum 
Orientem  Occidentemque  lustraveris  animo,  cum  tot  ani- 
malia,  tantam  copiam  rerum  quas  Natura  beatissime  fundit, 



aspexeris ;  emittere  banc  Dei  voce  In  omnia  mea  sunt ;  in 

this,  Diogenes  when  Pirats  exposed  him  to  sale,  professed 

his    art    was    to    rule   men,   and    bad   them   sell    him    to 

Xeniades,  for  he  needed  a  Master ;  from  whom  when  his 

friends   would   have   redeemed   him,   he  refused,   saying, 

Lions  were  Masters,  and  not  servants  of  them  which  fed  Laert.inDiog. 

them ;  in  this,  the  Stoicks  called  their  poorest  Wiseman, 

rich,  free,  a  King;  in  this  sense  Socrates  with  whom  we 

began,  said  if  his  fortune  would  not  sute  and  sort  to  him, 

he  would   make  himselfe  sutable  to  his  fortune. 

So  long  as  life  lasteth  and  humanitie  continueth,  they 
are  universall  possessors  of  the  Universe,  in  which  kind, 
Aristotle  hath  left  more  memorable  Monuments  of  Con- 
templation, then  Alexander  of  Conquest :  Natures  com- 
mons, the  Sun,  Stars,  Heavens,  Aire,  are  common,  at  least 
to  their  mindes  in  utmost  of  miseries,  and  with  internall 
plentie  they  supply  all  externall  defects.  In  this  Miscro- 
cosmicall  and  Cosmopoliticall  Wealth,  consisted  all  the 
Philosophers  estate  and  revenue,  which  they  called  Vertue 
and  Moralitie :  which  made  them  Masters  of  themselves, 
and  thereby  of  the  World,  the  just  Circle  of  the  Centre  of 
Humanitie,  for  which  it  was  created.  These  things  (me 
thinkes)  I  see  not  without  pittie,  nor  can  resemble  Them 
more  fitly  then  to  Horses  of  excellent  courage ;  but  hood- 
winked so,  that  some  little  transparence  of  light  makes 
them  more  importunate  to  others  mischiefes,  and  their 
owne  prascipice  (whence  Philosophers  have  been  called  Tertul. 
Patriarchs  of  Heretikes)  or  else  like  Mil-horses  to  com- 
passe  with  this  Worlds  Wheele  the  immoveable  Centre  of 
Natures  corruption,  to  which  they  are  subject,  no  lesse 
then  others  which  worke  at  a  Querne,  and  stand  still 
at  their  Hand-mill ;  by  a  larger  circumference  alway 
mooving,  promovendo  nihil,  proceeding  in  true  freedome 
nothing  at  all.  If  the  Sonne  make  you  free,  you  shall  be  Joh.  8. 
free  indeed.  These,  to  make  the  noblest  comparison  may 
seeme  starres,  children  of  the  night,  which  in  their  Moral- 
itie gave  rayes  of  light  that  to  the  World  made  them 
eminent  Ornaments,  and  may|  make  many  of  us  ashamed, 


saith  of  the 
sceca  vivunt. 
Mai.  \. 
Col.  I. 
I.  Thes.  5. 

P//. 4..  II,  12, 

I  3.  Discip- 

I'wa,  Scientia, 


Impenum  est 


art'ium,  quod 

ex  verbis 



1  Cor.  2.  14. 


which  in  the  Daies  Sun-shine  of  the  Gospell  love  and  live 
darknesse,  and  like  Owles,  Bats,  and  wild  Beasts,  hide  our 
selves  studiously  from  the  Sun,  flie  abroad  and  prey  in 
the  darke,  fashioning  our  selves  to  this  World,  have  our 
cogitations  and  conversations  darkened.  Christ  is  never- 
thelesse  to  all  that  have  eyes  to  see,  the  Sunne  of  Right- 
eousnesse,  by  whome  wee  are  by  Regeneration  translated 
from  the  power  of  darknesse,  and  made  the  children  of 
the  day;  that  wee  may  know  what  wee  worship,  and 
whom  we  have  beleeved,  not  so  much  talking  as  walking, 
even  in  this  bodily  prison,  these  liberties  of  the  Gospell, 
being  truly  (though  yet  in  the  imperfect  grouth  of  in- 
fancie)  restored  to  our  selves,  to  the  World,  yea  to  a  more 
glorious  state,  whereof  Nature  could  not  so  much  as 
dreame;  that  wheras  Man  had  lost  both  the  former  by 
suggestion  of  Evill,  Devil-Angels,  Christ  hath  exalted 
farre  above  all  Heavens  visible,  to  supply  these  Thrones 
of  Dominion,  which  those  rebellious  Thrones  and 
Dominions  lost.  The  evidence  whereof  we  have  by 
Faith  and  Hope,  our  Head  already  having  taken  Liverie 
and  Seisin,  and  from  thence  living  in  us,  actuating  and 
mooving  us  by  his  Spirit,  preparing  us  in  this  fight  of 
militant  grace  to  that  light  of  triumphant  glorie. 

Even  these  first  fruits  are  sweet  and  solid  ;  1  have 
learned  (saith  our  Apostle)  in  whatsoever  state  I  am, 
therewith  to  be  content.  And  I  know  both  how  to  be 
abased,  and  I  know  how  to  abound,  everie  where  and  in 
all  things,  1  am  instructed  both  to  be  full  and  to  be 
hungrie,  and  to  abound  and  have  need.  I  am  able  to 
all  things  through  Christ  strengthening  me.  This  was 
the  true  riches  not  in  the  Chist,  but  in  the  heart,  which 
therefore  neither  men  nor  Devils  could  take  away.  And 
see  his  Degrees  in  this  Schoole  ;  first  eixaOov^  I  have 
learned  this  Discipline,  not  in  the  Schoole  of  Nature 
but  of  Grace,  for  we  are  all  taught  of  God  :  secondly, 
oi^a  this  Science,  I  know  :  whereas  the  wisest  of  Philo- 
sophers professed  to  know  but  this  one  thing  that  hee 
knew  nothing  :  thirdly  /ue/jLvr'/imaij  and  without  all  contro- 


versie  this  is  a  great  mysterie  of  godlinesse,  in  which  the 
naturall  man  is  not  initiated,  hee  knowes  not  the  things  of 
God,  nor  can  know  them,  for  they  are  foolishnesse  to  him  ; 
but  the  unction  of  the  Spirit  only  enters  men  in  these 
mysteries  (which  the  word  signifieth)  after  which  followes 
in  due  order,  Udvra  i(rxv(jo.  I  am  able  to  all  things,  to  doe,  J"^-  i5- 
to  suffer  all  things,  (and  therefore  Lord  of  himselfe  and  of  '•  ^°^-  ^5- 
the  World)  but  eV  rep  evSvva/m.ovuTi  fxe  -^lcttu)  in  Christ 
enabling  ;  without  me  saith  Christ,  yee  can  doe  nothing  ; 
and  not  1,  saith  Paul  but  the  grace  of  God  in  me  : 
whereas  those  Philosophers  having  no  stocke,  but  their 
owne,  were  poore  Pedlers,  not  Royall  Merchants,  which 
would  seeme  to  flie  but  wanted  wings,  yea  life. 

And    as    for    this    Christian     selfe   and    World,    and 
Heaven-interest,   it   troubles    not,    intermedles    not,   dis- 
turbes    not    Earthly    possessions    and    powers,    for    the 
greatest    is   a  servant   of  all,  and   hee  is   often  poore  in  Luk.  22. 
secular  sense  which  makes  many  rich,  as  having  nothing,   ^-  ^^'^-    •  ^°- 
even  then  when  he  possesseth  all  things.     Am  I  not  free  .?  y^^.^^  \^' 
have  we  not  power }  saith  Paul,  Who  when  he  was  free 
from  all,  made  himselfe  the  servant  of  all  that  he  might 
gaine  the  more ;  not  (as  they)  running  quasi  in  incertum, 
and  fighting  quasi  aerem  verberans,  but  in  this  freedome 
and  rule  of  the  Spirit,  beating  downe  and  subduing  the   i.Cor.  9.  26, 
bodie  of  flesh  and  mortifying  his   earthly  members,  not  !|'  ^  ^ 
seeking  his  owne  but  the  good  of  others:   As  I  please  all  ^\^\'g\ 
men    in    all    things    (lawfull,    for    of   other    things    he 
saith,    if  I    should    please    men,    I    should    not    be    the 
servant    of    Christ)     not     seeking     mine     owne    profit,  Cal.  i.  10. 
but    of  many,    that    they    may    bee    saved.      The    con- 
tempt   of  riches    and    greatnesse    is    the    most    compen- 
dious way  to  bee  rich  and  great  (the  contempt  I  meane, 
which  proceeds  from  content,  not  that  of  the  unthankfull 
prodigall,  nor  of  the  desperate  begger)  and  he  can  never 
be   poore   that   hath   Christ,   himselfe,  and   all   things   in 
present  possession  ;  God  and  Heaven  in  reversion.    This, 
this  is  that  which  lifts  up  his  thoughts,  and  so  fils  them 
with  the  fulnesse  of  God,  that  he  neglects  these  baser  and  Ephes.  3. 


truly  inferior  matters ;  and,  that  which  others  are  vitiously, 
hee  is  (and  it  is  his  vertue  to  bee)  covetous,  voluptuous, 

Rom.  14.  17.  ambitious,  but  the  objects  are  righteousnesse,  joy  in  the 
Holy  Ghost,  and  the  Kingdome  of  Heaven. 

This  whole  Globe  of  Earth  and  Waters,  seemes  great 
to  them  that  are  little,  but  to  thoughts  truly  great  and 
like  to  God,  it  holds  its  true  place,  price,  quantitie,  that 
is,  the  lowest,  basest,  least.  Quid  ei  potest  videri 
magnum  in  rebus  humanis,  cui  aeternitas  omnis,  totiusque 
Mundi  nota  sic  maegnitudo  ?  said  the  Orator.  Hoc  est 
punctum,  quod  inter  tot  gentes  ferro  &  igni  dividitur. 
O   quam   ridiculi  sunt  mortalium   termini .?    said   Seneca. 

Som.  Sap.        Scipio  was   ashamed    of  the    Roman    Empires    point    of 

P/ifi.  L  2.  this  point :  and  another  (haec  est  materia  gloria  nostra, 
hic  tumultuatur  humanum  genus,  &c.)  is  ashamed  of 
this  stirre  for  earth  by  foolish  man,  not  considering 
quota  terrarum  parte  gaudeat,  vel  cum  ad  mensuram 
avaritias  suas  propagaverit,  quam  tandem  portionem  ejus 
defunctus  obtineat.  Horum  agrorum  possessione  te 
effers,  qui  nulla  pars  sunt  terras }  said  Socrates  to 
Alcibiades  bragging  of  his  lands,  which  yet  in  an 
universall  Map  hee  could  not  shew  :  whereas  the 
Universe    it    selfe    is    not    large    enough    to    bee    the 

I.  Co.  3.  22.   Mappe    of  the    Christians    inheritance,    whose    are    the 

Heb.  2.  world,    and    life,    and    death,    and    things    present    and 

things  to  come,  all  are  theirs;  the  third  Heaven  and 
Paradise  of  God  their  Patrimonie  ;  the  Angels  their 
Gard  (are  they  not  all  ministring  spirits  sent  forth  for 
their  sakes  that  are  heires  of  salvation.'')  the  Devils,  the 
World,  Sinne,  Death  and  Hell  their  triumph ;  Paul, 
Apollo,   Cephas,  all    the    Worthies,   Elders,   Senators    & 

Heb.  12.  Patres  Conscripti  of  the  celestiall  Jerusalem,  those  first- 
borne,  whose  names  are  written  in  Heaven,  their  Kindred, 
Brethren,  fellow  Citizens,  fellow  members;  Christ  him- 

Apoc.zi.  selfe  their  head,  their  life;  and  God  their  portion,  their 
exceeding  great  reward,  their  owne  God  amongst  them, 
in  a  tenure  like  himselfe,  eternall  and  unspeakably 
glorious.      The    degrees    of  this    Scala  Coeli,   are  men- 


tioned   by  Paul, ''   All   are  yours,   and    you   Christs   and  ''  i-  Cor.  3, 
Christ   Gods,   and  this   the   descent   of  our   right,   God,  ^^'  ,^9-  20. 
Christ,  all  things;  God  gave  all  to  his  Sonne,  his  Sonne 
with  all   to   us.      Christ   with    his    bodie   is   the   Centre, 
and  God  the   Circumference   of   this   mysticall  Corpora- 

Rowze   up  then   thy  thoughts,  O  my   Soule,  let  these 
worldly  Pismires  toile  about  their  Hils,  and   busie  Bees 
about  their  Hive ;  and  let  them  in  Courts  and  Suits,  where 
Forum ""  litibus  mugit  insanum,  contest  about  the  shadow  "  Cyprian. 
of  the  Asse.     Shadowes;  obscure  &  darke  shadowes  are 
Time  of  ^ternitie.   Motion  of  immutabilitie.  Earth,   of 
Heaven  ;  and  in  a  vaine  shew  or  shadow  walks  he,  dis- 
quieting  himselfe    in    vaine,    that    heaps    up    riches    and 
knowes  not  who  shall  gather  them.      All  that  I   see  is 
mine,  said  the  Philosopher :  Foolosopher !  that  I  see  not 
is  mine,  things    seen  are  temporall,  things  not  seen  are  ^^^-  n-  i- 
eternall ;  my  faith   is  the  evidence  of  things  not  scene,  ^T" 
my  hope  were  not  hope  if  scene,  and  my  Charitie  mind 
the  things  above,  &  out  of  sight,  where  Christ  my  love 
(so   Ignatius  called  him)   sits   at    the    right   hand  of  the 
God  of  love,  which  is  love.     And  yet  if  I  affect  shadowes, 
this  Sunne  yeelds  so  farre  to  my  yet  weaker  and  grosser 
bodily   affects,  and   whiles   it   thus   shines   on    my   soule, 
by  grace  it  makes   the  shadowes  as  mooving  indices  of 
time   attend    my    bodie,    this    being    the    prerogative    of 
Christian   godlinesse,  to  have   the   promises   of  this  life, 
and    that    which    is    to    come.      Sure    if  I    were    in    the  ^  ^     . 
starrie   Heaven,   with   mortall   eyes   I   could    not    thence  71/5 
in  such  distance  be  able  to  see  this  small  Globe,  whence  ^  The  sun  is, 
I  see  so  small  the  greatest  starres,  whence  the  light  of  the  if  ^rt  hath 
World  and  King  of  starres   (so    much    neerer    in    place,  ^#^0"  'j^^"^- 
greater  "^  in   quantitie,   more    visible    in    qualitie)    seemes   iss]  times- 
as  little,  as   the    head   that  viewes  it.     And  should  this  the  greatest 
Earth  which  cannot  there  be  scene,   so  Eclipse  my  lower  ^''^'-f*  ^l>o^'e 
Moon-like    borrowed    beames    by    interposition,   that   all   ^°°"  S^'^'^^^'' 
should  be  shadow  in  a  double  night  and  twofold  dark-  ^^^^^ 
nesse  .''     No,  No,  I  will  get  up  thither,  even  farre  above  Rom.  lo. 



my  selfe,  farre  above  all  Heavens,  (say  not  in  thine  heart, 
who  shall  ascend  into  Heaven?  that  is  to  bring  Christ 
from  above)  and  thence  with  a  spirituall  and  heavenly 
eye  looke  on  earth,  and  not  here  and  hence  with  a 
carnall  and  sensuall  eye  looke  on  Heaven  (this  makes 
the  heavenly  bodies  little,  the  great  light  of  Heaven 
eclipsed,  not  in  it  selfe,  but  to  me  by  every  interposed 
Moone,  and  the  Heaven  of  Heavens  wholy,  invisible) 
so  shall  it  not  annoy  my  sense;  so  shall  not  my  sense 
of  earth  annoy  my  reason;  so  shall  not  my  reason 
perplexe  my  faith,  but  I  shall  use  it  as  not  using,  as 
not  abusing'  it,  to  helpe  and  not  to  hinder  my  present 
I.  Cor.  7.  And    thinke    not    that    we    speake    impossibilities :    of 

EpAes.  2.  6.   every   Christian   it    is   said,   conresuscitavit   &   consedere 
Rom.  6.  5.     ^^^j^  -^  coelestibus  in  Christo  Jesu;  and  we  are  crvfxcpvToij 
planted   together   into  the  similitude  of  his  resurrection 
by    Baptisme,    both    in    regard    of   the    imputation    and 
infusion.     If  this   high   Mysterie   be  hid,   yet,   as  when 
thou  hast  viewed  the  Sunne,  it  makes  thee  uncapeable 
of  seeing   the  earth,  either  at  that  time   or   for   a   space 
afterwards :    so  the  soule  that  often  by  devout  contem- 
plation  is   accustomed   to   view   this   Sunne,  neither  can 
then  equally,  nor  cares  much  to  fixe  his  eyes  on  earthly 
delights    after,    but    having    drunke    of   these    heavenly 
waters,  is  not  very  thirstie  of  these  muddie  Springs,  and 
of  troubled  Ale  after  such  generous  Wines.    These  things 
[I.  i.  10.]      are  indeed  effected  by  degrees,  nor  can  we  at  once  leape 
from  the  Cradle  to  the  Saddle,  and  I  suspect  the  forward 
Herculean  hands  that  can  so  soone  with  new-borne  gripes 
strangle  old  Serpents :   yet  is  not  the  Christian  alway  a 
Dwarfe,  but  still  growes  up  in  grace,  and  is  ever  grow- 
E/>Aes.  4.       ing   into   him   which   is   the   head,   Christ.      He   is   the 
Alpha  and  Omega,  hee  is  Lord  of  all  as  the  Son  and  Heire, 
of  Man,  the  World  and   Heaven;  and  he  with  all  this 
right  is  given  unto  us,   inhabiting,  purifying,  quickning 
Mans  heart  by  faith;   whence  he  also  is  Microcosmically 
Master  of  himselfe,   Cosmopolitically   of  the  World,   in 



Catholike  Christianitie  heire  of  Heaven;  All,  of,  in,  by 
and  for  Christ,  to  whom  be  glory  for  ever.     Amen. 

§.  nil. 

The  Christian  and  Philosopher  compared  in  that 
challenge  to  be  rich,  free,  a  King;  that  this 
hinders  not  but  furthers  PoHticall  subjection: 
and  of  the  happy  combination  of  wisdome 
and  royaltie  in  Salomon,  as  likewise  in  our 

LI   Arts   are    but   the   supply  of  Natures   defects, 
to  patch  up  her  ragged  and  worne  rents,  to  cover 
rather  then  to  cure  or   recover   Mans   fall ;    even 
that  King   of  Arts,   the  Politicall  Art   of  Kings,  is   not 
heire  by   whole  bloud ;    but  the   gift   of  God,   begotten 
since   the    fall,   and    abundantly    argues    our    unrulinesse 
otherwise,   which   must   have   Lords  and   Lawes   to   rule 
us.      By   like    favour    of  God,    least    mans    dissolution 
should    bring   a    desolation,    came    in    Politicall    tenure 
and    Civill    state    and    Right    amongst    men.       The    lest 
possession  is  this,   which   wee  call  our   proper,  as  being 
no  part  of  our  selves,  and  a  small  part  of  the  smallest 
part  of  the  Universe :   greater  is  the  Universe   it   selfe, 
and    the   greatest    right    thereto    is    that    which    is    most 
universall,  whereof  the    soule    is   only    capable;    greater 
then   the  greater   World    is    this   Little,   for  whom   that 
was    made,    yea,    for    whom     the    Word,    the    maker    of 
both    was    made    flesh ;    and    as    in    it    selfe,   so    also   to 
us,  whom  little  it  advantageth  to  winne  the  whole  world  Psal.  i6. 
and  loose  our  owne  soules :  greatest  of  all  and  Greatnesse 
it  selfe  is  God,  the  lot  of  the  Christians  inheritance  and 
the  portion  of  his  cup,  to  whom  the  Father  hath  given  the 
Sonne,  and  with  him  all  things.     These  things  may  con- 
curre  and  did  in  Salomon,  without  confusion  ;  that  the 
three  last  may  also  be  separated  from  the  first,  and  that 
subsist  without  the  least  knowledge  of  these  last,  is  a  true 
conclusion.     And  how  many  have  much  in  Politicall  and 



Sen.  de  bene/. 
I.  -]  c.  \  ad 
reges  potestas 
pertinety  ad 
singulos  do- 

dWui  /JLeV   TT)S 

7r6\ewj,  &W(i)s 
de  Twv  xpwyo^- 

See  Laert.  in 
vit.  Diog.  ifj 
Amb.  Ep.  7. 
where  you 
may  read 

Epistle,  and  in 
the  end  of  this 

Cuncta  cupit 
Crcesus,  Dio- 
genes nihilum. 
Eum  maxime 
divitiis  frui 
qui  minimi 
divitiis  indiget. 
A  nimusoportet 
sejudicet  divi- 
tem,  non  homi- 
num  sermo, 
\3c.    Cic. 
Ccelo  tegitur 
qui  non  habet 

Civill  possession,  which  are  had  and  held  of  the  things 
they  have  and  hold,  as  the  price  of  their  freedom,  not 
so  much  as  dreaming  of  any  other  tenure  but  propriety, 
laughing  at  the  Philosopher,  and  raging  at  the  Christians 
farther  challenge,  which  yet  disturbes  not  (as  not  a  worldly 
tenure)  Propriety  but  that  positive  sicut  erat  in  principio, 
(in  the  fuit  of  mans  incorrupted  nature)  is  now  compara- 
tively more  certaine,  more  ample  by  faith,  and  shall  be  in 
saecula  saeculorum  a  superlative  of  fullest  happinesse. 
Even  still  proprietie  in  strictest  sence,  is  the  Subjects 
state  and  that  with  many  subdivisions  and  diversifica- 
tions ;  a  higher  and  universall  right  appertaineth  in  each 
mans  proprietie  to  the  King,  as  Lord  of  all.  That  naked 
Cynike,  that  neither  had  house  nor  dish,  not  only  com- 
pared himselfe  with  Alexander,  (in  emulation  of  his  great 
Titles,  proclayming  I  am  Diogenes  the  Dogge)  but  even 
great  Alexander,  had  he  not  beene  Alexander,  professed 
hee  would  wish  to  bee  Diogenes.  Neither  feare  nor 
desire  could  any  whit  dazzle  him  in  that  Royall  lustre, 
but  beeing  questioned  by  Alexander,  if  hee  feared  him 
not,  asked  if  hee  were  good  or  bad ;  beeing  answered, 
good ;  and  who  (saith  he)  is  afraid  of  good  \  being  bidden 
aske,  he  desired  no-thing  but  the  restitution  of  the  Sunne 
which  his  interposition  had  taken  from  him  ;  insinuating 
a  greater  riches  in  Natures  inheritance,  then  in  the  greatest 
Kings  beneficence ;  and  in  his  owne  mind,  then  in  the 
Others  spatious  Empire.  Plus  erat  quod  hie  nollot 
accipere,  (saith  Seneca)  quam  quod  ille  posset  dare. 
Nor  had  Greece  alone  such  spirits :  Calanus  in  India 
was  more  admired  of  Alexander,  then  the  King  of  him. 
Corpora,  saith  he  in  his  Epistle  to  Alexander,  transferes 
de  loco  ad  locum,  animas  non  coges  facere,  quod  nolunt, 
non  magis  quam  saxa,  &  ligna  vocem  emittere.  I  speake 
not,  as  approoving  these  men  in  all  their  speeches  and 
actions :  but  if  they  could  doe  so  much  in  that  twilight  of 
Nature,  how  much  more  may  Christians  aspire  unto,  on 
whom,  as  is  said  before,  the  Sun  of  righteousnesse  is  risen  .'' 
These  indeed  are  Children  of  the  day,  which  know  how  to 



honour  the  King,  in  that  feare  of  God,  which  is  the  begin- 
ning of  wisdome ;  which  the  Cynikes,  Gymnosophists  and 
Stoikes,  not  having  attained,  dreamed  in  their  night,  and 
did  those  things  rather  as  men  talking  and  walking  in  their 
sleepe,  then  as  men  truly  knowing  what  they  said  and  did. 
Like  these  Ophyrians  wee  write  of,  which  possessed  much 
Gold,  but  Salomon  alone  knew  how  to  bestow  it  on  the 
Temple,  which  sanctifieth  the  Gold.     And  yet  how  farre 
did    these    Philosophers    Dreames    exceed    the     seeming 
waking    and    watchfull    cares    of   Croesus    and    Crassus 
(which  rather  in  troubled,  feverous,  phrenzie,  or  Opium 
sleepes  were  more  fatally  perplexed)  esteeming  Vertue  the 
truest  treasure;  and  Riches  rather  to  consist  in  needing 
little,  then  holding  much,  and  a  contented  mind  to  bee  a 
surer     Coffer,    then    the    bottomlesse    Bags    of  insatiate  [I.  1.  ii.] 
Avarice ;    and    Natures   commons    of  the    Heavens    and  q^„/^  gj^s 
Elements  to  be  greater  possessions,  then  a  few  handfuls  of  sunt  non 
inclosed     dust ;    more    admiring    the    Physicians    skill,  occupatione  sed 
then  the  Druggists  shop  full  of  simples,  or  the  Apothe-  ''^^^"J^J^^^^ 
caries  of  medicines  ;  more  joying  in,  more  enjoying  (as  the  "^^^"^  J^  ^^^ 
members  of  the  body)  the  publike  then  the  private  wealth,  singula 
more  the  contemplation,  whereby   the  minde  reasonably  mancipantur. 
useth  all   things,  even  those  of  others,  without    further  Tuetur  hoc 
cares,  then  that  proprietie  whereby  the  sense  distinguisheth  ^intumr :  VU. 
the  owner,  and  addes  to  this  little  owne,  the  great  cares  of  up,  Manud. 
getting,  keeping,  spending,  and  no  lesse  feares  of  loosing,  adStoic 
yea    (in  many  a   Tantalus)   of  using,  as  if  he  were   the  PAt/./.s.dtss. 
Gaoler  rather  then  Owner  of  that  wealth  which  hee  lades  J,'*   Ep,^^ 
with  Irons  and  strangles  in  his  Iron  Chest,  for  no  other  Oonat.  L  2. 
fault,   but   calling   such   a   Mizer    Master.     Quibus   hoc  Ep.  2. 
sordibus  emit  ut  fulgeat }  vigilat  in  pluma  ;  Nee  intelligit 
miser  speciosa  esse  sibi  supplicia,  &  possideri  magis  quam 
possidere  divitias.     The  wise  man  is  like  Isaac  in  whom 
Abrahams    seede    is  called,  whom    he  makes    his    heire  : 
but  these  which  are  called  rich,  are  sometimes  like  Ismael, 
thrust  out  of  all  ;  at  the  best,  like  the  Sonnes  of  the  Con-  ^^''- ^5-  ^• 
cubines,  to    whom    Abraham    gave   gifts    and  sent    them   j^'^^^-^^Vs. 
away  :  the  Minde,  as  that  which  alone  is  immortall,  hath 



Amb.  Ep.  7. 
handles  this 
Theme  sagely, 
godly,  Eivai 
7d/3  Tid)  eXeu- 
Ttu  diSovXeid- 
ffT^prqffiv  avTO- 
vpayidi  : 
Laeri.  in 

^Xevdepos  i(XTiv 
6  ^Civ  ws  ^oi/Xe- 

itXTiv,  ijfc.  it 
may  be  said 
of  a  good  man, 
and  his  affec- 
tions as  Virgil 
of  Augustus, 
volentes.  Per 
populos  dat 
jura  viamque 
Epict.  irpocFKo.- 
Tartra  xdfJ-ov 

rtW  OpfJitd)  Tl^ 

Sev,  isc. 
Subducit  se 
custodiee  in 
qua  tenetur  iff 
ceelo  rejicitur. 

Joh.  14.  23. 
Gal  2.  2.  20, 
Joh.  6. 
Cant.  I. 
Bern  in 
Cant.  21. 
Satius  est  ut 
me  trahas,  ut 

State  of  perpetuity  and  inheritance,  the  Sense  in  her  pro- 
priety is  capable  onely  of  gifts  and  moveables. 

From  this  glimpse  of  reason  did  those  Philosophers  the 
sonnes  of  Nature  (how  much  more  should  we  the  Sons  of 
the  free  women  ?)  attribute  libertie  and  a  Kingdome 
to  their  Wise  man.  Saint  Paul  more  fully,  Justo  non  est 
lex  posita.  Saint  Ambrose  laden  with  the  spoiles  of  these 
Egyptians,  therewith  adornes  the  Christian  Tabernacle. 
He  is  a  free  man  saith  he,  which  doth  ""  what  he  will,  ^  and 
lives  as  he  pleaseth,  nor  can  be  forced  to  any  thing :  now 
the  wise  man  wils  that  which  is  good,  hates  the  evill  ;  not 
for  feare  but  for  love,  obeieth  the  commandement ;  seekes 
not  to  please  the  uncertaine  vulgar,  but  his  minde  hangs 
evenly  in  the  ballance  poized  with  the  sheckle  of  the 
sanctuary ;  not  forced  by  Law,  but  he  is  law  to  himselfe, 
and  hath  the  same  written  not  in  tables  of  stone,  but  in 
flesh ie  tables  of  the  heart,  ;  not  fearing  the  Law,  because 
his  debts  are  acquitted,  and  cannot  therefore  be  arrested  ; 
not  servant  to  any,  yet  making  himselfe  the  servant  of  all, 
for  their  good  ;  whose  service  to  God  doth  not  consume 
but  consummate  his  libertie,  for  God's  service  is  perfect 
freedome  ;  to  whom  when  all  things  are  lawfull,  yet 
nothing  is  lawfull  that  is  not  expedient,  that  edifies  not ; 
who  abides  founded  and  grounded  on  Christ  the  rocke, 
and  therefore  feares  not  the  swelling  waves,  nor  raging 
windes,  fluctuates  not  with  every  blast  of  doctrine :  is  not 
pufl^ed  with  prosperity,  dejected  with  adversity,  but 
like  Joseph  (which  bought  those  that  bought  him,  even 
all  the  land  of  Egypt  besides,  for  Pharao,  after  himself 
had  bin  sold  for  a  slave)  abides  himself  in  whatsoever 
changes  of  fate  and  state.  He  hath  subordinated  his 
will  to  Gods  will,  and  if  hee  will  have  him  doe  or  suffer 
any  thing,  possesse  or  loose  either  himselfe  or  ought 
he  hath,  it  shall  be  his  will  also.  This  made  Job  abide 
himselfe,  when  he  was  shaken,  and  as  it  were  thunder- 
stricken  out  of  all  at  once  :  yea,  by  a  sacred  antiperistasis 
he  gathered  his  spirits  together  and  not  onely  not 
blasphemed,  but  blessed;  then  and  therefore  blessed  God, 



who  is  no  lesse  good  In  taking  then  in  giving,  who  hath  vim  qualitn 
loved  us  and  given  himselfe  for  us,  before  he  takes  ought  '^^^f^Zdo, 
from  us,  yea  therefore  takes  this  that  he  might  give  that   y^  ^^.^^^ 
(both  himselfe  and  our  selfe)  to  us.     He  that  looseth  his  quodammodo 
life    findes    it,  and    hee    that   denieth   himselfe    and    his  in  vitam  ut 
owne  will,  puts  off  the  chaines  of  his  bondage,  the  slavery  -^^^^.-^jf^^ll^ 
to  innumerable  tyrants,  impious  lusts,  and  is  thus  a  free  forpentem  ut  ' 
man  indeede,  freed  from  the  divell,  the  world,  himselfe,  reddas  cur- 
breathing   the    free   ayre    of  heaven    in    the    lowest    and  rentem,  y^ 
darkest  dungeon,  yea  in  the  closest  of  prisons  (his  owne  ^g^°-/J'Ji^^^ 
body)  closely  by  contemplation  conveies  himselfe  forth  to  ^^^7^^ 
fetch  often  walkes  in  the  Paradise  of  God.     Once,  he  loves  moribas. 
Christ,  hee  lives  Christ,  and  therefore  cannot  be  compelled  Ck.  par.  5. 
by  another,  will  not  be  compelled  and  mastered  by  Him-  p^^^'^'^'  ^^' 
selfe,  longs  to  be  more  and  more  impelled  by  that  Spirit  j^'^  ^'^ 
(which  sweetly  forceth  into  the  desired  haven)  and  to  be 
drawne  by  the  Father  that  he  may  be  enabled  to  follow 
the  Sonne,  with  whom  he   is   unable  to  hold   pace  ;  and 
fearing  because  he  loves,  thus  desires  helpe,  that  (be  it  by 
stripes,   or   threates,  or   other    tentations)  his    feete    may 
be  made  more   sure,  more   swift.     He   feares  God,  and 
therefore    feares   nothing.     And  whereas    hee   that    com- 
mitteth  sinne  is  the  servant  of  sinne,  he  is  thus  not  onely 
set  free  by  Christ,  but  more  highly  dignified  and  made 
a  King  and  Priest  to  God.     He  daily  sacrificeth  praiers, 
praises,  good  workes,  his  owne  living  body  in  reasonable 
service,  not  the  bodies  of  dead  and  unreasonable  beasts  ; 
hath   alway  the  doore  of  the    heavenly  pallace,  the  eare 
of  the    heavenly   King    open    to    his    intercessions.     He 
is   also    a   King    over    himselfe   (a   little    world,   a    great 
conquest)  over  Fortune  the  magnified  Lady  of  the  greater 
World  (which  he  frames  to  his  owne  manners  ;  and  if  he 
cannot  bend  it  to  his  will,  knowes  how  to  bend  his  will  to 
it)  over  the  Divell,  the  God  of  the  World  ;  over  Death, 
which    hee    makes    (as    Sapores    did    the    Roman    tyrant 
Valerian,  and  Tamerlane  the  Turkish  Bajazeth)  his  foot- 
stoole,  or  stirrop  to  mount  up  to  a  higher  and  better  life, 
and   like  David  cuts  off  the  head  of  this  Gyant  (which 



1.    12, 

Eph.  I.  ult. 
Pro.  14.  17. 
Lips.  Manu- 
duct,  //.  3. 
d.  13. 

oia-qs  dpx^s 
Ltf^r/.  ;'« 
Zen.  regnum 
potestas  nulli 

to  his  true  home  ; 
prepare  a  place  for 
spirit  with  us,  hath 
to   take    possession, 

hath  defied  all  the  armie  of  Mankinde)  with  his  owne 
sword :  hee  is  (a  King)  over  the  world,  which  he  neither 
loves  (for  his  heart  and  treasure  is  in  heaven)  nor  feares 
(for  what  can  it  doe  at  the  worst,  but  further  his  heavenly 
happinesse)  nor  fashions  himselfe  to  it,  but  it  to  himselfe, 
using  it  as  not  using  it,  not  setting  his  heart  on  it, 
for  the  fashion  of  this  world  passeth  away,  as  a 
Scene,  where  he  but  acts  a  while  his  part ;  and  a  strange 
Country  thorow  which  he  travelleth 
where  his  King  is  gone  before  to 
him,  and  leaving  the  earnest  of  his 
taken    our    earnest,  our   flesh,  there 

to  make  intercession  in  the  presence  of  God  for  us. 
Our  Head  is  there  already  which  cannot  so  farre  degenerate 
as  to  neglect  his  body,  the  reall  and  living  parts  of  Him- 
selfe, the  fulnesse  of  him  that  fils  all  in  all  things :  This 
Kingdome  is  not  meate  and  drinke,  pompe  and  splendor, 
and  much  less  intruding  into  the  secrets,  obtruding  on  the 
scepters  of  their  soveraignes,  but  righteousnesse,  peace,  and 
joy  in  the  holy  Ghost,  which  the  Philosophers  knew  not, 
and  whatsoever  they  have  challenged  (as  a  Ratione  Reges) 
yet  in  comparison  of  true  Christians  they  were  but  as 
Kings  in  a  Play  (as  Plutarch  said  of  the  Stoickes)  which 
talked,  stalked,  walked  on  their  Stage,  and  acted  that  part 
which  in  deede  and  in  spirituall  right  is  our  reall  part 
and  inheritance.  And  if  a  Kingdome  be  a  power  subject 
to  none,  then  every  true  Christian  is  a  King  (not  in  Ana- 
baptisticall  phrenzie  to  cast  off  all  yoakes  of  loyalty,  to  cast 
out  all  States  and  Royaltie,  and  like  their  John  of  Leyden 
to  make  himselfe  a  licentious  Monarch,  pressed  downe 
meane  while  with  so  many  envies,  vices,  miseries,  but)  in 
this,  that  pectore  magno,  Spemque  metumque  domat,  vicio 
sublimior  omni,  Exemptus  fatis  :  in  that  he  obeieth  his 
soveraigne  not  so  much  of  his  slavish  feare,  as  because 
he  loves  him,  and  loves  that  God  which  hath  given  him 
soveraignty,  and  therefore  as  to  the  living  image  of  God 
yeeldes  obedience  to  him,  not  grudgingly  or  of  necessitie 
but   cheerefully,  and    with    a    willing    heart,  making    his 



superiours  will  to  be  his  owne  (because  it  is  Gods)  will. 
And  if  he  commands  that  which  he  findes  countermanded 
by  the  highest  Law,  he  rebels  not,  reviles  not,  Rex  Se»ec. 
est  qui  posuit  metus,  Et  diri  mala,  pectoris,  where  he 
cannot  be  willing  to  doe,  he  will  yet  be  willing  to  suffer 
the  will  of  his  soveraigne,  Occurritque  suo  libens  Fato,  nee 
queritur  mori.  Thus  is  this  man  spiritually  a  King  and 
Infra  se,  videt  omnia,  beholds  all  things  beneath  him,  by 
suffering,  overcomming  ;  by  obeying,  ruling,  himselfe  if 
not  others.  In  this  sence  Christ  saith  of  the  Church 
of  Smyrna,  I  know  thy  poverty,  but  thou  art  rich  :  and  of  y^poc.  z.  y  3. 
the  Laodiceans  which  esteemed  themselves  rich,  encreased  ^^^-  3- 
with  goods,  and  needing  nothing,  that  they  were  wretched, 
and  miserable,  and  poore,  and  blinde,  and  naked.  Silver 
and  Gold  have  I  none,  said  that  rich  Apostle,  whose  pre- 
tended successours,  out  of  a  will  to  be  rich,  have  fallen  into 
tentation,  and  a  snare,  and  many  foolish  and  noisome 
lusts  :  For  the  love  of  money  is  the  roote  of  all  evill,  Tim.  6. 
which  while  these  covet  after,  they  have  erred  from  the 
faith  :  and  instead  of  Apostolical,  have  proved  Apostati- 
call,  with  Babylonicall  mysteries  confounding  things 
spirituall  and  externall,  enclosing  all  the  commons  of  the 
Church  and  the  Spirit,  to  the  onely  use  of  the  Vatican  ; 
and  then  with  the  spoile  of  all  Christians  This  spirituall 
man  must  judge  all,  and  be  judged  of  none,  usurping 
the  rights  of,  and  right  over  Kings,  not  considering  the 
diversity  of  these  tenures. 

But  yet  (to  returne  to  our  Salomon),  if  a  man  by  this  fiozv  good  a 
Christian  wisdome  becomes  free,  rich,  a  King  ;  what  shall  f-^^  ''"'^ """' 
a  King  of  men  be  (with  addition  of  this  wisdome)  but 
heroicall,  and  if  not  more  then  a  man,  yet  a  worthy 
of  men,  and  neerest  to  God  .?  This  appeares  in  David 
and  Salomon,  two  learned,  no  lesse  then  potent  Kings,  the 
one  gaining  greatnesse  at  home,  the  other  dispersing  those 
raies  beyond  their  owne  Orbe,  to  remotest  Ophir.  This 
we  see  in  Philip  and  Alexander,  in  Cassar  and  Augustus. 
Learning  is  the  best  Jewell  in  a  Kings  Crowne,  and  Chris- 
tian wisdome  like  the  verticall  crosse  upon  it  ;  which  both 



in  Bookes  (by  King  Alphonsus  called  his  faithfuUest 
Counsellors)  and  in  their  bosomes,  speakes  that  without 
feare  or  flattery,  which  servants  cannot  or  dare  not ;  makes 
them  to  see  with  their  owne  eyes,  and  not  onely  by 
experience  of  others  ;  yea  with  the  eyes  of  the  Worthies  of 
former  times,  and  to  converse  with  the  Auncients  of 
all  ages  :  and  searching  into  the  causes  of  things  to 
penetrate  seasonably  into  aflFaires  which  suddenly 
assault  others.  But  especially  in  Marine  discoveries,  we 
are  not  so  much  indebted  to  the  power  as  the  learning  of 
Kings,  and  both  together  make  a  blessed  match,  and  have 
produced  to  the  world  the  best  knowledge  of  it  selfe. 
Salomon  is  example,  who  in  the  writings  of  Moses,  being 
instructed  of  Ophyr,  attempts  the  discovery.  How  little 
knowledge  had  the  Greekes  of  Asia  till  Alexander  emploied 
both  Aristotle  with  great  costs,  and  Himselfe  also  in 
discovery  of  the  Lands  and  Seas,  besides  Nearchus  and 
other  his  Captaines,?  Julius  and  Augustus  opened  the 
first  lights  in  manner  to  the  Romans,  the  one  in 
discovery  of  the  world  and  the  parts  adjoyning,  the  other 
also  unto  the  Indies.  How  little  of  the  world  hath  beene 
discovered  for  want  of  learning  by  the  Turke,  Mogoll, 
Persian,  Chinois,  and  Abassine,  howsoever  called  great  ? 
how  little  are  most  of  them  all }  But  what  neede  1 
forraine  examples  ?  How  little  in  comparison  hath  our 
Nation  (the  Oceans  darling,  hugged  continually  in  her 
bosome)  discovered  and  made  use  of  (yea  they  were  the 
prey  of  the  Easterlings  and  Lumbards,  scarcely  know- 
ing their  neighbour  Seas)  before  the  late  eruption  of 
captived  learning  in  the  former  age,  and  more  especially 
in  the  glorious  Sunshine  of  Queene  Elizabeth,  and  (after 
that  Sunset,  Sol  occubuit  nox  nulla  sequuta  est)  in  the  suc- 
ceeding, that  I  say  not  in  Ophyrian  regions,  exceeding 
times  of  King  James  ?  I  dare  not  presume  to  speake 
of  his  Majesties  learning  which  requires  a  more  learned 
pen,  and  where  to  speake  the  truth  would  seeme  flattery  ; 
nor  yet  of  that  learned  Queene,  who  sometime  brake 
in    peeces    the    artlesse   pictures   made   to    represent    her 



(for  Apelles  is  onely  fit  to  paint  Alexander,  Homer  to  sing 
Achilles,  and  Virgil  his  Augustus.)  Thus  a  more  learned  Sir  F.  Bacon 
witnesse  hath  said,  and  I  will  recite  :  that  to  the  last  yeare  "[f^^"^)"-^^ 
of  her  life  duely  and  daily  shee  observed  her  set  houres  for 
reading  :  that  this  part  of  the  Island  never  had  45.  yeares 
of  better  times,  and  yet  not  through  the  calmenesse  of  the 
season,  but  through  the  wisedome  of  her  regiment  :  the 
truth  of  religion  established,  the  constant  peace  and 
security,  the  good  administration  of  justice,  the  temperate 
use  of  the  prerogative  not  slacked  nor  much  strained,  the 
flourishing  state  of  learning,  the  convenient  state  of 
wealth  and  meanes  both  of  Cowne  and  Subject,  the  habit 
of  obedience,  and  moderation  of  discontents,  notwithstand- 
ing the  differences  of  Religion,  her  single  life,  Romes  [I.  i.  13.] 
alarmes,  and  the  neighbour  Countries  on  fire.  Hence 
that  felicity  of  the  State,  of  Religion,  and  especially 
of  Navigation,  now  in  threescore  yeeres  continuance, 
growne,  almost  out  of  the  cradle  and  swadling  cloathes, 
to  the  present  ripenesse  amongst  us.  That  our  Virgin- 
mother,  in  her  preparation  to  the  Crowne  by  the 
Crosse  and  in  happy  exploits,  another  David  ;  in  care 
of  just  Judges  and  Justice  Jehosaphat,  in  reformation 
Hezekiah,  in  restoring  the  Law  that  was  lost  Josiah,  ^  The  Saxons 
1  °  -n  J    /^u         -n       expelled  the 

m   peace,  plenty,  successe,  magnincence,  and   (the   pillar  Brttaineswith 

of    all    this)    Navigation,    another    Salomon,    and    (with  their  learning. 
greater  happinesse  then  his)  leaving  her  Name  without  The  Danes 
Salomons   imputation   of  falling    to   Idolatry,   to   survive  iflfier  learning 
,  ^     ,  ,  1  1     •  J  had  blessed  the 

her    person,    and    to    become    her    heire    and    successour  ^^^.^-^^^^^ 

in  them  all  :  dying  in  a  good  age  (as  is  said  of  David)  Saxons) 

full     of    daies,    riches,    and     honour.       In    these    times  drowned  all 

Britaine   hath   recovered   her   eyes   and   spirits,  and   hath  learned  men, 

discovered   the  Westerne   Babylon   and   her  labyrinthian  ^^^^/'^J/J^j' 

mazes  and  gyres  of  superstition,  first  of  all  Europaean  p^d,  that  in 

Kingdomes  :    and    in    maturest    order    casting    off   that  K.  Alfreds 

yoake,    which    ignorance    (caused    by    irruption    of    bar-  '^'"f  hmselfe 

barians'^    into    all     parts    of    the    Roman     Empire    had  ^"/^^j/„'J 

brought    in    as    a    myst,    whereby    that   Romish    mistery  priest  could 

of   iniquitie    might    worke    unespied)    had    put    on    the  understand  his 
I                                          33                                         «= 


Ladu  Service, 
and  till  the 
conquest  this 
mist  continued 
in  great  part, 
that  Priest 
then  being  a 
zuonder  that 
knew  his 
Grammer.  Al- 
fredi  epist.  ap. 
Asser.  Men. 
Mat.  Paris, 
An.  1067 
Clerici  adeo 
lit.  carebant 
ut  cateris  stu- 
pori  esset  qui 
gram,  didi- 

*  Sir  F.Drake 
zvas  the  first 
Generall  that 
swam  about 
the  Globe, 
Candish  the 

*  In  the  ques- 
tion of  Anti- 
christ in  his 
Monit.  Pre- 

neckes  and  veiled  hearts  of  our  forefathers,  which  by 
the  light  of  learning  was  now  espied  and  exiled  :  and 
this  freedome  maintained  maugre  all  the  gates  and 
forces  of  Rome  and  Hell.  Yea,  he  that  commanded 
Honour  thy  Mother,  made  her  sexe  honorable,  and 
caused  that  a  Woman  had  the  honour  over  that  Sisera, 
that  Abimelech,  that  Holofernes  ;  the  sword  of  a 
woman  prevailed,  not  by  close  advantages  but  in  the 
sight  of  the  Sun,  in  the  worlds  amphitheatre,  all  Europe 
looking  on  and  wondring  (yea  the  most,  still  giddie 
with  that  cup,  enterposing  against  her.)  This  Christian 
Amazon  overthrew  those  Romish  both  gladiatores  & 
sicarios  and  (as  they  write  of  the  Rhinoceros)  tossed 
those  Buls  (which  had  thought  to  have  pushed  her 
by  their  homes  of  deprivation  and  invasion,  and  the 
close  fights  of  treason  and  insurrection,  out  of  England 
and  Ireland)  to  the  admiration  of  men,  the  joy  of 
Angels,  and  acknowledgement  in  all  of  the  sword  of 
the  Lord  and  of  Gedeon,  the  power  of  the  highest 
perfected  in  her  weakenesse.  And  (which  more  fits  our 
Navigation  treatise)  this  virago  (not  loosing  her  owne 
virgin-zone)  by  her  Generall*  first  loosed  the  virgin 
zone  of  the  earth,  and  like  another  Sunne,  twice 
encircled  the  Globe.  Learning  had  edged  her  sword 
then,  but  the  successour  of  this  our  Debora,  like 
Achilles  in  the  Poets,  hath  a  Panoplie,  a  whole  armor 
of  learned  devise  ;  and  like  Apollo  in  the  mids  of  the 
Muses,  so  have  we  seene  him  in  the  learned  disputa- 
tions of  both  Universities  ;  such  an  Apollo  whose 
Oracle  discovered  the  Divels  Master  peece  and  Papall 
monster  peece  of  powder  treason,  and  brought  it  to 
poulder,  by  the  light  of  his  wisedome  preventing  those 
infernall  lightnings  and  sulfurous  hellish  thunders  : 
whose  learned  writings  as  the  arrowes  of  Pythius  have 
given  the  deepest*  and  most  fatall  wounds  to  this 
mystie  mysticall  Python  :  whose  birth  hath  made  him 
a  great  King,  whose  great  learning  hath  purchased 
another    Kingdome,  and    made    the    Schooles   to   admire 



him   in  Divinitie,  the  Tribunall  in  Law,  the  Senate  and  *^»  (he  Mo- 
Counsell    table  as   the   table   of   Counsaile   and    Map   of  f^^^^'^Z^ 
humaine  wisedome  :    whose   armes  !   but  blessed   are  we  ^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^^ 
that    his    learning    and  wisedome    keepe    us    from    their  of  (Ais  war)  as 
drery   noise    and    dismall    experiments  ;    that  we    in    the  /  ^a'^  h  ^f- 
tragedies    of  so    many   Nations    are   spectators,   that   the  ^^l°" £f^^^^_ 
God  of  peace  hath  with  the  Gospell  of  peace  given  us  ^Jj^dor 
a    Salomon,   truest   type   of  the   Prince   of  peace,   whose  there. 
daies   are    daies   of  peace   at   home,  whose   treaties   pro- 
pound   wayes    of    peace    abroad,    whose    sun-like    raies 
have     shined     not    by    bare     discoveries,     but     by    rich 
negotiations    to    this    our   Salomons   Ophir  in  what  part 
of  the   world    soever   the  quarelsome   wits  of  men  have 
placed  it.     If  you  looke  neere  hand,  Scotland  is  added, 
and  Ireland  now  at  last  made  English  dispersing  feares 
by  English  Cities,  and  plantations  :  If  you  looke  further, 
with   those  which  seeke  for  Ophir  in  the  West  Indies, 
there    may    you    see    English    Plantations    and    Colonies 
in    Virginia    and    other    parts    of    both    those    supposed 
Peru's,    the    Northerne    and    Southerne    America :    if  to 
Sofala  on  the  South  of  Afrike,  or  to  the  East  of  Asia, 
there  also   have  the   English  fleetes   passed,  traded  (and 
if  you    thinke    nothing    compleate   without    armes)   sur- 
passed, the  most  advantagious  assailants  :   that  even  the 
Indians    (which   yeelde    commonly   in   martiall,   alway   in 
Neptunian    affaires    to    the    Moores)    have    a    proverb, 
three    Moores    to    a    Portugall,    three    Portugals    to    an 
Englishman  :    whose    happy   times    have    exceeded   Salo- 
mons  and   Hirams   discoveries  ;    even  where   no  writing 
hath     mentioned     any    name    of    Noahs    Sonnes,    where 
none  of  Noahs  Sons  ever  yet  inhabited,  where  the  Sun 
it    selfe    seemes    affraid    of  uncouth    Seas,   horrid    lands, 
and    marine    monsters,   hiding    himselfe    divers    moneths 
in    the  yeere   together,  and   but   peeping  when   he   doth 
appeare,    as    it    were    fearfully    prying    and    compassing  ^ 

about  with   obliquer   beames,  there   have   the  beames  of  ,^"!f''^?^\ 
.  T         ,         .     ,  ,  J        1    1    J  ^       /its  Nezv  land. 

our  Brittish  Sunne  descried,  ^  named,  and  exhaled  profits  '^  The  Whale 

from    those  portentuous  •=  Dragons  of  the  Sea  (loe  these  fishhg. 



the    happiest   warres    against    the    beasts    by    Sea    and 

Land,   not   like   Nimrods   hunting   of  men)  and   sought 

^ In  the  new    ''discoveries,    notwithstanding    the    Oceans    armies 

Northtvestdis-  ^f  j^^jg    Hands   affronting,   till    the    Sea   it    selfe  (fearing 

'^Hud'son'^ But-  tot^l^    subjection)   hath   embaied   it  selfe  and  locked  up 

ton,  Baffin       all  passages  by  unknowne  lands.     And  (not  to  mention 

yr.  the    New    Wales    there    discovered)    England    hath    her 

Beet.  Virginia,    Bermuda,    New    England ;     Scotland,    a    New 

an  magn  ,    Y)2i\xg\\tQv  of  her   own   name  ;    yea,  Ireland   by  the   care 

See  Bests  voy-  of    the     present    Deputie    is    now    multiplying    also    in 

age.  America,  and    his    Majestie    hath    sowne    the    seedes    of 

New  Kingdomes  in  that  New  World. 

Let  not  the  severer  sort  censure  me  of  presumption, 
if  I  thus  embellish  my  ruder  lines  with  these  glorious 
names,  wherein  I  communicating  in  the  publike  bene- 
fit, at  once  testifie  my  feare  of  God  the  Authour,  with 
mine  honour  to  these  two  great  lights  of  heaven  to 
our  Britaine- World,  as  actors,  autors,  instruments, 
mortall  images  of  the  immortall.  He  alone  it  is  qui 
tempus  ab  aevo  ire  jubet,  and  makes  our  King  a 
defender  of  the  faith,  by  which  aeternitie  flowes  from 
time  well  husbanded,  &  to  resemble  herein  also,  stabi- 
lisque  manens  dat  cuncta  moveri.  In  this  tranquilitie 
[I.  i.  14.]  we  may  employ  our  industry  in  painfull  and  gainfull 
labours.  I  also  in  this  peace,  under  Israels  Salomon, 
can  from  the  shore  behold  with  safety,  with  delight, 
&  in  this  glasse  let  others  see,  the  dangerous  Naviga- 
tions and  Ophyrian  expeditions  of  our  Countrie  men, 
&  view  their  warlike  fights  in  the  waterie  plaine  as 
from  a  fortified  tower  (so  the  Mogols  did  the  battell 
of  the  English  and  Portugals)  not  only  free  from  perill, 
but  enjoying,  some  the  gaines  of  their  paines,  others 
the  sweete  contemplations  of  their  laborious  actions, 
all  of  us  the  fruites  of  our  labours  and  negotiations 
at  home  and  abroad,  which  grow  from  that  Jacobaean 
tree  :  whose  blossomes  are  inscribed  Beati  pacifici.  This 
Worke  is  the  fruite  of  that  Peace,  and  my  Song  may 
be,   Deus    nobis   haec   otia  fecit,   that   I    may  write  with 



Inke  at  leisure,  and  (under  the  shadow  of  this  tree) 
you  read  with  pleasure,  what  these  Pilgrimes  have 
written  with  hazard,  if  not  with  bloud  in  remote  Seas 
and  Lands. 

I  flatter  not  the  present,  I  devote  to  future  posterity, 
this  monument  of  praise  to  the  Almighty,  who  hath 
given  us  this  Salomon,  if  not  in  all  dimensions,  (never 
was  there,  or  shall  be  such)  yet  herein  like,  that  wee 
enjoy  under  his  wings  (in  the  combustions  of  neigh- 
bour Countries)  this  our  peace,  plenty,  learning,  justice, 
religion,  the  land,  the  sea  voyages  to  Ophir,  the  world, 
new  worlds,  and  (if  wee  have  new  hearts)  the  com- 
munion of  Saints,  guard  of  Angels,  salvation  of  Christ, 
and  God  himselfe  the  portion  of  our  Cup,  and  lot  of 
our  inheritance.  Blessed  are  the  people  that  be  in  Psa.  144.  ult. 
such  a  case,  yea  blessed  are  the  people  that  have  the 
Lord  for  their  God,  This  is  the  day  that  the  Lord  Psa.  118. 
hath  made,  let  us  rejoyce  and  be  glad  in  it.  And  if 
our  times  yeelde  some  exceptions  also,  and  the  Tra- 
ducer  impute  it  to  flattery  that  I  bring  not  evils  on 
the  stage  :  I  say  that  blessed  and  loyall  Shem  and 
Japheth  hid  from  themselves  &  others  that  which 
cursed  Cham  and  Canaan  quarrelled  :  Salomons  times 
yeelded  grievances,  and  we  live  on  earth,  not  in  heaven; 
there  is  the  perfection  of  wisdome,  holinesse,  happinesse, 
whereof  Salomons  times  were  a  compleate  type :  we 
have  the  truth  in  part,  but  all  fulnesse  is  in  him,  in 
whom  dwelleth  all  the  fulnesse  of  the  Godhead  bodily.  Col.  i.  y  2. 
which  to  expect  here  were  Epicurisme  and  state-Puri- 
tanisme.  Quis  me  constituit  vel  judicem  vel  indicem  ? 
Malecontent,  I  am  no  Lord  of  times,  nor  Prince  of 
Princes  (they  are  both  Gods  peculiar)  I  endevour  to 
keepe  me  in  the  ofiices  of  my  calling,  to  choose  the 
good  part,  and  in  conscience  towards  God  to  acknow- 
ledge Gods  workes  in  all,  and  specially  in  those  of 
whom  he  hath  said,  Yee  are  Gods  :  To  be  an  accuser 
is  the  Divels  office,  and  they  which  be  evill  themselves 
will  onely  see  evill  in  others. 



Of  the    proprietie   which    Infidels    have  in    their 

Lands   and   Goods  :    of  proprietie  in  the   Sea, 

and    of    Salomons    proprietie    of  the  Sea    and 
Shoare   at   Ezion   Geber. 

Hus    have  wee    discoursed   of  the   prerogative   of 
Gods  peculiar,  the  right  which  the  true  Children 
of  the  Church  have  in  Christ  and  by  him  in  all 
things  :  but  what  shall  we  say  of  propriety?  of  propriety 
of   Infidels  ?    Christs    Kingdome    is    not   of   this   world, 
and     properly    neither    gives    nor    takes    away    worldly 
proprieties,   civill   and   politicall   interests  ;    but   addes   to 
his    subjects    in   these   things   a   more   sanctified   use,   all 
Tit.  1.  u!t.  things   being   pure  to   the  pure,  impure  to  the  impure  ; 
I  Tim.  4.    £qj,   ^j^gy   ^j.g    sanctified   by   the   word   and   praier,   which 
Infidels  know  not.     In  that  interior  court  of  conscience 
(which    in    the   wicked   is   defiled)   the  just  have   before 
God    a  juster   use,   using   the   world   as   not   abusing   it, 
not    being    high    minded,    nor    trusting    in    uncertaine 
I  Cor.  7.     riches  :    not    setting    their   heart   on   them,  though    they 
I  Tm.  6.    increase,    nor   loosing    their    hearts    with    them    in    their 
Mat.  6.       decrease    or    losse  :     not   laying   up   to   themselves   trea- 
Luk.  12.      sures    on   earth   where   rust   and   moth   and   theefe   have 
power  :    not   singing   a   requiem,   soule   take   thine   ease, 
thou   hast   laid  up  treasure  for   many  yeeres,  when   this 
fooles    soule    it    selfe    is    the    worst    thing    it    hath,   and 
may  be  turned  this  night  out  of  that  secure  body  and 
secured    state.     But    in    the    outward    civill    Court,    and 
before    Men,   the    Gospell    alters    not,   removes   not   the 
land   marke  of  the  law,  but  as  well  bids  Give  to  Cassar 
that   which   is   Caesars,   as   to   God    that   which   is   Gods. 
And  therefore  the  rights  of  men  by  the  royall  or  com- 
mon lawes  established  (all  derived  from  that  of  Nature, 
and    consequently   from    God,   who    is   Natura   naturans, 
the  creator  of  Nature)  are  in  conscience  of  Gods  com- 
mandement  to  be  permitted   to  them.     Neither  without 



Gods    speciall   command   might   the   Israelites   spoile   (as 
they    did)    the    Egyptians,    or    invade    the    Canaanites. 
It    is    Saint   Judes    note    of    filthy   Sodomites,    sleepers,  /«</.  Ep. 
ignorant,  beasts,  disciples   of   Cham,  Balaam,  and    Core,,  clouds  without  water,  corrupt   trees  twise   dead, 
raging   waves,  wandring   starres,  to   despise   government : 
naturall    bruit    beasts   (saith   Saint   Peter   prophesying   of  ^  Pet.  z. 
his  pretended  successors)  spots  and  blots,  wels  without 
water,   clouds   carried    about  with    a   tempest,   to   whom 
the    blacke    darknesse    is    reserved   for   ever  :    promising 
to    others    liberty,   and    are    themselves    the    servants    of 
corruption    (in    this    sence    the    servants    of    servants.) 
Neither   could    the    Divell    devise    a  greater   scandall   to 
the    Gospell,    then    that    it    should    rob    Kings    of  their 
supremacy    and    preheminence,    subjects    of    their    lands 
and    state,    as    if    to    convert    to    Christ   were    to    evert 
out    of    their    possessions,    and    subvert    states :     which 
is  the  cause  of  so  few  Jewes  converted,  and  so  perverse 
conversions    in    America,    as    I    have    elsewhere    shewed. 
The    Gospell    is    not  a   sword   to   take  away  earth,   but 
to   destroy  hell,  and  addes  the  Keyes  of  the  Kingdome  [I.  i.  1 5-] 
of  heaven,  not  a  hammer  to  breake  in  peeces  the  doores 
of  earthly  Kingdomes :    and  least  of  all  making   instead 
of  Keyes,  Picklockes  (the  note  of  a  theefe,  even  though 
he  should  enter  at  the  doore  and  lawfully  succeede  lawfull 
Bishops)   which   open   and   shut   all   at   pleasure  ;   against 
which  there  is  but  one  word  of  force,  and  that  is,  force 
it  selfe  and  power  which  their  faction  cannot  overthrow, 
the  Romish  conscience  being  Lesbian  and  leaden,  or  Iron 
and  running  compasse  and  variation,  as  the  Needle  of  that 
See  hath  touched  it  to  observe  the  Pope  as  the  magneticall 
Pole,  which  Philosophers  say  is  not  that  of  heaven  but  of 
the  earth.     God  hath  made  us  men,  his  Sonne  hath  called 
us  to  be  Christians,  and  this  opinion  doth  turne  men  into 
Beasts,  yea  Christian   men   into  wilde  Beasts  without  all 
propriety,  or  any  thing  proper  to  humanity,  which  with 
the  rights  thereof  extends  to  Infidels.  Infidels pro- 

These  hold  not  Christ,  nor  hold  of  him,  as  joynt  heires  :  f'^'^- 



yet  are  they  not  without  all  right,  yea  of  him  also  they 
hold  in  another  tenure,  not  as  sonnes,  but  as  servants 
(and  the  servant  abideth  not  in  the  house  for  ever,  but 
70/  the  Sonne  abideth  ever:  but  if  the  Sonne  make  them  free 
they  are  free  indeede  ?)  These  hold,  in  a  tenure  of  villen- 
age  not  in  state  of  spirituall  inheritance,  which  yet  warrants 
a  just  title  for  the  time,  contra  omnes  gentes,  against  all 
men  (as  servants  use  their  Masters  goods)  but  being 
called  by  death  to  give  accompt  to  their  Lord,  are  dis- 
possessed of  all  and  themselves  also  for  ever :  whereas 
the  children  here  seeme  in  wardship,  and  to  receive  some 
short  allowance  in  the  nonage  of  this  life,  but  in  the  day  of 
death  (the  birth  day  of  true  and  eternall  life)  as  at  full 
age,  enter  into  full  possession  of  heaven  and  earth  for 
ever.  That  tenure  yet  of  godlesse  men  (whith  are  without 
hope,  without  Christ,  without  God  in  the  world)  is  a 
tenure  from  God,  though  as  is  said  in  a  kinde  of  villen- 
Eph.  2.  10.  age  ;  and  warrants  against  all  men,  as  holden  of  and  at  the 
Col.  1.  16.  ^jji  of  the  Lord  Christ,  by  whom  and  for  whom  all  things 
^'^'  ^'  were  created,  and  hee  is  before  all  things,  and  in  him  all 

things   consist.     And  hee  is  the  Head  of  the   Body  the 
Church.      This  tenure  in  capite  is  the  Churches  joynture  ; 
that   of  humane  nature,  from   him  whose   all   things  are 
Eph.  2,  jure  creationis,  remaines  to  forreiners,  which  are  strangers 

Col.  I.  ixovci   the  Common-wealth   of  Israel,  and   from   the   pri- 

viledges  of  the  Holy  Citie  the  New  Jerusalem.  For 
after  the  Image  of  God,  by  this  Image  of  the  invisible 
God  were  all  Men  created  ;  which  though  it  bee  in  part 
by  sinne  defaced,  yet  through  the  mercy  of  God  in  part 
remaineth  in  the  worst  of  men,  which  still  retaine  an 
immortall  reasonable  spirit  indued  with  understanding, 
will,  and  memory  (resembling  the  unity  and  Trinity) 
animating  and  ruling  (how  imperfectly  soever)  the  organi- 
call  body,  and  with  it  the  inferiour  creatures :  which 
dominion  over  the  creatures  is  by  God  himselfe  reckoned 
to  the  image  of  God  ;  infected  with  sinne,  and  infested 
G/r«.  1.26.  y  ^^^^  ^  curse  ;  but  God  even  in  the  sentencing  that  judge- 
3. 1 7. 1 8. 1 9.     ment    remembring    mercy,    added    thornes,    and    thistles, 



and  sorrow,  and  sweate,  but  tooke  not  away  the  use  ; 
yea  he  renewed  the  blessing  to  all  the  Sonnes  of 
Noah,  and  enlarged  their  commission,  indenting  in 
mans  heart  this  naturall  right,  and  in  the  Beasts  this 
naturall  awe  and  subjection,  by  Natures  owne  hand 

Hee  that  then  blessed  them  with.  Replenish  the  earth.  Gen.  11.7.  8. 
did  confound  their  Babel  building,  and  scatter  them  abroad 
from  thence  upon  the  face  of  all  the  earth,  to  put  it  in 
execution,  and  hath  made  of  one  bloud  all  Nations  of  men  ^<^f-  ^7-  26. 
(as  is  said  before)  to  dwell  on  all  the  face  of  the  earth,  and 
hath  determined  the  times  and  bounds  of  their  habitation. 
Thus  hee  that  gave  Canaan  to  the  Israelites  is  said  (in  a 
proper  sense  though  differing  manner)  to  have  given  Are  Deui.z.g.ig. 
unto  the  children  of  Lot  for  a  possession,  the  land  of  the 
Emims,   and   the  land   of  the   Zamzummims   which   hee 
destroyed  before  them  :    as  he  did  that  of  the  Horims  to 
the    children    of  Esau,    that    as    the    former    generations 
entered  by  the  Law  of  Nature,  as  first  finders,  so  these 
by  the  law  of  Warre,  as  confounders  of  the  former,  and 
founders  of  a  second  state  and  succession,  both  guided  by 
the  hand   of  divine    providence.     Salomon    gave    Hiram   1  R<'g-  9. 
twenty   Cities   in  recompence  of  Cedars,  and   Firre-trees 
and  Gold :   and   innumerable  are  the  compacts  and  con- 
tracts   mentioned    in    Histories,    whereby    the    rule    of 
Countries    and    States    have    beene    made    over    to    new 
Masters,  or  to  the  old  in  a  new  tenure,  as  Joseph  bought  Gen.  47.  20. 
all  Egypt,  their  lands  and  persons  to  Pharaoh.     But  in 
all  these  workes  of  Men,  God  is  a  coworker  ;  the  most  O^"-  4- 
high  ruleth  in  the  Kingdomes  of  Men,  and  giveth  it  to 
whomsoever    hee    will,    was    verified    both    actively    and 
passively  in  Nebuchadnezzar :   Cyrus  is  called  his  servant, 
Pilates  power  is  acknowledged  by  the  Lord  of  power  to  be 
given  from  above,  and  to  that  Roman  soveraignty  (how  Joh  19.  n. 
unjust  soever  their  conquest  was)  hee  submitted  himselfe 
in  his  birth  (occasioned  at  Bethlehem  by  the  decree  and 
taxation  of  Augustus)  in  his  life  by  paiment  ot  tribute, 
and  in  his  death  by  a  Roman  both   kinde  and  sentence. 


not!  a  repub. 
sed  abipso  deo, 
ut  Catholtci 
doctores  senti- 
unt.  quamvis 
n.  a  rep.  ccn- 
stituatur,  non 
potestatem  sed 
propr'iam  au- 
thoritatem  in 
regem  trans- 
fert,  55V.  Fr. 
a  v'ut.  Re  led. 
de  pot.  Civi/i. 
Omne  Domi- 
nium a  deo  est  : 
domini  est 
terra  i5  plen- 
eius  Dom. 
totius  creature 
ISj  omnis  po- 
testas  a  deo. 
Rom.  13. 
Jos.  Angles. 
Valent.  parts, 
z.  q.  de  dom. 
Rom.  13. 
I  Pet.  2.  13. 
[I.  1.  16.] 

*  Hence  came 
the  Lawyers 
Smiths  com- 
mon wealth. 
I.  3.  c.  10. 
Zee  this  ques- 
tion handled 
more  largel'^ 
in  baiting  P. 
Alex  his  bull. 
I.2.C.  I.  Read 
also  a  Spanish 
divine  Fr.  a 
Victoria  in  his 


Per  me  reges  regnant  is  his  Proclamation,  whether  *  by- 
divine  immediate  vocation  as  in  Moses,  or  mixed  with  Lot, 
or  meere,  or  free  choise,  or  inheritance,  or  conquest  of 
warre,  or  exchange,  or  gift,  or  cession,  or  mariage,  or 
purchase  ;  or  titles  begun  in  unjust  force,  or  fraud  at  first, 
yet  afterward  acknowledged  by  those  whom  it  concerned, 
and  approved  by  time,  which  in  temporall  things  pro- 
scribeth,  and  prescribeth :  by  this  King  of  Kings  doe 
Kings  reigne,  and  the  powers  that  be  are  ordained  of  God, 
to  which  every  soule  must  be  subject,  even  for  conscience 
sake,  &  propter  Deum  ;  Whosoever  therefore  resisteth 
the  power,  resisteth  the  ordenance  of  God,  and  they  that 
resist  shall  receive  to  themselves  damnation. 

This  was  written  when  all  Kings  were  Idolaters  and 
Infidels,  nor  had  the  World  many  Ages  after  ever  heard, 
that  Infidelitie,  Heresie,  or  Idolatry  were  causes  sufficient 
for  rebellion  in  Subjects  or  invasion  of  Neighbours,  as  in 
the  many  examples  of  the  Israelitish  and  Jewish  Kings, 
which  neither  invaded  others  for  Infidelitie,  nor  were  at 
home  deprived  for  Heresie,  though  all  the  neighbours 
were  Infidells,  and  most  of  those  Kings  Idolaters.  To 
usher  Religion  by  the  Sword  is  scarsly  approved  amongst 
Mahumetans,  which  permit  men  liberty  of  soule,  though 
not  of  body :  but  to  turne  all  the  World  into  Timars,  and 
Knights  or  Souldiers  fees,  is  more  intolerable.  It  was 
barbarous  Latine  to  turne  fides  into  feodum,  the  title  of 
all  free  lands  of  Subjects  holden  in  fide,  in  *  trust  of 
performing  rents,  services,  and  other  conditions  annexed 
to  the  first  Donation  by  the  superior  Lord :  but  this  more 
barbarous  Divinitie,  to  dispossesse  Barbarians  of  their 
Inheritance,  and  by  their  want  of  Faith  to  increase  our 
fees  of  Inheritance,  as  if  all  the  world  were  holden  of  the 
Pope  in  Catholike  fee,  obtruded  on  us  for  Catholike 
Faith  :  Christ  came  not  to  destroy  the  Law  but  to  fulfill 
it;  and  therefore  did  not  disanuU  by  the  Gospel,  that 
naturall  Commandement  of  Alleageance  and  Obedience 
to  Princes,  the  Honor  due  to  the  Parents  of  our  Countrey. 
Neither  doth   Religion   make   a  Father   or   Mother,   but 



Nature  ;  and  it  is  said.  Honour  thy  Father  and  Mother,  Select,  de  Pot. 

without  annexion  of  qualitie  good   or   bad.     Nor  could  J^^'  ^ 

Jonathan  deny  filiall  observance,  or  loyall  subjection  to  ^^y^,^  '^^^^,^„ 

Saul  with  such  excuse  ;   nor  could  the  Keyes  that  came  arguments  con- 

later  expel  Scepters,  which  were  of  more  ancient  founda-  futcththispre- 

tion  ;  nor  heavenly  Keyes  open  or  shut  earthly  Doores :  ^^"'^^^ /^"'^^ 

nor  can  Infidelitie  which  concerneth  Divine  Law,  yea  in  Qaietanal'soi 

matters  supernaturall,  take  away  that  right  which  Positive  2.  q.  66.  a.  8. 

or  Naturall  Law  hath  given  ;  nor  exclude  from  just  title  T.  Aq.  2.  2. 

on  Earth,  which  some  hold  poena,  rather  then  peccatum,  j-  jo-/^f-J- 

in  such  as  have  not  heard  :    nor   can  a  pretended  Vicar  ^^j  ^    '    y 

challenge  justly,  what  his  Lord  never  claimed,  what  hee  pertotamrela. 

also  disclaimed  :   nor  did  hee  send  Souldiers  but  Preachers,  In  which  he 

to  convert  the  World  to  the  Faith  truly  Catholike,  and  /'''^'^^^  {^e 

therein  shewed  himselfe  a  true  Salomon,  a  Prince  of  Peace,  ^"cfuld  not 

figured  by  this  our  Salomon  who  sent  Ships  of  Merchan-  gwe  just  title 

dise  and  not  of  Warre  to  Ophir.     And  as  for  any  High  to  the  Indies, 
Priests  Bull  (whose  roaring  might  conjure  the  spirits   of  ^nd  conjutcth 

Princes,    within    the   circle    of  Pontificall  censure)   those  7-y  ^^  ^^ 

dayes  knew  no  such  brutish   dialect,  yea   wise   and  just  i  a'/w^.  2,35. 

Salomon  was  so  farre  from  fearing  or  desiring  the  Bulls  Fia.  ubi  sup. 

of  Abiathar,  that  hee  put  him  out  of  the  High  Priests  Barbari  sunt^ 

place  for  intermedling  with  the   Crowne-succession,  and  ^^'lr°^'"lV 

set  Zadok  in  his  roome.      And  for   Ophir,  long  before  privatim.  Jus 

inhabited   (as  appeareth,  Gen.    10.)  he   did   not    for   the  autem  gentium 

discovery    thereof,    then    new,    challenge   jurisdiction    or  tit  quod  in 

Soveraigntie,  as    Lord   of   that   Sea    or    Region    by    him  ««5«^  ^^"" 

J  •  J    /  1  1        /^    1  •   •  111  T        J  ^-f^'  occupmrtt 

discovered  (no  more  then  the  Uphinans  had  beene  JLords  cedat.dh.fere 

of  Israel,  if  they  had  then  discovered  it)  but  left  things  best. 
as  hee  found  them,  the  Countrey  appropriate  to  the 
Inhabitants,  the  Sea  open  to  such  as  would  and  could 
in  like  manner  adventure.  Otherwise  it  was  with  him 
and  his  right  in  Ezion  Geber,  on  the  shoare  of  the  Red 
Sea  in  the  land  of  Edom.  For  this  was  peculiar  (both 
the  shoare  and  sea  adjoyning)  unto  Salomon,  chiefe  Lord 
of  Edom  :    which  David  had  before  conquered,  and   so 

it    continued    under    the    Kings    of  Juda    till    the    evill  \Chr,\%.\t,. 

dayes    of    Jehoram    the    sonne    of    good    Jehoshaphat,  2  Cro.  z\. 



who  made  like  use  of  this  Haven,  but  with  unlike 

True  it  is  that  if  Man  had  continued  in  his  first 
integritie,  Meum  &  Tuum  had  never  proved  such 
quarrelling  Pronounes,  to  make  warre  more  then  Gram- 
maticall,  in  setting  all  the  Parts  of  Speech   together   by 

Rom.  5.  y  6.  the  eares.     But  sinne  entring  into  the  world,  yea  as  an 

^  7-  invading  tyrant   ruling,  it  was   necessary   that   proprietie 

should  prevent  rapine  of  the  idler  and  mightier,  and 
incourage  the  industry  of  the  just  laborer,  which  for  the 
sweat    of  his  browes    might    earne    and    eate    his    owne 

Gen.  4.  bread.     Thus  had  Cain  and  Abel  their  proper  goods,  he 

the  fruits  of  the  earth,  this  of  his  cattell,  the  proper 
Objects  of  their  labour.  And  when  the  whole  earth  was 
filled  with  crueltie,  God  clensed  the  confusion  of  those 
Fence-breakers  by  a  generall  deluge.     After   the  Floud, 

Gen.  10.         Noahs  Posteritie  had   the  earth    divided    amongst    them. 
And    in    that    renovation    of  the    world,  in   the    Golden 

y/f/.  4.32.34.  Age  of  the  Church,  when  they  had  all  things  common  ; 

^  +5-  the  reason    was,   as   many  as   were  possessours   of  lands 

sold  them  and  brought  the  price :  so  that  they  had  a 
just  proprietie  of  those  their  owne  possessions,  and  con- 

Lttk.  12.  14.    ferred    the    same    to    others,  and  after    it    was    sold    the 

money    was    their    owne,    and    remained    in   their    owne 

power.      He    that     refused     to    divide    the    inheritance 

to    brethren,    would    not    dissolve    and    dissipate    it    to 

Thou  shalt     strangers,    and    abolish    one    of   the    precepts*    of    the 

,    J        Decalogue  ;     for     stealing     in     properest     sense     cannot 
some  borderers  .?     ,  '  ,  ^        .     .^     ^  ^1.7-  ,11         1         r 

are  reported  to  "ce,    it    there    be    no    proprietie.       Wickedly    therefore 

hold  first  put  doe  the  Anabaptists  in  generall,  the  Papists  for  their 
into  the  deca-  owne  advantage ;  the  one  by  confusion,  the  other 
H^^  %  Th^  ^y  combustions,  deprivations,  and  depravations  of 
sure  are  bor-  estates,  remove  the  Land-marke.  Nor  doe  others 
derers,  that  is,  well  to  take  away  all  Sea-markes  and  right  of  Marine 
theeves  in        proprietie. 

tjl/llheltout  ^^^  contrary  wee  see  in  Salomons  Ezion  Geber. 
gffj^g  Thorow  other  Seas  hee  sailed  by  universall  and  naturall 

decalogue.        right,    in    this    as    his    owne    proprietie,  he    builded    his 



Fleet,  prepared,  victualled  manned  his  Navie,  and  alto- 
gether used  the  Sea  and  Shores,  and  Port,  as  is  his  proper 
and  just  Inheritance. 

§.    VI.  [I.  i.  17.] 

The  commendations  of  Navigation,  as  an  Art 
worthy  the  care  of  the  most  Worthy  ;  the 
Necessitie,  Commoditie,  Dignitie  thereof 

JWJjlAn  that  hath  the  Earth  for  his  Mother,  Nurse, 
WM  ^^^  Grave,  cannot  find  any  fitter  object  in  this 
World,  to  busie   and  exercise  his   heavenly  and 

better  parts  then  in  the  knowledge  of  this  Earthly  Globe, 
except  in  his  God,  and  that  his  heavenly  good  and  In- 
heritance ;  unto  both  which  this  is  also  subordinate,  to  the 
one  as  a  Booke  set  forth  by  himselfe,  and  written  of  his 
Wisdome,  Goodnesse,  Power  and  Mercy ;  to  the  other  as 
a  way  and  passage,  in  which  Man  himselfe  is  a  Pilgrim. 
Now,  though  I  might  borrow  much  from  Ptolemey, 
Strabo,  and  others  in  Geographies  prayse,  yet  will  I  rather 
fixe  my  selfe  on  Salomon  and  his  Ophir. 

If  Wee  should  respect  persons,  and  be  mooved  by 
authoritie,  wee  have  in  this  Ophirian  Navigation,  the 
patterne  of  two  most  worthy  Kings,  as  two  witnesses 
beyond  exception,  Jewes  and  Gentiles  conspiring ;  wee 
have  Reverend  Antiquitie  of  Time,  Sanctitie  of  Sociall 
leagues,  Holinesse  of  sacred  Designes,  Greatnesse  of 
highest  Majesty,  Magnificence  of  brightest  Splendour, 
Munificence  of  rarest  Bountie,  Wisdome  of  justest  Tem- 
per, Provisions  of  maturest  Prudence ;  all  these  in  this 
Expedition  of  Salomon  proclayming,  that  there  is  no  way 
by  Land  alone  to  the  top,  of  humane  Felicity  (wherin 
Salomon  also  was  a  type  of  a  Greater)  but  as  God  hath 
combined  the  Sea  and  Land  into  one  Globe,  so  their 
joynt  combination  and  mutuall  assistance  is  necessary  to 
Secular  happinesse  and  glory.  The  Sea  covereth  one 
halfe  of  this  Patrimony  of  Man,  whereof  God  set  him 
in    possession    when    he   said,    replenish    the    earth    and 



Gen.  7.  22.  subdue  it,  and  have  dominion  over  the  fish  of  the  Sea,  and 
over  the  fowle  of  the  Aire,  and  over  every  living  thing 
that  mooveth  upon  the  Earth.  And  when  the  Sea  had,  as 
it  were,  rebelled  against  rebellious  Man,  so  that  all  in 
whose  nosethrils  was  the  breath  of  life,  and  all  that  was  in 
the  dry  Land  died,  yet  then  did  it  all  that  time  indure  the 
yoke  of  Man,  in  that  first  of  ships  the  Arke  of  Noah  ;  and 
soone  after  the  Goad  also,  when  God  renewed  the  former 
Covenant,  and  imposed  the  feare  and  dread  of  Man  upon 
Gen.  9.  2.  everie  beast  of  the  Earth,  and  upon  every  foule  of  the 
Aire,  upon  all  that  mooveth  upon  the  Earth,  and  upon 
all  the  fishes  of  the  Sea. 

Thus  should  Man  at  once  loose  halfe   his  Inheritance, 
if  the   Art  of  Navigation  did  not  inable  him  to  manage 
this  untamed  Beast,  and  with   the  Bridle  of  the  Winds, 
and    Saddle    of  his    Shipping    to    make  him   serviceable. 
Now  for  the  services  of  the  Sea,  they  are  innumerable ;  it 
is  the  great  Purveyor  of  the  Worlds  Commodities  to  our 
Vid.  D.  j4mb.  use,    Conveyor    of   the    Excesse    of  Rivers,    Uniter    by 
Hexaem.  I.  3.  Xraflfique  of  al  Nations  ;  it  presents  the  eye  with  diver- 
'^'  5*  sified  Colours   and   Motions,  and  is  as  it  were  with  rich 

Brooches,  adorned  with  various  Hands;  it  is  an  open  field 
for  Merchandize  in  Peace,  a  pitched  field  for  the  most 
dreadfull  fights  of  Warre ;  yeelds  diversitie  of  Fish  and 
Fowle  for  diet.  Materials  for  Wealth,  Medicine  for 
Health,  Simples  for  Medicines,  Pearles  and  other  Jewels 
for  Ornament,  Amber  and  Ambergrise  for  delight,  the 
wonders  of  the  Lord  in  the  Deepe  for  instruction,  variety 
of  Creatures  for  use,  multiplicity  of  Natures  for  Contem- 
plation, diversity  of  accidents  for  admiration,  compendious- 
nesse  to  the  way,  to  full  bodies  healthfull  evacuation,  to 
the  thirsty  earth  fertile  moysture,  to  distant  friends 
pleasant  meeting,  to  weary  persons  delightful!  refreshing  ; 
to  studious  and  religious  minds  (a  Map  of  Knowledge, 
Mystery  of  Temperance,  Exercise  of  Continence,  Schoole  of 
Prayer,  Meditation,  Devotion,  and  Sobrietie :  refuge  to  the 
distressed.  Portage  to  the  Merchant,  passage  to  the  Tra- 
veller, Customes  to  the  Prince,  Springs,  Lakes,  Rivers,  to 



the  Earth  ;  it  hath  on  it  Tempests  and  Calmes  to  chastise 
the  Sinnes,  to  exercise  the  faith  of  Sea-men;  manifold 
affections  in  it  selfe,  to  affect  and  stupifie  the  subtilest 
Philosopher ;  sustaineth  moveable  Fortresses  for  the  Soul- 
dier,  mayntayneth  (as  in  our  Hand)  a  Wall  of  defence 
and  waterie  Garrison  to  guard  the  State ;  entertaines  the 
Sunne  with  vapours,  the  Moone  with  obsequiousnesse, 
the  Starres  also  with  a  naturall  Looking-glasse,  the  Skie 
with  Clouds,  the  Aire  with  temperatenesse,  the  Soyle 
with  supplenesse,  the  Rivers  with  Tydes,  the  Hils 
with  moysture,  the  Valleyes  with  fertilitie;  contayneth 
most  diversified  matter  for  Meteors,  most  multiforme 
shapes,  most  various,  numerous  kindes,  most  immense, 
difformed,  deformed,  unformed  Monsters ;  Once  (for  why 
should  I  longer  detayne  you  ?)  the  Sea  yeelds  Action  to 
the  bodie,  Meditation  to  the  Minde,  the  World  to  the 
World,  all  parts  thereof  to  each  part,  by  this  Art  of 
Arts,  Navigation. 

Neither  should  we  alone  loose  this  halfe  of  Natures 
dowrie,  without  the  benefit  of  this  Art,  but  even  the 
Earth  it  selfe  would  be  unknowne  to  the  Earth ;  here  im- 
mured by  high  impassable  Mountaynes,  there  inaccessible 
by  barren  way-lesse  Deserts  ;  here  divided  and  rent  in 
sunder  with  violent  Rivers,  there  ingirt  with  a  strait  siege 
of  Sea ;  heere  possessed  with  wild  devouring  beasts,  there 
inhabited  with  wilder  man-devouring  men;  here  covered 
with  huge  Worlds  of  Wood,  there  buried  in  huger 
spacious  Lakes ;  here  loosing  it  selfe  in  the  mids  of  it 
selfe,  by  showres  of  Sand,  there  removed,  as  other  Worlds  [I.  i.  i8.] 
out  of  the  World,  in  remoter  Hands;  here  hiding  her 
richest  Mynes  and  Treasures  in  sterill  Wildernesses, 
which  cannot  bee  fed  but  from  those  fertile  Soyles,  which 
there  are  planted,  &  as  it  were  removed  hither  by  helpe 
of  Navigation.  Yea,  wheras  otherwise  we  reape  but  the 
fruits  of  one  Land,  or  the  little  little  part  thereof  which 
we  call  our  owne  lands,  hereby  wee  are  inriched  with 
the  commodities  of  all  Lands,  the  whole  Globe  is  epito- 
mised, and  yeelds  an  Abridgement  and  Summarie  of  it 



*  This  is  effec- 
ted by  such  as 
saile  about  the 
Worldy  as  is 
knowne  of  all 
such  as  know 
the  Sunnes 

selfe  in  each  Countrle,  to  each  man.  Nor  should  we 
alone  loose  the  full  moytie  of  our  Demesnes  by  Sea,  and 
a  great  part  of  that  other  moytie  the  Land,  but  the 
Heavens  also  would  shew  us  fewer  starres,  nor  should  we 
grow  familiar  with  the  Sunnes  perambulation,  to  overtake 
him,  to  disapoint  him  of  shadow,  to  runne  beyond  him, 
to  imitate  his  daily  journey,  and  make  all  the  World  an 
Hand,  to  beguile  this  Time-measurer  in  exact  reckonings 
of  Time,  by  adding*  or  loosing  a  day  to  the  Sunnes 
account.  Nor  could  wee  know  the  various  Climates,  with 
their  differing  seasons,  and  diversified  affects  and  effects 
of  the  Heavens  and  Elements.  Nor  could  we  measure 
the  Earths  true  Dimensions  and  Longitudes,  nor  know 
many  creatures  both  vegetable  and  sensitive  therein 
(which  are  our  Chattels)  nor  her  high  prized  Minerals 
and  Gemmes ;  nor  yet  could  wee  know  and  use  the 
varietie  of  Fowle,  or  (like  inferiour  Gods)  dispose  of 
the  winds  in  the  Ayre,  bringing  constant  effects,  out  of 
their  varietie,  and  observe  their  Seasons  to  flie  with  them 
about  the  World,  had  we  not  these  Sayle-wings  of 
shipping ;  whereby  we  out-runne  the  wildest  beasts,  out- 
swimme  the  swiftest  fish,  out-flie  the  lightest  Fowles, 
out-stretch  the  fiercest  Windes,  out-set  the  strongest 
Currents,  out-passe  most  spacious  Seas,  and  tame  all 
Nature  to  the  nature  of  Man,  and  make  him  capable 
of  his  Naturall  Patrimony. 

What  shal  I  say  of  other  men.?  The  holiest,  the 
wisest,  the  Greatest  of  Men,  of  Kings,  of  Kings  of  Kings 
(Salomons  example  speaks  all  this)  hereby  honour  God, 
hereby  have  made  themselves  to  all  Posterities  honorable. 
Wil  you  have  al  commendations  at  once?  Salomon  the 
Epitome  of  al  human  worth  and  excellence,  promised 
by  Prophesie  before  his  birth,  named  by  speciall  appoint- 
ment of  God  when  he  was  borne,  founder  of  (that 
Miracle  of  Earth,  and  mysticall  Mirrour  of  Heaven)  the 
Temple ;  glorious  in  his  other  Erections,  Customes, 
Tributes,  Riches,  Government,  and  in  (that  Soule  of 
happinesse)    the    happy    endowments    of    the    Soule    in 



Visions,  Wisdome  and  Holinesse,  in  his  Fame  exceeding 
Fame  it  selfe,  his  Renowme  attracting  all  the  Kings 
of  the  Earth  to  seeke  his  presence,  in  his  Writings 
elected  a  Secretary  of  God  to  record  wisdome  to 
salvation,  to  all  Ages  and  places  of  the  World,  in 
these  things  passing  others,  yea  surpassing  himselfe  (even 
here  may  we  say,  as  before  is  said,  is  a  greater  then  2.  Chron.  8. 
Salomon)  typing  the  Great  Creatour  and  Saviour  of  the 
World  ;  This  first,  and  most  eminent  of  men,  is  by  the 
first,  and  best  of  Stories,  set  forth  as  the  first  Founder 
of  Long  and  Farre  Navigations,  and  Discoveries.  As  for 
Noahs  Arke,  it  was  intended  rather  to  cover  and  secure 
from  that  tempestuous  Deluge,  and  to  recover  that  hand- 
ful, the  Seed  of  a  New  World,  from  the  common 
destruction,  then  to  discover  New  Worlds,  or  to  make 
Voyages  into  any  parts  of  the  old  :  though  if  we  should 
yeeld  This  the  beginning  of  Navigation  (as  indeed  it  was, 
though  not  of  Discovery)  wee  have  hereof  a  greater 
then  Salomon,  God  himselfe  the  Institutor  and  Author, 
Christs  Crosse  typed  in  the  matter.  Mans  Baptisme  in 
the  speciall,  and  Salvation  in  the  generall  scope  and 
event.  But  for  Heathens,  Josephus  hath  shewed  that 
Salomon  was  ancienter  then  their  Gods,  not  their  Navi- 
gations alone  ;  and  that  Carthage  was  conceived  many 
yeares  after  Salomons  death  :  and  for  Greece,  Plato  hath 
recorded  that  Egyptian  testimony,  that  they  in  all  things 
were  children,  which  yet  doted  with  age,  when  the 
Romanes  were  in  the  vigor  of  their  youth.  The  Tyrians 
indeed  were  supposed  Authours  of  this  Art,  but  neither 
could  they  make  this  Voyage,  but  passing  over  Land 
through  the  Countries  of  others,  there  to  build  a  Navie, 
(as  in  this  case  they  did  with  Salomon)  nor  is  there 
record  or  likelihood  of  any  farre  Navigation  of  theirs 
till  this,  yea,  it  is  likely,  that  heere  and  hence  beganne 
the  greatnesse  and  supereminent  lustre  of  their  Name  ; 
the  Art  which  they  exercised  at,  and  neere  home  before, 
being  thus  brought  out  of  the  Nest,  and  by  Salomons 
wisedome  taught  such  remote  flights. 

I  49  D 


Thus  the  Author,  and  thus  Antiquity  commends 
Navigation  :  and  no  lesse  the  ends  which  mooved  Salo- 
mon thereto,  which  were  to  get  Gold,  Silver,  Ivory, 
precious  Wood  and  Stones,  and  other  Rarities,  which 
gave  such  lustre  to  his  State,  fewel  to  his  Magnificence, 
glory  to  his  Name,  Ornament  to  the  Temple,  splendour 
to  Religion,  Materials  to  the  exercise  of  his  Bodie  and 
Minde,  that  I  mention  not  the  Customes  increased,  others 
by  the  Kings  example,  adventuring  the  Seas,  and  Mer- 
chandise quickened.  This  also  he  makes  the  fit  Object 
of  his  Royall  thoughts  and  unmatchable  wisdome  ;  not 
trusting  others  care,  he  went  himselfe  to  Ezion-Geber,  to 
make  provisions  for  his  Navie  ;  yea,  and  not  leaning  to 
his  sole  Wisdome,  Power,  and  Successe,  entred  into 
league  with  Hiram,  and  employed  his  Ships  and  Mariners, 
as  he,  which  hath  proclaimed  to  the  World,  vae  Soli,  and 

Ecc.  4.  esteemed  two  better  then  one,  and  to  have  better  wages 
for  their  labour,  and  a  three-fold  coard  not  easily  broken. 

Jol>  40,  Hee  was  not  like  Behemoth,  to  trust  that  hee  could  draw 
up  Jordan  into  his  mouth,  much  lesse  to  make  a  Mono- 
poly of  the  Ocean,  as  if  the  whole  East  had  been  created 
for  Ezion-geber :  but  amidst  his  incomparable  Designes, 
framed  of  Greatnesse,  clothed  with  Wealth,  enlived  with 
Wisdome,   attended    with   Successe   and  Glory,  disdaines 

[I.  i.  19.]  not,  yea,  seekes  assistants,  and  admits  a  Heathen  Kings 
Society  in  this,  in  the  Temples  Negotiation  ;  inferring  that 
they  neither  mind  the  good  of  the  true  Temple,  or  the 
Catholike  Church,  which  will  not  endure  Christian  com- 
partners  in  the  Voyage  to  Ophir,  which  impound  the 
World  in  a  corner,  and  entile  a  corner  to  the  World. 
And  as  he  sought  not  to  prejudice  Egypt,  or  any 
of  his  Neighbours,  if  out  of  their  owne  Ports  they 
intended  to  seek  the  World  abroad,  no  more  did  he 
proove  injurious  to  the  Ophirians,  with  whom  he  dealt, 
eyther  in  their  Wealth,  hindred,  by  prohibiting  all  others 
to  trade  with  them  ;  or  (among  his  many  cares  of  build- 
ing) by  erecting  Forts  against  their  wils,  as  Prisons  of 
their  Libertie,  and   Fetters  of  their  Captivity. 



For  if  to  doe  as  we  would  be  done  to,  be  the  Law 
and  Prophets,  this  Prophet  of  the  Law  would  not  seeke 
his  owne  profit,  by  invading  the  publike  of  whole  Nations 
remote  and  to  him  innocent,  and  force  upon  them  so 
unwelcome  knowledge  of  God  and  his  people  Israel, 
that  through  their  injuries  his  Name  might  be  bias-  Rom.  z. 
phemed  amongst  the  Heathen :  but  as  he  might  use 
his  owne  right  where  were  no  people,  so  in  places  in- 
habited, not  to  neglect  the  security  of  his  own,  nor  to 
usurpe  the  Sovereignty  of  the  Natives,  or  prevent  and 
intervert  the  Rights  of  common  humanity.  God  that 
would  not  (as  before  is  intimated)  the  price  of  a  Dogge 
or  a  Whore,  nor  the  Patrociny  of  a  lie,  would  not  by 
publike  Latrociny  have  his  Temple  adorned,  nor  suffer 
his  House  to  bee  built  with  bloud,  nor  the  holy  Citie 
with  iniquity.  Righteousnesse  and  Peace  kisse  each  Jb.  2. 
other  in  Gods  Kingdome,  and  acts  of  Warre  though 
just,  excluded  David  from  the  honour  of  building  the 
Lords  House.  It  followes  then  that  Salomon  was  in 
this  Ophyrian  businesse,  a  man  of  peace,  and  thereof 
an  example  to  all  following  Discoverers,  according  to 
that  Christian  Rule,  as  much  as  is  possible  to  have  Rom.  12. 
peace  with  all  men. 

As  Salomons  Justice,  so  his  Wisdome  and  Prudence 
is  exemplary,  which  though  in  him  supereminent,  yet 
found  (as  is  alreadie  observed)  no  meanes  at  home  to 
maintaine  the  glory  of  Salomon,  no  meanes  by  Land 
correspondent  to  such  Magnificence  and  Munificence, 
but  addresseth  himselfe  by  Sea  and  long  Voyages  to 
seek  it :  nor  doth  he  esteeme  others  eyes  enough,  nor 
others  assistance  too  much,  but  surveyes  his  Navie  him- 
selfe, &  is  glad  of  Hirams  helpe.  Nay,  this  was  not 
only  the  subject  of  his  wisedome,  but  the  furtherer  and 
Purveyor,  by  new  experiments  in  Minerals,  Gems,  Beasts, 
Fowles,  Fishes,  Serpents,  Wormes,  Trees,  Fruits,  Gums, 
Plants,  Men ;  Climates,  Winds,  Seasons,  Seas,  Lands, 
Soyles,  Rivers,  Fountaynes,  Heavens,  and  Stars ;  and  a 
World  of  the  Worlds  Varieties ;   of  all  which  howsoever 



he    had    received    the    mayne   stocke    of   Wisdome    by 
Ea.i.i^.zi.  immediate  Gift  of  God,  yet  did  he  frugally  employ  his 
Talent,  and   thriftily  improove  that    Revenue,  labouring 
to  be  more  wise,  and  travelling  in  Wisdome  and  Know- 
*Ecc.  I.  13.    ledge,  and  Equitie ;    and  *gave  his  heart  to  search  and 
'^-  find  out  wisdome  by  all  things  that  are  done  under  the 

Heaven,  God  humbling  him  with  this  sore  travell,  al- 
though he  excelled  in  wisdome,  all  that  were  before  him 
in  Jerusalem.  Thus  Homers  Ulysses  in  the  Schooles 
of  divers  Nations  &  Navigations  is  trained  to  that  peer- 
lesse  wisdom,  &  thus  Aristotle  the  chiefest  of  Natures 
Schollers,  travelled  with  Alexanders  Purse  and  Experi- 
ence to  furnish  himselfe,  and  succeeding  Ages  with 
Naturall  Science  and  Wisdome.  And  our  Age  which 
God  hath  blessed  beyond  many  former,  produced  as 
Twinnes  Navigation  and  Learning,  which  had  beene 
buried  together  in  the  same  Grave  with  the  Roman 
Greatnesse,  and  now  are  as  it  were  raysed  againe  from 
the  dead. 

Hence  it  is  that  barbarous  Empires  have  never  growne 
to  such  glory,  though  of  more  Giant-like  stature,  and 
larger  Land-extension,  because  Learning  had  not  fitted 
them  for  Sea  attempts,  nor  wisdome  furnished  them 
with  Navigation.  Thus  the  Persian,  the  Mogoll,  the 
Abassine,  the  Chinois,  the  Tartarian,  the  Turke,  are 
called  Great,  but  their  greatnesse  is  like  Polyphemus 
with  one  eye,  they  see  at  home  like  purbUnd  men  neere 
to  them,  not  farre  off  with  those  eyes  of  Heaven,  and 
lights  of  the  World,  the  Learned  knowledge,  whereof  is 
requisite  to  Navigation.  The  Chinois  at  home,  is  hereby 
stronger,  and  so  is  the  Turke :  but  the  other  are  braved 
by  every  pettie  Pirat  on  their  owne  shores :  the  rest 
like  Ostriches  spread  faire  plumes,  but  are  unable  to 
rayse  themselves  from  the  Land :  yea,  their  Lands  also 
(as  hath  happened  to  the  Abassine)  and  Sea-townes  taken 
from  them  to  the  downfall  of  their  estate.  One  Salomon 
left  greater  testimonies  of  greatnesse,  by  this  his  wisdome 
and  helpe  of  Navigation,  then  many  of  the  later  Otto- 



mans,  which  possessed  all  Salomons  Territories,  and  per- 
haps a  hundred  times  so  much  added.  But  as  God 
gives  huge  strength  and  vast  bodies  to  beasts,  yet  makes 
Man  by  art  and  reason  secure  from  them,  if  not  wholy 
their  Masters;  so  to  the  good  of  Christendome,  hath 
hee  denied  Learning  to  those  Barbarians,  and  skill  or 
care  of  remote  Navigations,  which  how  otherwise  they 
might  infest  the  World,  appeares  by  their  Christian 
Slaves  and  unchristian  Pirats,  whereof  they  make  use 
against  us,  and  whereby  their  Mediterranean  is  guarded. 
But  on  the  Arabian,  the  Portugals  before,  the  English 
since  have  put  a  bridle  into  the  mouth  of  the  Ottoman  ^^ost  hist. 
Horse,  and  shewed  how  easie  it  is  to  intercept  his  ^"'^-  -^'^-^  ' 
Maritime  incomes,  and  if  not  to  smother  him  (as  the 
Floridans  serve  the  Whale  by  stopping  the  two  holes, 
whereby  he  breath's)  yet  to  impoverish  him  by  diverting 
the  riches  of  the  Persian  and  Arabian  Gulphes. 

And  hereby  is  evident  that  as  we  have  observed  in 
Salomons  Justice,  and  Wisdome,  so  Fortitude  it  selfe 
here  is  exercised,  hence  increased :  nor  did  Alexander 
thinke  it  enough  to  have  overcome  men,  but  would  [I.  i.  20.] 
also  encounter  the  unknowne  Ocean.  Salomons  riches 
made  him  eminent  and  secure,  his  Navigations  rich. 
But  besides  the  necessary  exercise  of  Fortitude  in  the 
Mariner  exposed  and  opposing  himselfe  to  Step-dame 
Elements,  to  Shelves  and  Rockes  from  the  Earth, 
Whirle-pooles,  Currents,  Billowes  and  Bellowes  of  the 
Sea,  Tempests,  Huricanos,  Tufons,  Water-spouts,  and 
dreadfuU  Meteors  from  the  Aire :  by  Sea-fights  is  the 
safest  defence  of  our  owne  (as  the  Oracle  instructed 
the  Graecians  by  Wooden-castles,  to  fortifie  against 
that  World  of  men  in  Xerxes  his  Armie)  and  surest 
offence  to  the  Enemy.  What  reputation  of  cour- 
age, what  increase  of  State,  did  the  Portugals  hereby 
attaine  in  Africa  and  Asia.''  cooping  up  the  Natives 
within  their  shoares,  possessing  themselves  of  divers 
petty  Kingdomes,  enriching  themselves  with  the  richest 
Trade  in  the  World,  and  that  maugre  the  force  of  the 



Moores,  of  the  Egyptian  and  Turkish  Sultans  ?  The 
Sea  was  the  Work-house,  and  Navigation  the  Anvile, 
whereon  the  fortitude  of  a  Woman,  wrought  the  safetie 
of  her  Subjects,  and  hammered  the  terrours  of  that 
enemy,  which  was  called,  Omnium  aetatum  &  totius 
orbis  amplissimi  Imperii  Monarcha.  Nor  need  I  name 
the  Belgian  United  Provinces,  whose  Free  estate  like 
another  Venus  arose  out  of  the  Sea,  and  hath  forced 
Mars  to  woe  this  Ladies  love  and  amitie,  when  force 
could  not  ravish  her ;  which  seemes  since  not  only  to 
contemne  that  force,  to  neglect  this  love,  but  almost 
wantonly  in  many  of  hers,  remembers  to  forget  herselfe 
in  some  respects  to  her  quondam  best  friends,  by  whose 
helpe  this  Neptunian  Amazon  was  secured  at  home,  by 
whose  ayde  and  example,  that  I  adde  not  their  Name, 
her  Fortune  and  Fortitude  hath  attempted  both  East 
and  West,  yea,  hath  taken  away  the  name  of  East  and 
West  out  of  the  World,  and  three  times  compassed  the 
Compasse.  Thus  hath  a  little  remnant  of  Land  by 
Sea-assistance,  swelled  to  this  present  greatnesse,  and 
filled  the  remotest  Indies  with  her  Martiall  and  Mer- 
curiall  Designes. 

Now  for  Temperance,  Salomon  himselfe  stumbled  and 
fell  at  that  stone ;  neither  are  Sea-men  usually  on  Land 
the  most  temperate :  Ulysses  had  not  heard  of  Cyrce 
or  the  Syrenes,  had  hee  not  adventured  the  Sea.  Yet 
let  this  be  a  commendation  of  the  Marine  art,  how 
ever  the  Mariner  be  to  blame.  It  is  the  excellency  of 
the  thing  that  makes  it  a  strong  temptation ;  strong 
and  sweet  wines  are  commended,  though  weake  braines 
and  distempered  heads  bee  justly  blamed  for  their  in- 
temperance ;  in  the  good  gifts  of  God,  beautie,  wealth, 
and  honor  (as  the  wormes  breede  in  best  fruits)  are 
I.  Joh.  2.  the  lists  of  the  lust  of  the  flesh,  the  lust  of  the  eyes 
and  pride  of  life,  which  are  not  of  the  Father  but  of 
the  world.  Nor  was  Heaven  to  blame  for  the  fall  of 
Angels,  or  Paradise  for  that  of  Men ;  nor  the  Sea  if 
her    riches     make     mens     mindes     sea-sicke,    wavering, 



inconstant,  distempered,  and  like  the  Sea,  subject  to 
tempestuous  temptations.  Yea,  if  you  looke  neerer, 
you  shall  see,  as  men  blame  and  feare  death  for  the 
last  fatall  paines,  which  yet  are  not  properly  of  death 
(which  is  not  in  possession  till  paine  and  sense  be  quite 
dispossessed)  but  of  the  remainders  of  life ;  so  deale 
they  with  Navigation  in  this  case,  whereas  the  Sea  holds 
them  in  good  temper,  and  is  a  correction  house  to  the 
most  dissolute ;  but  the  Land  makes  them  forget  the 
Sea  and  temperance  together.  Salomons  uxoriousnesse 
and  idolatries  were  Land-beasts,  not  Sea-fishes :  nor 
could  his  Apes  and  Peacocks,  the  vainest  of  his  Sea 
wares,  teach  him  that  vanitie.  The  wonders  of  the  Psal.  107. 
Lord  in  the  Deepe  teach  many,  no  doubt,  deepest 
Divinitie  and  profoundest  Temperance,  though  some  froth 
swims  on  the  top  of  the  Sea,  and  beates  on  every  shore 
where  the  winde  drives  it,  carried  about  with  every 
blast  of  tentation,  to  the  death  of  more  in  the  wrongly- 
accused  voyage  of  the  East  Indies  by  Bacchus  and  Venus, 
then  Neptune  and  Mars,  and  all  such  other  supposed 
Deities,  and  perhaps  (I  will  not  speake  Dutch)  that  scurvy 
Sea-devill  too.  Coelum  non  animum  mutant  qui  trans 
mare  currunt.  They  carry  their  vices  with  them,  which 
because  the  Sea,  a  Schoole  of  sobrietie  and  temperance, 
permits  not  to  practise,  breake  out  on  them  aland  in 
greater  furie.  And  as  Oviedo  tels  of  Lice,  that  they 
leave  men  a  litle  past  the  Azores,  as  they  saile  to  the 
West  Indies,  and  die  and  vanish  by  degrees,  nor  trouble 
them  in  the  countrie,  but  at  their  returne  about  the 
same  height  (as  if  they  had  waited  all  that  while  for 
them)  breede  afresh ;  so  is  it  with  vices,  which  being 
practised  most  on  Land,  doe  finde  men  on  every  shore, 
where  people  and  plentie  offer  opportunitie.  Once, 
Earth  is  predominant  as  in  our  complexions,  so  in  our 

Now  for  the  vertues  called  Theologicall,  Faith,  Hope, 
and  Charitie,  the  Sea  is  a  great  Temple  not  to  con- 
template their  theorie,  but  really  to  practise  them.     Faith 



hath  her  greatest  eclipse  by  interposition  of  Earth,  as 
we  see  in  the  Moone ;  but  at  Sea,  Coelum  undique,  & 
undique  pontus,  no  Earth  is  seene,  only  the  Heaven 
(the  walls  of  our  fathers  Palace)  and  the  inconstant 
shifting  Elements,  which  constantly  put  us  in  minde  of 
our  Pilgrimage,  and  how  neere  in  a  thin  ship,  and 
thinner,  weaker,  tenderer  body  we  dwell  to  death, 
teaching  us  daily  to  number  our  dayes,  and  apply  our 
hearts  to  wisedome.  And  what  can  more  lively  traine 
us  in  Hope  then  Sea-navigation,  where  the  life  we  live 
is  hope,  where  as  Davids   former  deliverance  confirmed 

I.  Sam.  17.  him  against  the  uncircumcised  Philistine,  so  daily  deliver- 
ances from  death  in  so  few  inches  distance  by  windes 
and  waves,  which  like  the  Beare  and  the  Lion  alway 
assault  us,  may  the  better  traine  us  to  the  fight  with 
Goliah  himselfe,  and  as  I  have  said  (by  death  escaping 
death)  to  cut  off  Goliahs  head  with  his  owne  sword. 
But  the  chiefest  of  these  is  Charitie,  and  the  chiefest 
charitie  is  that  which  is  most  common;  nor  is  there 
any  more  common  then  this  of  Navigation,  where  one 
man  is  not  good  to  another  man,  but  so  many  Nations 
as  so  many  persons  hold  commerce  and    intercourse  of 

[I.  i.  21.]  amitie  withall ;  Salomon  and  Hiram  together,  and  both 
with  Ophir ;  the  West  with  the  East,  and  the  remotest ; 
parts  of  the  world  are  joyned  in  one  band  of  humanitie ; 
and  why  not  also  of  Christianitie  ?  Sidon  and  Sion,  Jew 
and  Gentile,  Christian  and  Ethnike,  as  in  this  typical! 
storie  ?  that  as  there  is  one  Lord,  one  Faith,  one  Baptisme, 
one  Body,  one  Spirit,  one  Inheritance,  one  God  and 
Father,  so  there  may  thus  be  one  Church  truly  Catholike, 
One  Pastor  and  one  Sheepfold  ?  And  this  also  wee  hope 
shall  one  day  be  the  true  Ophirian  Navigation,  when 
Ophir  shall  come  into  Jerusalem,  as  Jerusalem  then  went 
unto  Ophir.  Meane  while,  wee  see  a  harmonie  in  this 
Sea-trade,  and  as  it  were  the  concent  of  other  Creatures  to 
this  consent  of  the  Reasonable,  united  by  Navigation, 
howsoever  by  Rites,  Languages,  Customes  and  Countries 
separated.     Heaven  conspires  with  the  inferior  Elements, 



and  yeelds,  as  it  were,  a  Sea  Card  in  the  Sun  and  Stars. 
The  Elements  which  every  where  else  are  at  open  warres, 
herein  agree  in  sweetest  symphonie;  the  Earth  yeelding 
Shores,  Capes,  Bayes  and  Ports,  as  nests  ;  the  Aire  windes 
as  wings  to  these  artificiall  Sea-fowles  (so  esteemed  at 
their  first  sight  by  the  Americans,  and  by  the  Negros) 
and  the  Sea  admitting  strange  Children  into  her  Familie, 
and  becomming  a  Nurse  against  her  Nature,  to  the  Earths 
generation.  What  shall  I  say  more  ?  Omne  tulit 
punctum  qui  miscuit  utile  dulci.  To  the  many  profitable 
effects  of  Navigation,  many  pleasures  may  be  added  both 
of  Reason  in  speculation,  and  of  Sense  in  more  then 
sensuall  delight.  Salomon  in  his  Ophirian  voyage  fur- 
nished himselfe  with  Gold  and  Silver,  and  other  solid 
commodities;  with  Almuggim  trees  also,  yea  with  Apes 
and  Peacocks,  the  one  for  the  musicall  delights  of  the 
Temple,  the  other  domesticall  and  naturall.  But  I  am 
plunged  in  an  Ocean,  when  I  goe  about  the  Oceans  praise, 
which  goes  about  all  things  :  I  shall  sooner  drowne  my 
selfe  in  these  Deepes,  then  measure  the  true  depth  of  the 
Seas  commendations,  or  Navigate  thorow  the  commodities 
of  Navigation  by  commerce  abroad  by  his  owne,  or  by 
Customes  at  home  by  others  employments.  The  Text 
it  selfe  is  a  Sea,  and  needes  a  better  Steeresman  to  instruct 
in  these  Points  of  Salomons  Compasse,  which  saith  more 
for  Navigation  then  I  can,  who  yet  to  shew  my  love 
and  honour  of  that  Noble  Science  have  adventured  to 
say  this,  to  pay  this  as  Custome  for  the  whole  Worke, 
wherein  are  returned  so  many  returnes  from  Sea.  And 
now  it  is  high  time  we  come  to  the  History  it  selfe,  and 
historicall  or  litterall  sense;  the  first  in  our  intention, 
howsoever  last  in  execution. 

[§.  VII. 



I.  Reg.  9.  26. 

§.  VII. 

Of  Ezion  Geber,  Eloth,  and  the  Red  Sea:  that  of 
Edom  it  received  that  name,  and  communi- 
cated it  to  the  Indian  Ocean,  by  the  Phoenician 
Navigations  frequent  in  those  times  to  India. 

INd  King  Salomon  made  a  Navie  of  Ships  in  Ezion 
Geber,  which  is  beside  Eloth,  on  the  shoare  of 
the  Red  Sea  in  the  Land  of  Edom,  &c. 

This   is  the  first  and  best  testimonie  of  a  holy  Navie. 
Noah  had  by  Divine  Wisdome  and  Precept  built  a  Ship, 
which  preserved  the  remainders  of  the  Old,  and  beginnings 
I.  Pet.  3.21,  of  the  New  World,  a  figure  of  that  Baptisme  which  now 
saveth    us    by   the    resurrection    of    Jesus    Christ.      The 
Temple,    a   later    and    livelier     figure    of    Heaven    and 
Salvation  it  selfe,  must  bee  furnished  with  due  materialls 
by  a   whole  Fleet  of  Ships,  which   shall  not   save  alone 
from  dangers,  but  crowne  with  fulnesse  ot  joy  and  glory ; 
this  typically  then  renewed  by  Salomon  for  new  supplies 
every  Trinitie  of  yeares ;  but  there  the  Eternall  Trinitie 
Jpoc.ii.iz,  shall  at  once  bee  the  Temple,  the  Sunne,  the  exceeding 
^^'  great  reward,   and  all  in  all  for   ever.     No  passage  was 

uCoiil.  found  for  Israel  out  of  Egypt  to  the  Wildernesse  (a 
type  of  the  life  by  Faith)  nor  for  abundance  of  the 
Temples  riches  the  shadow  of  glory,  but  by  the  Red 
Sea ;  so  meritorious  is  the  blood  of  our  Redeemer,  which, 
by  bloody  sweat,  whippings,  and  a  thorny  Crowne,  welled 
Springs  of  the  water  of  life  out  of  all  parts  of  his  body ; 
out  of  his  hands  and  feet  yeelded  the  foure  Rivers  which 
watered  the  Paradise  of  God ;  out  of  his  pierced  side 
and  heart  flowed  a  sea,  a  Red  Sea  of  water  and  bloud 
to  save,  to  enrich  us,  to  purchase  our  Justification  by 
Grace,  and  beginnings  of  Sanctification  growing  unto 
perfect  Glory. 

But  as  all  faire  things  are  farre  from  easie  possession, 
so  is  it  with  Heaven,  and  all  her  mysteries,  so  is  it 
with  us  in  this  Voyage  of  Salomon,  to  know  where  this 



Ezion-geber  was,  from  whence  he  set  sayle,  and  to  come 
to  that  Ophir,  where  he  made  his  Voyage :  touching 
both  which,  things  otherwise  enough  difficult  are  made 
the  harder  by  those  mysts,  which  disagreeing  opinions 
have  raised  in  our  way.  The  Text  giveth  three  markes 
to  know  the  first,  that  it  was  beside  Eloth,  on  the  shoare 
of  the  Red  Sea,  and  in  the  Land  of  Edom.  This  third 
marke  of  Ezion-geber  is  delineated  by  Moses,  Deut.  2. 
8.  and  before  in  Num.  33.  35.  made  the  two  and  thirtieth 
Station  of  the  Israelites  removing,  or  march  in  the 
Wildernesse.  And  heerein  our  Maps  of  that  Chapiter, 
were  in  the  former  Bibles  much  to  blame,  which  are 
in  that  and  other  respects  much  amended,  in  the  Map  of 
the  Holy  Land  added  to  the  last  Translation.  Now 
that  it  was  on  the  shoare  of  the  Red  Sea,  and  not  on  the 
Mediterranean,  this  Text  proveth :  and  the  conceite  of 
Goropius  in  this  kinde  that  denieth  Idumasa  to  extend  J-  Gonp. 
to  the  Red  Sea,  and  averreth  that  this  Fleet  was  set  Becan  Hts- 
forth  from  the  Idumasan  Mediterranean  shoare,  it  is  pj  j'jVV 
as  many  other  disputations  of  his,  more  full  of  industry 
then  wit,  of  wit  then  learning,  of  learning  then  judgement. 
Strange  are  his  conceptions,  and  strong  his  disceptations, 
but  having  weake  foundations  (grounded  commonly  on 
names  and  wordes  buried  under  succession  of  rubbishes) 
they  prove  in  the  end  (as  Joseph  Scaliger  speaketh)  but  Josep.  Antiq. 
Doctas  nug^,  more  wordy  then  worthy  guides,  which  ^-  ^-  ^-  ^• 
doe  but  verba  dare.  Againe,  that  Josephus  placeth 
Esiongeber  at  Berenice,  is  either  a  marginall  note  of 
some  novice  Geographer  crept  into  the  Text,  or  else  an 
old  error;  for  Berenice  is  on  the  ^Egyptian  shore, 
Esiongeber  on  the  Arabian.  Josephus  placeth  it  neere 
Elana  :  and  in  the  Text  Eloth  is  set  a  guide  to  Esiongeber. 
Now  Eloth  being  written  in  the  holy  tongue  rn^N  ^^d 
ni)\\  was  by  transmigration  shifted  and  removed  to  divers 
pronuntiations,  a  thing  usuall  in  Ebrew  names,  both  of 
places  and  persons.  Hee  that  seeth  how  John  or  James 
are  transported  in  such  unlike  sounds  from  the  Originall, 
in    Greeke,    Latine,     French,    Dutch,     Spanish,    Italian, 



English,  and  other  languages,  in  all  so  unlike  and  diver- 
sified, would  scarcely  acknowledge  them  brothers,  or  to 
have  any  kindred  either  to  the  mother  tongue,  or  in 
those  many  sister  languages :  and  so  is  it  commonly  with 
other  names. 
/.  16.  Strabo  calls  it  AeiXa,  Josephus  'KiXavh,  the  Latins  Elana, 

and  the  Gulfe  or  Bay  neere  to  it  is  termed  Elaniticus. 
Of  this  place  how  it  lieth,  and  how  the  Ancients  were 
deceived,  you  have  the  Relations  of  Don  John  Di  Castro, 
from  his  owne  eyes  and  learned  judgement,  supposed 
to  bee  the  same  which  is  now  called  El  Tor,  or  Toro. 
Yea  the  Red  Sea  is  likeliest  to  have  received  that  name 
from  Edom,  as  the  Pamphilian,  Ionian,  Tyrrhene,  Brittish, 
and  other  Seas  are  ordinarily  so  named  of  the  Principall 
shoares  they  wash.  Castro  hath  better  examined  the 
rednesse  then  any  man,  and  compared  the  Moderne 
and  Ancient  opinions  with  his  owne  eyes.  And  for  a 
Booke-traveller,  I  must  needs  applaud  Master  Fuller, 
Our  Country-man,  who  in  the  last  Chapiter  of  the 
fourth  Book  of  his  Miscellanea  Sacra,  hath  mustered  the 
testimonies  of  the  Ancients  together,  and  ascribeth  the 
25,  name  of  Red-sea  to  Edom,  of  whom  Idumaea  tooke  name, 
and  of  him  and  it,  this  Sea.  For  Ptolemey's  Idumea 
is  farre  short  of  the  Ancient,  which  contained  also 
Nabathaea  and  their  Citie  Petra,  whence  Arabia  Petrea 
received  the  name ;  Esaus  Sword,  (of  which  his  Father 
had   prophesied)  conquering  to  both  Seas. 

This  Edom  or  Esau  was  that  Erythras,  which  the  Grecians 
mention  to  have  given  name  to  that  Sea,  by  translating 
Edom  into  Erythras  or  Erythraeus,  as  Cephas  into  Petrus. 
Postellus  had  stumbled  on  this  Note,  which  Fuller  more 
fully  and  learnedly  hath  opened,  as  other  things  also 
pertaining  to  our  purpose.  That  there  is  a  rednesse 
in  some  parts  of  that  Sea,  by  reason  of  the  cleerenesse 
of  the  water,  and  abundance  of  a  kind  of  red  Corrall, 
branching  it  selfe  on  the  transparant  bottoms,  Castro 
hath  made  evident,  but  that  in  a  small  part  of  that  Sea ; 
the  like  whereof  happneth  in  other  Seas  of  cleerest  waters, 



which  show  white  from  sands,  greene  from  weeds,  parti- 
coloured  with  pleasant  diversified   hue,  as  Pineda  citeth 
the  testimony  of  Ferandez  observed  neere  to  Carthagena 
in  America,  every  Stone,  Shell,  or  whatsoever  else  was  See  Saris  his 
in  the  bottom,  in  those  liquid  waves  yeelding  so  pleasant  ^'°y^S'^  ^-  4-  '"• 
and  various  a  tincture,  as  his  many  Navigations  had  no     '  ^ 
where    else    observed ;    and    Captaine   Saris    in   this   Sea, 
called    anciently    Erythraean     (which     name,    besides    the 
Arabike  and  Persian  Gulfes,  contained  the  Indian  Ocean, 
so  named  as  it  seemeth,  from  the  frequent  Navigations 
out  of  Eloth  and  Esion  Geber  in  Edom  unto  India)  was 
one  night  almost  terrified  with  a  glare  yeelding  light  to 
discerne   Letters,    suspected    to    bee    some    breach,    and 
proved  nothing  but  Cuttle  Fish  in  the  bottome. 

But    to    returne    to    our    Red    Sea,    Agatharchides    in 
Photius  his  Bibliotheca,  saith  it  is  not  called  Red  of  the  p/wt.  Bib. 
colour,  but  0.1Z0  Tov  SvvaarTovcrauTo?  of  some  man  which  there 
ruled.     The  Scriptures  call  it  Siph,  Suph,  or  Souph,  trans-  Co/.  13  22, 
lated  algosum,  caricosum,  juncosum  (to  which  accordeth   ^  •^^i'- 
Martialls  Verse  ;  Quicquid  Erythraea  niger  invenit  Indus  in 
alga)  it  seemes  of  the  abundance  of  Rushes  and  Weeds  there 
growing.     The  Moores,  Turkes,  and  Traders  thereof  in 
later  times  call  it  the  Sea  of  Mecca  :  Mela  mentioneth  the  ^^1^  <^^  ^'f" 
colour,  and  the  King  Erythras  there  reigning ;  Plinie  addes  ^j'/"^  j'  7- 
for  the  name.  The  Sunnes  repercussion  from  the  Sand  and 
Land;  Strabo   cites  the  same  out  of  Eratosthenes,   with   S(ral>.  16. 
a  tale  of  Ctesias  of  a  Fountaine  emptying  his  red-okerie 
waters  thereinto,   and  the  Relation  of  Boxus  a  Persian, 
that  Erythras  a  Persian  planted  a  Persian  Colonie  in  an 
Hand   thereof.     Ouranius  in    Stephanus  tells   of  the  red 
adjoyning  Mountaines :  the  Poets  have  their  Perseus,  and 
others  their  other  conceits  and  deceits,  which  I  leave  to  ^p.    ,    , 
their  Authors,  as  also  Pinedas*  later  device.     The  nature  ^.^^ 
of  that  Sea  is  better  delivered  in  the  voyages  of  Castro,  4.^.10. 
Midleton,   Saris,   Dounton,   Haines,  and  others  in   these  thinketh  this 
our  Navigations.     But  for  Eloth  and  Esiongeber,  Master  ^^"^  Sea  to  be 

T-^ii-r         ••  1  01  -I-  TXT*    J  SO  named  of 

duller  IS  or  opinion  that  Salomon  in  his  great   Wisdome,  Red  Weeds 
wanting    fit    Mariners,   sent    to  Hiram   for  Tyrians    and  growing there- 



in,  sojoyning  Phaenicians,  and  that  a  large  Colonic  was  sent  by  Hiram  to 

SuphandEry  inhabit  those  parts,   then   subject   to   King    Salomon,   by 

Telubilon  °'"  "^^^^^  meanes  Solomon  and  Hiram  enter  into  societie  for 

Vuuho°se'red  the   Indian  traffick  by  that  Sea  of  Edom,   so  to  get  the 

Herbs  are  his  riches  of  the  East  in  possession.     This  Colonie  numerous 

creatures :  for  ^^^  strong  he  placeth  at  Esiongeber  the  Arsenal,  or  fittest 

neither  he  ci-  ,         ^  building   Ships,  and  at  Eloth  the  fittest    Port, 

teth,norcanl  r                  ,  o       i     r        i      t    j-                 u      j-           t^u        u 

find  any  au-  Mart,  and  Staple  for  the  Indian  merchandise,      ihus  hee, 

thentlke  Au-  and  very  probably  :  adding  that  the  Hebrew  ^lath  in  the 
thor  for  them,  singular,  and  iEloth  in  the  plurall  number,  was  by  the 
InPhoTuM  Phenicians  turned  into  Ailath,  whose  singular  is  Aila,  and 
XaJlr^v  '  plurall  Ailan  :  thence  the  Greekes  Ailae,  Ailana,  Eilane, 
xb\Ttov.  Elana,   and   the  Latins   ^Elana,  and  by  inversion  Laeana. 

This  Phoenician  Colonie  hee  observeth  to  have  beene  of 
[I.  i.  23.]       most    name    of  all    other    the   Inhabitants  thereof     For 
the  Jewish  yoke  was  soone  shaken  off  by  the  Edomites 
2.  Chron.  21.  themselves,  after    Jehoshaphats  death,  Jehoram  rebelling 
^-  against  God,  and  the  Edomites  against  him.     After  that 

2.Reg.\\.zz.  Azariah  recovered  Elath  and  built  it.  It  continued  not 
Z.Reg.  16.6.  long,  but  Rezin  King  of  Syria  recovered  Elath  to  Syria, 
*  The  Edition  and  drave  the  Jewes  from  Elath,  and*the  Syrians  came 
of  Brixianus  (.q  Elath,  and  dwelt  there  to  this  day.  Thus  the  Jewes 
hath  Idumai  ^j^j^j^  ^^^^  ^^^  Lords,  and  received  the  Customes,  were 
runt,  expelled;  but  the  Idumaean  Natives  and  Phasnicians, 
whichamanu-  which  might  bee  usefull  to  the  conquerours  remained, 
script  of  M.  j-}^e  Tyrians  being  Syrophasnicians,  and  speaking  the 
^'^^r^th  Syrian   language,   and   by   their  merchandising  so  profit- 

able to  their  Kings. 
S/r. /.  16.  This  Elath   was  after  called   Albus  Pagus,   by   Strabo 

called  the  chiefe  Mart  of  the  Nabatjeans,  whence  the 
Indian  and  Arabian  Merchandise  was  carried  to  Petra, 
thence  to  Rhinoculura  in  Phsnicia  neere  Egypt,  and 
thence  dispersed  to  other  places.  Thus  in  the  times 
before  the  Ptolemeys.  But  in  Salomons  time,  and  whiles 
the  Jewes  ruled  there,  they  were  brought  to  Jerusalem 
and  to  Tyrus;  and  after  that  to  Myos  Hormos  and 
Arriani  Peri-  Berenice,  i^gyptian  Ports  on  the  other  side  of  the  Red 
plus  Sea,   to   be    thence    convayed    to    Alexandria.      Arrianus 



in    his   time    mentioneth    the    Garrison    at    Albus    Pagus 

and    Custome    there    taken,    the    transporting    of    wares 

thence  to  Petra,  notwithstanding  the  Egyptian  flourishing. 

Saint  Jerom  also  placeth  Ailat  In  extremis  finibus  Pales-  ^^>'--  d^  ^^c, 

tinae,   adjoyning  to   the  Wildernesse    and    the  Red  Sea :      ^  ' 

Unde  ex  ^gypto  in  Indiam  &  inde  ad  ^gyptum  navi- 

gatur.       Sedet    autem    ibi    legio    Romana    cognomento 

Decima;    Et   olim   quidem   Ailat  a    veteribus   dicebatur, 

nunc  vero  appellatur  Aila. 

Ptolemev   placeth   Phsnicum   oppidum    not    far    from  He  which  will 
T-.,  1        tT       A  •  -r>i         •   •  "1    ^i„^ .    if^  "'Ore  or 

Elana;  the  He    Astarte    is  a    Phaenician   memorial   also;  ^^^^^ ^„^-^^;. 

Plinie  mentioneth  Gens  Tyra,  and  Herodotus  the  Syrians  ^/^^  /^^  /^i^^ 
on  the    Red  Sea  shoare ;  that    I    pursue  no    other    An-  read  M.  Ful- 
tiquities.      These    Tyrians    it    seemeth    first    began     the  ^^'■• 
sailing  of  the  Indian  Seas,  and  Habitation  on  the  Arabian 
shoares,   instructed  by   the   Wisdome,   and    procured    by 
the  Friendship    of   Salomon    with    Hiram :     which    they 
continued  under  many  State-changes,  till  the  Mahumetan 
times,   the    Staple   of   those    Indian    Merchandises  being 
altered  after  the  Jewish  times,  with  the  chiefe  Monarchies, 
Assyrian,  Babylonian,  Persian,  Ptolem^an,  Roman.     And 
this  is  the  onely  Phoenix-neast  made  of  sweet  Spices  in   ^^'^^p  °f 
Nature  false  (for  God  made  all  Fowles  at  first,  and  after  ^^'  ^^'^"''''' 
brought   to,   and  out   of  the   Arke,  in  both  sexes,   male 
and  female)  but  true  in  this  Alegory,   the  Phasnicians  of 
all  the  Nations  known,   being  the  only  skilful  Mariners 
in  the  Arabian  and  Indian   seas,   and  from  the   one,  by 
the   other,   bringing   the   Spices  and    Riches  of  the  East 
into  the  West,   that  skill  being   ever  communicated  not 
by    Generation,    but    by    Industry ;    which    made    Tyrus 
(as  Ezekiel  describeth  it)  the  Phoenix  indeed  of  all  Cities  E^i'k-  27-  ^ 
of  Trade  in  the  World.     Master  Fuller  learnedly  addeth   ^^\  .^^^^ 
the  Fables  of  Bacchus  and  Hercules  their  Indian  Expedi-  the  fables  of 
tions,   to   this  of  Salomon   and    Hiram,    Hercules   being  Bacchus  and 
adored  of  the  one,  and  Jehova  of  the  other,  which  name  Hercules. 
by  Heathens  was  perverted  to  m^ayo^  and  io(3dKxo?  names  ^^q^^J^^'^J^ 
of  Bacchus   in    Hesychius ;    which    agreeth    to   Plutarchs  „ijjj^fio„  and 
conceit,    that    the    Jewes   worshipped    Bacchus   on    their  //  is  evident, 




Sabbaths,  and  deriveth  the  name  Sabbatum  from  a-a^dl^eiv, 
and  a-a^acrioij  a  name  of  Bacchus,  as  his  Priests  were 
termed  ara^^ol.  Now  for  that  Gulfe  in  which  Strabo 
placeth  Elana,  and  calls  it  therefore  Elaniticus,  and 
another  towardes  Egypt,  I  referre  you  to  Castros  follow- 
ing relations,  which  better  knew  those  parts  then  Strabo 
P/ut.  Sympos.  could ;  Gaza  by  Strabo  and  Plinies  reckoning  seemeth 
^•4-  to  bee  about  one  hundred  and  fiftie  of  our  miles  or  more 

I  "j  %  ^n  *^  ^^°"^  thence.  Salomon  went  in  Progresse  to  take  care 
halfe,  the  other  of  this  his  Ophirian  Fleet  from  Jerusalem  to  Esion-geber, 
150.  almost  as  farre  as  from  London  to  Yorke. 

Asion   Geber  in   Saint  Jeroms  interpretation   signifieth 

Hieron.  Epist.  ligna  viri,   aut  lignationes    viri,    aut  dolationes    hominis, 

ed.  Tabtol.       ^uXaKiafMo^opo^ ;  whence  some  gather  that  much  Timber 

grew   there   usefull    for  building   of  Ships :   perhaps,  and 

I   rather   beleeve,  for  the  Timbers  brought  thither  as  to 

an  arsenall  or  storeyard  for  that  purpose.     For  as  Woods 

agree  not  with    Moses   his  Wildernesse,  so   I    find  little 

mention   of  Wood  in   all   the  Arabike    shoare ;   at    lest, 

later    times    have   knowne    none    there.       And    Soliman 

the  Great  Turke,  A.  1538.  is  said  to  have  brought  the 

materialls   of  the  great    Fleet  which   hee    built    at    Sues 

in  the  Red  Sea,  to  invade  Dium  and  expell  the  Portugalls 

out  of  India,  from  remote   Regions,  Materiam  ex  long- 

inquis  colligi  jussit    (Damianus  a   Goes    is    our  Author) 

illamque    sumptu    in^stimabili    ad     mare     rubrum     vehi 

Com.  Venrt.     curavit.     Comito  Venetiano,   who    with    other  Venetians 

^'^"''  J°i  r'     ^^^^  forced   to  that  service  out  of  their  Ships  at   Alex- 

^c^\l  of  these  andria    to    goe    to    Cairo    and    Sues,     more    particularly 

Deserts  and     relateth  that  Sues  is  in  a .  Desert  place  where  no  Hearb 

of  Sues.  of  any   sort  groweth,  where   the   Armada   for  India  was 

Satalin  is  in     j^^de,    and    all    the     Timbers,     Ironworkes,     Tackling, 

^aJTamher      Munitions  were  brought  from  Satalia  and  Constantinople 

{some  saf)  in    by   Sea    to   Alexandria,    and    thence    carried  on  the  Nile 

Cilicia.  by   Zerme    (Boats,    or    Rafts)    to    Cairo,    and  thence  on 

Camells    to    Sues.       This    Voyage    is    eightie    miles,    in 

which  is    neither    habitation,    nor    water,   nor    any   thing 

for  life :  they   carry    Nilus    water    on    Camells  when  the 



Carovans  goe  thither.  In  the  Pagans  times,  it  was  a 
great  Citie  and  full  of  Cisternes,  and  had  a  trench  from 
Nilus  which  filled  all  their  Cisternes,  destroyed  by  the 
Mahumetans,  so  that  now  they  fetch  their  water  sixe 
miles  off  from  brackish  Wells.  There  the  Turke  built 
a  Fleet  of  seventie  six  Vessells  of  all  sorts,  &c. 

Don  John  di  Castro  speakes  of  this  Fleet  of  Salomon, 
and  sayth,  the  Timber  whereof  it  was  made  was  brought 
from  Libanon  and  Antilibanon  (so  little  signe  saw  hee, 
or  heard  of  any  Trees  or  Wood  in  these  parts)  and  saith, 
that  from  Toro  all  the  Coast  is  West,  and  without  any 
Port  but  Sues,  and  that  therefore  Cleopatras  Fleet  was  [I.  I.  2+.] 
brought  by  Land  from  Nilus,  to  Sues  over  the  Isthmos. 
This  is  in  29.  degrees  45.  minutes,  supposed  Arsinoe  of 
the  Ancients,  Some  say,  Civitas  Heroum ;  and  said  to 
be  the  Turkes  Arsenale  for  his  Armada,  for  those  Seas, 
the  Materials  being  brought  from  Caramania :  which 
at  Castros  being  there,  consisted  of  one  and  forty  great 
Gallies  and  nine  great  Ships.  It  seemeth  by  Sir  Henry 
Middletons  Story  following,  that  their  strength  in  those 
Seas  is  weake  in  later  times.  As  that  whole  Wildernesse 
yeelded  nothing  for  mans  life,  but  their  food  was  Manna 
from  Heaven,  and  their  apparell  was  by  heavenly  power 
preserved,  so  here  Salomons  wisdome  is  freely  given, 
and  his  Materials  for  an  Ophirian  Fleet,  and  Temple 
structure  must  be  not  naturally  there  growing.  His 
Mariners  also  must  be  borrowed,  to  shew  that  the  just 
live  by  faith,  and  in  matters  of  grace,  wee  have  nothing  i.  Cor.  7.  4. 
which  wee  have  not  received,  not  growing  out  of  the 
naturall  powers  of  free  will,  but  framed  out  of  the  will 
freed  by  divine  grace,  agreeing  to  which  Mystery  nothing 
of  the  Temple  was  framed  in  Moriah,  nor  the  noyse 
of  a  Hammer  once  heard;  the  Tabernacle  before  built 
also  of  Egyptian  spoyles ;  and  Israel  inherited  Cities 
which  they  builded  not,  and  Vineyards  planted  by  them : 
and  lastly,  Christ  himselfe  was  crucified  without  the 
gate,  that  neither  Jew  nor  Jerusalem  may  challenge 
either  Monopoly  or  Merit,  but  all  may  bee  ascribed  to 
I  65  E 


meere  mercle  and  free  grace,  Non  nobis  domine,  not 
to  us  Lord,  not  to  us  but  to  thy  Name  be  given  the 

[I.  i.  .5.]  §.   VIII. 

Of  Ophir,  divers  opinions  weighed  and  censured ; 
whether  the  Compasse  was  knowne  to  the  old 
World;  that  the  remote  parts  were  lately  in- 
habited, the  New  World  but  newly,  and  a 
great  part  thereof  not  yet. 

His  Golden  Countrey  is  like  Gold,  hard  to  find 
and  much  quarrelled,  and  needes  a  wise  Myner 
to   bring   it   out  of  the  Labyrinths  of  darknesse, 

and  to  try  and  purifie  the  Myners  themselves  and  their 
reports.  And  here  our  best  Athenians  seeme  Owles 
indeed,  which  dazled  with  Salomons  splendour  hide  them- 
selves affarre  off,  and  seeke  for  Easterne  Ophir  in  Peru, 
and  the  West  Indies.  Such  conceits  have  transported 
Postellus,  Goropius  Becanus,  Arias  Montanus,  Vatablus, 
Possevinus,  Genebrard,  Marinus  Brixianus,  Sa,  Engu- 
binus,  Avenarius,  Garcia,  Noble  Morney,  and  many 
others  by  their  authority.  Their  reason  is  spelled  out 
of  the  Letters  of  Ophir  and  Peru,  so  neere  of  Kinne. 
Arias  Montanus  in  his  Phaleg  is  both  large  and  little 
in  this  point,  saying,  both  much  and  nothing;  for  from 
the  Scriptures  stiling  the  Ophirian  Gold  D-^ino  Paruaim, 
he  gathereth  that  it  was  brought  from  the  two  Perues,  one 
of  which  he  maketh  new  Spain,  and  the  other  that  which 
now  is  called  Peru;  or  the  Northerne  and  Southerne 
moyties  of  America ;  and  that  those  parts  were  commonly 
traded  in  ancient  times.  He  maketh  the  rowe  of  hils 
which  runne  from  Panama,  to  the  Magellan  Straits  to  be 
Gen.  10.  26,  Mount  Sephir :  for  so  it  is  said  Gen.  10.  speaking  of 
27.28,29,30.  joktans  Sonnes,  the  brother  of  Peleg  or  Phaleg;  And 
Joktan  begat  Almodad,  and  Sheleph,  and  Hazarmaveth, 
and  Jerah  And  Hadoram,  and  Uzal  and  Diklah,  and 
Obal  and  Abimael  and  Sheba.     And  Ophir  and  Havilah 



and  Jobab :  all  these  were  the  sonnes  of  Joktan.  And 
their  dwelling  was  from  Mesha,  as  thou  goest  unto 
Sephar,  a  Mount  of  the  East;  or  as  Tremellius,  ad 
montes  orientes  usque. 

If  learned  Montanus  had  viewed  his  owne  Map  only, 
hee  should  have  seene  his  Ophir  in  the  West,  and  not  in 
the  East :  and  if  it  be  said  Salomons  fleet  went  by  the  East 
to  the  Westerne  parts  of  the  World,  as  the  Philippinae 
and  Moluccan  shippes  of  the  Spaniards  use  to  doe,  yet 
Moses  speakes  of  the  dwelling  and  habitations  (not  of 
Journeyings  and  Navigations)  which  God  after  the  Baby- 
lonian conspiracy  had  alloted  to  the  generations  of  men ; 
their  dwelling  must  then  bee  in  regard  of  Moses  when  he 
wrote  this  in  the  Desert,  or  of  the  scattering  from  Baby- 
lon, whereof  he  wrote.  But  these  parts  of  America,  are 
more  then  halfe  the  Globe  distant  from  those  places 
Eastward,  and  much  neerer  by  the  West. 

Againe,  the  name  Peru  or  Piru  is  a  vaine  foundation,  Sepharuaim. 

for  divers  places  (see  Ortelius  his  Thesaurus  Geograph.)  ^- ^^S-  i7-" 

,.,        ^         ,   ^  ,  .  :      r  a  name  as  like. 

have  like,   or   the   same   names,    neyther   is   any   part   ot  ^^^  ^^.^^^  ^^_ 

America  by  the  Inhabitants  called  Peru,   but   this  name  ding  but  a 
was  accidentally  by  the  Spaniards  ascribed  to  those  begin-  Sameck  to 
nings  of  their   Discoveries   on  the  South  Sea,  and  con-  P^f'^'^^'"  ^ 
tinued  to   that   great  Kingdome  of  the   Incas   found  by  ^l^duedby^he 
Pizarro.     Garcilasso  de  la  Vega  of  the  Inca  bloud  Royall  Assyrians. 
by  his  mother,  sonne  to  one  of  the  Spanish  Conquerors,  Vega.  com. 
borne  and   brought   up  at   Cozco,   chiefe  City   of  Peru,  realesl.x.c. 
sayth  that  they  had  no  generall  name  for  the  Kingdome,  Jj^  5-  ^^^^  ^^ 
but  Tavantin  Suyu,  that  is,  the  foure  parts  of  the  World;  /.  7.  r,  13. 
nor  acknowledge  the  appellation  of  Peru  :    but  the  first 
Discoverers  seising  on  a  fisherman  in  a  River,  asked  him 
of  the  Countrey,  and  he  amazed  and  not  understanding 
them,  answered  Beru,  and   annon   added  Pelu,   as   if  he 
should  say,  my  name  (if  you  aske  me  thereof)  is  Beru, 
and  I  was  fishing  in  the  River,  Pelu  being  the  common 
name  of  a  River.     The  Spaniards,  as  if  he  had  answered 
directly,  corrupted  a   name  of  both   those   words,  which 
they  understood  not,  and  called  the  Region  Peru,  a  name 



Lopez  de  Go- 
mar  a  Gen. 
hut.  c.  $2. 

Bias  Val.  hut. 

Acost.  hut.  I. 
2.  cap.  13. 

[I.  i.  26.]  Occul- 
tis  Nat.  mirac. 
I.  3.  c.  4. 
Full.  Miscel. 
I.  4.  c.  19. 
Ec.  I.  10. 

which  the  Natives  had  never  heard.  The  like  they  did 
in  another  Province,  where  asking  a  Native  what  was  the 
name  of  the  Countrey,  he  answered,  Tectetan,  Tectetan, 
that  is,  I  understand  you  not,  which  they  corruptly  called 
Jucatan  and  Yucatan,  as  if  the  Indian  had  affirmed  that 
to  be  the  name  of  the  Region.  The  like  casuall  names 
he  observeth  of  other  American  places. 

The  Jesuite  Bias  Valera,  in  his  History  of  Peru  affirm- 
eth  the  same,  that  Peru  is  not  the  proper  name  but 
accidentall,  which  the  Natives  know  not.  Acosta  acknow- 
ledgeth  it  unknowne  to  the  Naturals,  and  an  occasioned 
name  from  a  small  River,  which  Vega  saith  was  called 
so  first  by  those  Spaniards,  which  there  tooke  the  fisher- 
man. Thus  the  name  which  they  would  make  as  old 
as  Salomon,  began  but  Anno  151 5.  at  the  most,  and  that 
which  is  extended  to  New  Spaine,  and  Peru,  was  knowne 
in  neither,  nor  in  any  place  else  of  the  World. 

Thirdly,  I  answere  that  Peru  was  not  inhabited,  nor 
yet  New  Spaine,  one  thousand  yeares  after  Salomons  time ; 
of  which  I  shall  speake  more  anon,  and  in  my  following 
Discourse  of  the  Apostolicall  peregrinations. 

Fourthly,  neither  could  so  long  a  Voyage  then  have 
beene  performed  in  three  yeeres,  beeing  farre  more  then 
to  have  compassed  the  Globe,  which  hath  cost  Drake  and 
others  three  yeares  worke :  where  their  worke  was  not  in 
Mynes  but  in  quicke  fights. 

Fiftly,  this  could  not  then  be  done  without  the  Com- 
passe.  Pineda  may  conceit  himselfe  that  those  times 
knew  it,  but  the  Phenicians  have  in  no  Story  left  any 
such  memoriall;  nor  others  of  them,  yet  these 
were  Salomons  Sea  men.  Levinus  Lemnius,  and 
Master  Fuller  would  have  us  beleeve  that  the  Ancients 
had  the  Compasse  within  the  compasse  of  their  art,  by 
reason  of  the  Phaenicians  Marine  skill  and  experience, 
which  we  say  might  be  as  much  as  it  was,  by  the  Starres, 
the  Monsons,  the  Soundings,  and  Shores.  Another 
reason  is,  the  Learning  and  skill  of  those  times,  whereof 
Salomon    saith,    Is    there  any   thing    whereof  it   may  be 



said,  this  is  new  ?  it  hath  beene  alreadie  of  old  time  which 
was  before  us.  It  might  therefore  be  knowne  in  those 
times,  and  by  barbarous  invasions  be  after  lost,  and  by 
better  times  restored:  I  answer  that  the  times  were 
learned  before  and  after  Salomon,  but  when  that  learning 
should  by  Barbarian  incursions  be  lost,  I  know  not.  The 
Egyptian,  Assyrian,  Chaldaean  invasions  might  rather  in- 
crease and  disperse,  then  eclipse  and  abolish  learning, 
being  then  more  learned  then  the  Greekes,  who  borrowed 
their  very  Letters  from  the  Phaenicians.  The  Persian 
times  are  knowne,  and  the  Greeke  Learning  then  grew 
to  the  highest  pitch,  when  their  Empire  succeeded,  and 
in  love  of  Learning  exceeded  the  other.  Hippocrates, 
Socrates,  Plato,  Xenophon,  Aristotle,  and  before  them 
Pythagoras  and  other  Philosophers  flourished  before 
the  Persian  ruines,  and  travelled  into  the  East  for 
that  Learning,  which  they  brought  into  Greece  and 

The  Romanes  borrowed  their  Arts  from  the  Greekes, 
neither  doe  we  read  of  Learning  evaporated  in  Barbarian 
flames,  till  the  Deluges  of  those  Savages  in  the  Romane 
Empire,  which  yet  continued  both  Empire  and  Learning 
in  the  East,  till  the  West  had  in  good  measure  recovered 
it  selfe  out  of  those  Mysts,  and  the  Barbarous  Saracens  Joseph  com. 
had  growne  lovers  of  Learning,  and  our  Teachers.     And  ^/'/'^«^'"- 
yet,  had  there  beene  such   Barbarians  which   had  rooted  ^^-^^    ^^^^^  j^ 
that    skill    out   of  the   World    (which    is    unlikely,   that  fiure  Bookes. 
Marine   skill  beeing  the   best   meanes  to   encrease    their 
Empire,    to   enrich    their    Coff^ers,    to    doe   them    other 
services    in  Warre   and    Peace,    the    ancient   Conquerors 
using    Fleets    also    to    their   purposes)   yet   some    of  the 
Bookes    and    Monuments    of  all    Ages,    from    Salomons  ^f^<^''Yi 
time  being  left  to  that  of  the  Romans,  as  appeareth  by  „gcessary  to 
Josephus  so  well  acquainted  in  the  Tyrian  Libraries,  and  Moral!,  Poli- 
other  Authors  of  divers  Nations,  and  by  the  fragments  tike aud saving 
which    are   come   to   our   hands,   and    by   whole    Bookes  'ff°^j'}f/° 
of  Voyages  in  the  Indian  and  Mediteranean  Seas,  as  this  ^^.j^ij^  q^^ 
Booke  will  declare ;  it  cannot  be   but  some   mention  of  gave  him  so 



large  a  heart. 
But  the  Sea 
hath  bounds. 
Is  so  had 
Salomons  wis- 
dom.    Some- 
what ivas  left 
for  John  Bap 
tist  to  be 
greater  then 
he,  or  any 
borne  ofzco- 
men.    'Neither 
was  the  know- 
ledge of  the 
necessarie  to 
Salomon,  who 
without  it 
could  and  did 
compasse  the 

*  Above 
I  3000  miles 

Perhaps  the 
stellation took 
up  this  Sea 
11^ hale  into  his 
Chariot,  some 
part  of  the 

the  act,  if  no  description  of  the  Art,  would  have  remained 
to  Posteritie. 

Now  for  Salomons  testimony,  it  confuteth  those  which 
make  him  the  author  and  first  founder  of  the  Loadstone 
(which  to  M.  Fuller  and  others  seemeth  probable)  if 
nothing  were  then  new;  it  may  aswell  be  alleaged  for 
many  Generations  before,  that  they  also  made  ships  at 
Esion-geber,  to  goe  to  Ophir  for  like  Rarities ;  and 
against  all  new  Inventions  in  any  Age :  which  sense  is 
also  contradicted  by  Salomon  in  the  same  Chapter,  Verse 
16.  Where  hee  saith,  that  hee  had  more  wisdome  then 
all  they  that  had  beene  before  him  in  Jerusalem  :  and 
I.  Reg.  3.  12.  There  was  none  like  before  thee,  nor  after 
thee  shall  arise  any  like  unto  thee.  This  was  then  a  new 
thing  under  the  Sunne,  this  his  wisdome,  which  brands 
us  for  Fooles,  if  wee  make  him  contradict  himselfe  and 
divine  Veritie. 

The  Scripture  would  goe  one  mile  with  them  and  shew 
the  vanitie  both  of  men  and  other  creatures,  and  they 
post  and  force  it  two,  applying  what  Salomon  spake  of 
kindes,  to  individuall  acts  and  events ;  which  might  aswell 
enforce  Platoes  great  yeere,  and  a  personall  revolution  of 
each  man  withall  his  conceits,  words  and  acts.  The 
Magnete  is  no  new  thing,  but  this  use  of  the  Magnete 
was  newly  knowne  two  thousand  yeares  after  Salomons 
death.  The  Argument  to  mee  seemeth  a  merrie  one, 
rather  then  serious,  and  I  will  answere  it  accordingly  with 
a  jest.  The  Jesuite  Pineda  (which  out  of  Lemnius  citeth 
these  Arguments  to  prove  that  the  Compasse  is  ancient) 
is  no  new  thing  as  a  Man;  but  as  a  person,  as  a  Jesuite 
(a  new  order  which  beganne  1540.)  as  an  Author  which 
conceiteth  that  that  great  fish  which  tooke  up  Jonas  carried 
him  in  three  dayes  quite  thorow  the  Mediterranean,  and 
round  about  the  African  vast  *  Circumference  (statim 
atque  deglutitur  Jonas,  revertitur  ccetus  velocitate  in- 
credibili  ad  mare  Indicum  &  Sivum  Arabicum,  per  Medi- 
terraneum  &  Gaditanum  fretum,  immani  totius  Africae 
circuitu,  these  are  his  owne  words)  these  are  new  things 



under  the  Sunne,  and  this  a  new  interpretation,  which 
himselfe  prefaceth  with  Papae!  novam  &  inauditam  ex- 
ponendi  rationem !  These  particulars  are  new,  and  yet 
that  text  is  true.  I  wil  not  adde  (that  were  too  serious 
and  severe)  that  all  Jesuitisme  is  new,  and  their  Expo- 
sitions of  Scriptures,  Councels,  Fathers  for  the  Roman 
Monarchic,  are  all  new,  New-gay-no-things,  Vanitie  of 
vanities  and  vexation  of  spirit;  yet  to  lye  (the  genus 
generalissimum  of  Jesuitical!  tenents,  as  they  are  Jesuites ; 
Christians  is  a  name  too  old  for  them)  is  as  old  as  the 
old  Serpent. 

But  lest  I  be  over-bold  with  our  Author,  and  may 
seeme  to  passe  from  a  new  argument  to  an  old  quarrell, 
and  from  j easting  to  jerking  ;  I  contayne  my  selfe,  lest  any 
Veterator  take  mee  for  a  Novelist ;  and  with  reverence 
and  thankes  for  his  better  paines,  crave  pardon  for  this 
jocoserium,  and  come  to  his  third  Argument  out  of 
Plautus,  where  in  speech  of  sayling,  hee  hath  these 
Hue  secundus  ventus  nunc  est,  cape  mode  versoriam,  Plauti  Met-- 
Hie  Favonius  serenus  est,  isthic  Auster  imbricus.  '^^^' 

Here  Lemnius,  Giraldus  de  Navigiis,  and  Calcagninus  [I.  i,  27.] 
with  others  mentioned  by  him,  doe  interprete  Versoria  of 
the  Compasse :  whom  Pineda  beleeveth  not,  and  yet  saith, 
hee  hath  quod  nostro  Acostas  reddere  possimus  requirenti 
aliquod  idoneum  ex  antiquitate  hujus  aciculas  testimonium: 
notwithstanding,  hee  conjectureth  it  to  bee  some  pole  to 
thrust  the  Vessell  (if  any  Instrument)  and  acknowledgeth 
that  the  Cares  and  Rudder  might  bee  Versoriae,  in  regard 
of  turning  the  ship,  and  lastly  concludeth  it  to  be  spoken 
without  respect  to  any  Nautike  Instrument,  interpreting 
Cape  Versoriam  to  returne  :  and  that  Plautus  his  actor  did 
point  to  the  Heavens,  not  to  any  Instrument,  when  he 
said,  hue  secundus  ventus  est,  hie  Favonius,  &c.  which 
seemeth  to  bee  the  Poets  true  sense. 

Pineda  addes,  that  we  ought  not  to  doubt  but  that 
Salomon  knew  this  of  the  Loadstone  aswel  as  other  Stones 
and  Herbs.     I  answer  we  have  a  better  Loadstone  and 


Leadstone  for  one  then  for  the  other ;  the  Scripture 
speaking  of  him  more  as  a  Herbarist,  then  as  a  Lapidarie 
and  Mariner.  He  alleageth,  that  the  attractive  facultie 
would  reveale  that  Polare.  I  answere,  that  experience 
hath  produced  many  Ages  to  testifie  the  contrarie ;  which 
knew  the  one,  not  the  other.  His  Argument  from  the 
store  of  Load-stones  in  those  Easterne  parts,  concludes 
nothing  for  the  skill,  any  more  then  that  the  naked  artlesse 
Indians  in  Hispaniola  were  better  Gold-smiths  then  the 
Europaeans,  because  they  had  more  Gold.  His  last  Argu- 
ment is  least,  from  the  Divine  Providence  which  would 
not  permit  men  so  many  Ages  to  be  ignorant  hereof. 
Rom.  11.33,  For  heere  we  come  to  an,  O  altitudo !  O  the  depth 
3+-  of    the    riches    both    of    the   wisdome    and    knowledge 

of  God,  how  unsearchable   are   his  judgements,   and  his 
wayes    past    finding    out  }     For  who   hath    knowne    the 
minde  of  the  Lord,  or  who  hath  beene  his  Counseller  .f* 
I  like   much   better   that  which  Pineda   addes   of   the 
Ancients   abilitie  to  sayle  without   kenne  of  the  shoare, 
without    Magneticall    helpe,   which    Strabo,   Arianus  and 
Plinie  acknowledge  :  and  Aratus  saith,  that  the  Phaenicians 
followed    the   Load-starre    (not   the    Load-stone)    which 
Tully  citeth  also  out  of  him. 
Cic.  Acad.  i.       Arrianus  mentioneth  the  helpe  of  the  Monsons  (as  now 
Ego  meas  cog-  ^j^™  ^erme  them)  or  seasons  of  the  Windes,  observing:  a 

fltttOtlCS  stc  .  .  .  .  ^ 

dirigo  non  ad  constant  course  m  the  Indian  Ocean,  which  with  experi- 
illam  pawn-  ence  of  the  frequented  Coast,  might  easily  teach  Hippalus 
lam  Cym-  a  compendious  passage  thorow  the  Mayne,  or  at  least 
^f'J^f"y  Q^^  further  from  kenne  of  Land.  Whereupon  Plinie  having 
nocturnaPhce-  ^^"^^^^  the  former  course,  addes  Secuta  astas  propiorem 
nices  in  ahum,  cursum  tutioremque,  &c.  Compendia  invenit  Mercator, 
ut  ait  Aratus  Lib.  6.  cap.  23.  They  also  observed  the  flying  of  certain 
^^- .  Birds  which  they  caried  with  them.     But  al  these  could 

Cynosura  nothing  helpe  to  a  Peruan  Voyage  from  the  Red  Sea, 
tamen  salcan-  where  the  knowne  Starres  were  laid  asleepe  in  Tethys 
tibus  aquor,  lap  ;  where  neither  Birds  carried  with  them,  could  instruct 
yr.  Arat.  ^q  ^ivvf  neere  shoare,  nor  any  Birds  in  the  mayne  Ocean 
were  to  be  scene ;  where  the  Monsons  and  Seasons  of  the 


SMylJlE  M^   G  7\'' U  M 

I    ^AAs.JiSncis 

Ai^ypdu  marc 


^    JtifsU 

,    .-f.r.-J,,, 


i/;,.t,        j<  "^  -'"™'vJ^»•  r>^^  i         j^  ^  ■ 

'aran       **      ,,  r-  /    r 


Dilm  Ojd  'jt; 


r  K  r  jY  P  ^  'h--^'*-^'"    " » "'v*'^    '^Montes  Sehir  j;, 

r-"<>;„;„..A  -"V'-TV       ♦    *^  ^       i>  G,.L,J  ,imu     cttL,  DOM      .)        ••:•'       -o 

,'i  ,  £f/M«l 

]  lPeregkinatjol   ^..  \ 

I  p  ISR.AEUTAKLJ    W vf  *''''■ 


ii';"^  ,.  .  ,-,         ='T(^ ->    •■:'•■      - — 
■  -  ^^      'jg-Jiabrmii 

%  r        ■■■'     ~-     -^^    ■•^' 

-\/,         ^i  '%'.ii  ,        ^,v  ,\:J.  nil . 

■ ' -^ ,/J.*l   ""'■  £.■'■■■  '   C^bIA^''"'^^'-^^^??*-^ 



winde  are  so  diversified ;  where  without  the  Compasse  all 
things  are  out  of  Compasse,  and  nothing  but  miracle  or 
chance  (which  never  produce  Arts)  could  save  or  serve 
them.     I  have  spoken  of  the  Load-stone  in  another  place  I»  the  begin- 
to   which    I   referre   the    Reader,    least  that   makes  mee  "^^^f!\ 
wander  and  drowne,  which  directeth  and  saveth  others. 

Lastly,  Peru  could  not  be  Ophir,  if  wee  conceive  that  The  sixth 
Salomon   brought  thence   Ivorie ;    and  Peacockes.      For  '■^'^■^^''• 
Peacockes  they  read  Parrots,  and  for  Ivorie  they  are  forced 
to  take  it  up  by  the  way  in  some  place  of  Africa  or  India, 
which  distraction  must  needs  prolong  the  Voyage,  which 
without  such  lets   could   not  (as   before   is  observed)   in 
three  yeares  bee  performed.     As  for  such  (Asse  for  such, 
I  might  have  said)  which  thinke  so  huge  and  vast  a  tract 
of  Land  as  that  New  World,  might  bee  now  emptie  of 
Elephants  which   then   it  had  (for  it  is  confessed  by  all 
Classike  Authors,  that  America  never  saw  Elephant)  as 
England  is  ridde   of  Wolves,  wherewith   it   hath  some- 
times abounded ;  Why  should  not  other  kinds  of  Creatures 
bee  utterly  destroyed  aswel  as  these,  being  more  hurtfull 
to    the   Inhabitants }     I    meane,    Tigres,    Leopards,   and 
other  ravenous  beasts  whereof  America  hath  more  then  a 
good  many.     And  if  they  should  destroy  Elephants  for 
their  Ivorie,  what  piece  of  Ivorie  was  ever  found  in  Peru 
or  all  America,  before  our  men  came  there .''     If  Salomons 
men  had  destroyed  all,  it  were  inhumane  to  intervert  after- 
ages.     The  hunting  of  Wolves  in  the  North  of  Scotland 
at  this  day,  and  the   huntings   used   by   many   Nations, 
Tartars,    Cafres,    &c.    easily   tell    us   how   England    was 
cleered  of  Wolves;    Armies,   or  Multitudes  in   a  large 
Ring,  encircling  the  beasts,  &  with  Fire,  Waters,  Dogs, 
Armes,   &c.  bringing  all  into  a  narrow  Compasse,  and 
there  killing  them.     But  in  the  New  World  that  would 
have  required  another  World  to  have  done  it.     I  adde 
that  no  Elephant  could  come  into  Peru  but  by  Miracle, 
the  cold  and  high  Hilles  every  way  encompassing,  beeing 
impassable  to  that  Creature,  as  wee  shall  see  in  our  Spanish 
entrance   with    Horses.     Yea,  I  averre  further,   that  an 



A  second 
opinion  for 

[I.  i.  28.] 

Colon  a 
happier  Dis- 
coverer of  the 
new  World 
then  the  old. 

Third  opinion 
for  Sophala. 

See  inf.  I.  9. 
c.  12. 

Elephant  could  not  live  in  Peru,  but  by  Miracle.  For 
the  Hilles  are  cold  in  extremitie,  and  the  Valleyes,  till  the 
Incas  made  artificiall  Rivers  were  without  water,  it  never 
rayning  there,  whereas  the  Elephant  delights  in  places 
very  hote  and  very  moist.  But  I  deserve  blame  to  fight 
with  Elephants  in  America,  which  is  with  lesse  then  a 
shadow,  and  to  lay  siege  to  Castles  in  the  Aire. 

These  arguments  have  no  lesse  force  against  Columbus 
and  Vatablus  their  Ophir  in  Hispaniola :  which  from  the 
Red  Sea  makes  a  farther  fetch  with  like  or  greater  improba- 
bilities. This  errour  was  more  fortunate  then  learned. 
For  out  of  a  right  rule  that  the  World  is  round,  and  that 
therefore  men  might  sayle  to  the  East  by  the  West, 
Columbus  first,  and  presently  after  him  Sir  Sebastian 
Cabot  made  their  Discoveries,  and  stumbled  on  a  New 
World  by  the  way,  whereof  they  had  not  dreamed. 

Cabots  Voyage  was  to  seeke  Cathay  or  China.  Colum- 
bus his  intent  was  for  the  East  Indies,  and  finding  much 
Gold  in  Hispaniola,  without  examining  other  difficulties, 
and  falsly  supposing  himselfe  to  have  attayned  the  East 
Indies,  he  called  that  Hand  Ophir ;  which  conceit  Francis 
Vatablus  received. 

Now  for  Sofala  or  Cefala,  many  arguments  are  alleaged 
by  Ortelius  (who  here  placeth  Salomons  Ophir)  and 
others.  And  indeed  the  abundance  of  Gold,  and  the 
excellencie  thereof,  as  likewise  of  Silver,  there  taken  out 
of  the  Mynes ;  Peacocks,  or  Parrots,  whether  you  choose 
to  interprete  ;  Elephants,  Apes,  (Monkeyes  and  Baboones) 
excellent  Woods  for  such  uses  as  the  Almuggim  Trees 
were  applied  ;  all  these,  together  with  the  easie  Navigation 
from  the  Red  Sea  thither  alongst  the  African  shoare ;  and 
lastly  the  name  it  selfe  may  seeme  to  plead  for  a  Sofalan 
Ophira,  or  Sophira  (as  Josephus  cals  it)  in  this  place. 
Joaon  dos  Santos  lived  eight  yeares  in  those  parts,  and 
alleageth  many  things  to  this  purpose.  He  saith  that 
neere  to  Massapa,  is  a  great  high  Hill  called  Fura,  in  the 
Kingdome  of  Monomotapa,  to  which  hee  will  not  suffer 
the    Portugals    to    passe    lest    the    rich    Mynes    should 



cause    their   too    potent    Neighbour-hood.     On    the    top 
of  that  Hill  are   old    ruinous   wals    of  lime    and    stone. 
Barrius   saith,    there    are    also    unknowne    Letters   over  BarrosDeci. 
the   gate:     the    people    ignorant    of    such    workes,    say      '°* 
they    were     built    by     Devils,     thinking    them     impos- 
sible to  men,  judging  others  by   themselves.     They  are 
five   hundred   and    ten    miles    from   Sofala,  in    one    and 
twentie  degrees  of  Southerly  latitude.     He  conjectureth 
it  to  bee  Ptolemeys  Agysimba,  the  buildings  being  still 
called  Simbaoni.     Thomas  Lopez  addes,  that  the  Moores  T.  Lopez  ap. 
affirmed,   that   their   Bookes   and   ancient  Writings  con-  ^^"^""^ 
tayned,  that  King  Salomon  fetched  his  Gold  in  his  three 
yeares  Voyage  from  thence. 

At  that  time  1502.  there  were  warres,  but  formerly  the 
Moores  of  Mecca  and  Zidem,  used  to  carrie  two  Millions 
of  Mitigals  (which  are  about  eight  shillings  a  piece) 
yeerely  from  thence.  But  to  returne  to  Santos,  hee 
alleageth  a  Tradition  of  the  Natives,  that  these  Mynes 
and  Buildings  belonged  to  the  Queene  of  Saba,  and  that 
others  ascribe  them  to  Salomon,  making  this  Fura  or 
Afura  to  be  Ophir,  See  the  place,^  and  his  pleading  of  this  *I»fra  Tom. 
point,  wherein  I  could  be  perswaded  to  be  of  his  minde,  if  ^•-^^■S-  '5+9- 
that  Moses  did  not  place  Ophir  Eastward,  Gen.  10.  30. 
Who  (it  is  likely)  gave  name  to  this  golden  Region. 

There  are  that  seeke  for  Tarshish  at  Carthage,  and  some  A  fourth  and 
I  have  knowne  which  place  Ophir  neere  Gambra.  Of  this  fif^''  '>*''«''""'• 
minde  was  Captaine  Jobson,  which  travelled  up  that 
River,  nine  hundred  and  sixtie  miles,  and  heard  such 
golden  reports  of  the  In-land  Countreyes,  as  this  Worke 
will  from  him  deliver  to  you.  And  indeed  I  doe  easily 
perswade  my  selfe,  that  the  richest  Mynes  of  Gold  in  the 
World  are  in  Africa ;  especially  in  the  heart  of  the  Land 
from  the  Line  to  the  Tropike  of  Capricorne.  (See  our 
Relations  out  of  Bermudez,  Jobson,  Battell  and  others) 
and  I  cannot  but  wonder,  that  so  many  have  sent  so 
many,  and  spent  so  much  in  remoter  Voyages  to  the  East 
and  West,  and  neglected  Africa  in  the  midst ;  which  per- 
haps might  proove  as  much  richer  as  neerer,   then  both 



the  Indies.     But  Rectum  est  index  sui  &  obliqui :  if  wee 

shew   Ophir  to  bee  in  the  East  Indies,  it  cannot  be  in 

J  sixth  America  or  Africa,  unlesse  we  be  of  Acostas  opinion,  who 

T"^!^       /     howsoever  he  thinketh  that   Salomons   Gold,   &c.   came 

J  *  from  the  East  Indies,  yet  conjectureth   that  Ophir  and 

Tharsis  signifie  no  certayne  Regions,  but  are  taken  in  a 

generall  sense,  as  the  word  India  is  with  us,  applied  to  all 

remoter  Countreyes.     Ophir  might  be  any  of  the  former, 

remote  farre  from  the  Red  Sea. 

But  I  can  tell  that  India  received   his  name  from  the 

River  Indus,  still  called  Sinde,  (which  hath  also  foiled  all 

our    Geographers    hitherto,    making    it    to   passe  thorow 

lnf.l.\.c.\6.  Cambaya,  which  Sir  Thomas  Roes  Voyage  will  confute, 

that  it  is  lesse  marvell  if  Ophir  trouble  us  so  much)  and 

because  the  Countreyes  beyond  India,  were   so  meanly 

knowne  by  their  true  names,   and  Indus   came  from   so 

remote  Regions,  they  continued  and  extended  that  name  to 

them  :   and  (as  even  now  you  heard)  Colon  by  misprision 

called  America,  India,  not  dreaming  of  a  Westerne,  but 

See  %.  12.  for  supposing    that    by    the    West,    he    had    arrived    in    the 

Jcost.  opinion.  Eastern  India.     Now,  why  Ophir  should  be  so  dilated,  I 

see  no  such   reason.     Tarshish   we   shall   better  examine 

Other  after.     And  for  others  opinions  of  Ophir  to  be  an  Hand  in 

opinions.  ^^^  j^gj  gg^  ^^Y\Qd  Urphe,  or  Ormus  in  the  Persian,  they 

are    not    worth    examining :    beeing    not    able    to    yeeld 

Gold,    and     the     other     Commodities     which     Salomon 


/      The  truth  of  Ophir  must  as  from  a  deepe  Myne  bee 

"^   drawne  out  of  Moses,  Gen.   lo.     Wherein  although  wee 

cannot  approve  the  opinion  of  those  which  conceive  Moses 

in  that  Chapter,  to  have  set  downe  the  just  number  of 

Languages  and  Nations,  as  if  there  were  seventie  two  of 

each,  and  neither  more  nor  fewer ;  yet  it  must  needs  be 

granted,   and   the  Text  plainly   averreth.   These   are  the 

Families  of  the  sonnes  of  Noah  after  their  generations,  in 

Gen.  lo.  31.  their  Nations,  and  by  these  were  the  Nations  divided  in 

3^-  the  Earth  after  the  Floud  :  and  particularly  of  the  Sonnes 

of  Shem  (here  questioned)  These  are  the  sonnes  of  Shem, 



after  their  families,  after  their  tongues,  in  their  lands, 
after  their  Nations.  So  that  wee  gather  that  the  first 
originalls  of  Nations  are  there  mentioned,  such  especially 
as  concerned  his  Ecclesiasticall  story,  or  was  necessary  [I.  i.  29,] 
for  the  Church  to  take  knowledge  of  For  neither 
were  they  all  differing  Nations  and  Languages  which 
hee  mentioneth,  nor  are  all  Nations  or  Languages  there 
mentioned.  For  eleven  of  them  are  the  sons  of  Canaan, 
which  all  peopled  that  little  region,  which  Israel  after  by 
Joshuas  conduct  possessed :  al  which  also  spake  one 
language,  or  else  Abraham  &  the  Patriarks  must  have 
learned  many  tongues  in  their  frequent  perambulations ; 
which  some  thinke  the  same  which  the  Israelites  spake, 
&  judge  it  evident  in  the  History  of  the  first  Spies, 
and  of  Rahabs  entertaining  of  the  later  Spies;  and  that 
it  is  called  by  the  Prophet,  The  Language  of  Canaan, 
Es.  19.  18,  and  carried  thence  into  Egypt  before  by 
the  Patriarks,  to  whom  Joseph  spake  first  by  an  In- 
terpreter, but  in  reavealing  himselfe,  hee  with  his  owne 
mouth  (that  is,  in  their  tongue)  spake  unto  them,  when 
the  Interpreter  and  all  others  were  excluded.  And  in 
the  whole  story  of  the  Old  Testament,  no  difference  of 
language  is  notified  in  all  the  commerce  and  cohabita- 
tions   of   all    sorts   of    both    Nations.      *Priscian    saith,  *  Prise /.$. 

Lingua    Poenorum    Chaldaeae    vel    Hebraeae    similis:    and  fj'^^°^- ^^ 
o-T  -r*-  --rn         •  1-  TT1  Jer.i..  ArnoD. 

Samt  Jerom,  Pceniquasi  Phceni,  quorum  Imgua  Hebraeas  ^-^  pjT  j 

magna   ex    parte    confinis    est.      Saint    Augustine    often  jug  de  verb. 
saith  as  much;  and  divers  wordes  of  the  language  con-  Dom.  s.  35. 
firme    it.     As    for    a    Shiboleth,  and    Siboleth,  or   some  'ont.lit.Pet  I. 
difference  of  Dialect  (which  wee  see  with  us  almost  in   jg  6   tifr 
every   Shire)    wee    make    not   that  a  difference   of,   but  Ber.  Aldrete 
in  the  Language.     And  so  it  seemeth  it  was  in  the  first  Anteg.  I  2,  c 
Ages,   before    Conquest  and    Commerce   brought   in    so  ^• 
many  new  wordes  to  the  Punike  language.     The  Punike  *Sca/igin 
Scene  in  Plautus  his  Poenolus,  by  *Scaliger,  M.  Selden  prokgom.  ult. 
and   others  is  found  a   kind  of  Hebrew,  after  all  those  ^•^'^^^^"selden 
ages  and  changes.     I   will  not  herein  contend  with  M.  jg  D.  S.  pro- 
Fuller    and    others    which    have    written    contrary.     But  Ugom.  c.  2. 



either  they  were  the  same,  or  not  much  differing :  and 
The  Spies  (which  I  principally  ayme  at)  all  these  eleven  Nations 
having  such  J^^^  ^j^^  s2imQ^  language  at  lest  in  the  Patriarkes  times, 
^tio7in  Egypt  ^^'^  "ot  unlike  the  Hebrew,  which  was  so  little  altered, 
had  no  meanes  after  such  alterations  of  time  and  place. 
to  learn  Now  because  that   Countrey   was  given   to  Abrahams 

tongues.  posteritie,   Moses  is  more  exact  in  bounding  the  places, 

'^'  ^'^'  ^^'  &  intimating  the  peoples,  then  in  all  Joktans  posterity 
(which  it  seemeth  peopled  one  hundred  times  so  much 
Countrey)  as  not  pertaining  to  Israels  Inheritance,  and 
not  much  to  their  neighborhood  or  knowledge.  And 
if  Salomon  imployed  above  eight  score  thousands  in 
continuall  workes  so  many  yeeres  for  the  Temple,  how 
many  shall  we  thinke  imployed  themselves  in  that 
Babylonian  structure,  which  occasioned  that  diversifying 
of  languages ;  and  which  is  therefore  likely  to  have 
happened  long  after  Pelegs  birth,  by  which  time  the 
world  could  not  likely  be  so  peopled.?  Neither  may 
wee  deny  more  then  ordinary  multiplication  in  those  first 
Ages  after  the  Floud :  though  we  grant  a  good  space 
after  Pelegs  birth,  for  how  else  could  such  a  multitude 
have  assembled  so  soone  to  such  a  purpose  }  Wee  see 
the  like  admirable  increase  of  the  Israelites  in  Egypt,  in 
despite  of  bloudy  butchery  and  slavery,  which  yet  asked 
above  two  hundred  yeeres,  from  seventie  persons.  And 
can  any  man  thinke  that  where  a  World  was  multiplied, 
that  the  Fathers  had  no  more  Sonnes  then  are  there 
mentioned.''  especially  seeing  of  Sems  line,  Gen.  ii.  it 
is  said  they  begat  other  sonnes :  and  of  them  are  ex- 
pressed five  generations,  of  the  other  but  two  or  three, 
and  most  of  them  omitted,  except  such  as  most  con- 
cerned Israel  in  neighbourhood  or  other  affaires.  How 
could  Jocktan  yeeld  thirteene  Nations  then,  when  Peleg 
gives  name  to  none,  till  of  Abraham,  six  generations  after, 
some  were  derived  ?  I  suppose  therefore  that  Moses 
there  names  not  all  Nations,  as  writing  not  a  Story  of 
the  World,  but  those  principally  which  by  vicinitie  or 
Inheritance,  or  future  commerce  (as  this  Ophir  and  his 



brethren)  it  behooved  the  Israelites  to  take  notice  of; 
especially  Him,  who  was  to  alter  Moses  his  Tabernacle 
into  so  glorious  a  Temple,  and  to  bee  so  lively  a  figure 
of  a  greater  then  Moses  and  Salomon  both.  Nor  is  it 
likely  but  that  there  was  a  greater  confusion  of  lan- 
guages, then  into  so  many  as  can  bee  gathered  in  the 
tenth  of  Genesis ;  or  that  all  there  mentioned  differed 
in  tongue  from  each  other;  for  so  Shem,  Cham,  and 
Japheth  should  never  have  understood  each  other,  nor 
their  posteritie.  It  is  probable  therefore,  that  God 
multiplying  the  World  in  so  short  a  space  (which,  as 
I  said,  I  rather  thinke  to  have  hapned  some  good  while 
after  Pelegs  birth,  then  at  that  very  time)  almost  to  a 
miracle,  most  men  of  most  families  were  there,  and  their 
languages  also  miraculously  multiplied ;  (The  Jewish 
tradition  is  that  it  hapned  a  little  before  Pelegs  death, 
as  Genebrard  observeth  out  of  them)  but  being  a  con- 
spiracy against  God,  many  others  were  not  there  and 
retained  their  ancient  Ebrew  ;  especially  the  pious 
and  religious  Patriarkes.  Such  perhaps  was  Peleg  him- 
selfe,  then  a  man  of  yeeres,  and  therefore  his  name  given 
him  of  that  division  in  others.  For  if  any  thinke  that 
Pelegs  name  intimates  the  building  of  Babel  at  his  birth, 
we  see  that  Abraham,  Sarah,  and  Jacob  had  their  names 
changed  in  their  riper  yeeres. 

This  division  of  languages  caused  that  dispersion, 
Therefore  is  the  name  of  it  called  Babel  (or  Confusion) 
because  the  Lord  did  there  confound  the  language  of 
all  the  Earth :  and  from  thence  did  the  Lord  scatter 
them  abroad  upon  the  face  of  all  the  Earth.  Yet  can- 
not we  say  that  presently  this  was  wholly  executed;  but 
even  then  so  many  as  spake  one  language,  dwelt  together 
in  one  Region :  Other  Persons  and  Families  in  other 
Regions,  which  then  were  thinly  planted,  and  in  processe 
of  time  more  fully  peopled,  and  Colonies  also  derived 
to  people  remoter  Regions.  For  although  Man,  (that  is 
Mankind)  hath  a  right  to  all  the  Earth,  yet  heere  there 
was  a  very  great  part  of  the  Earth  unpeopled  in  Moses 



time,  yea  to  these  dayes  of  Ours.  And  if  we  marke 
[I.  i.  30.]  all  the  Heads  of  Families  mentioned  by  Moses,  wee 
shall  see  none,  which  at  that  time  had  inhabited  so  farre 
as  this  our  Britaine :  but  how  much  neerer  the  Regions 
were  to  the  Arkes  resting,  and  Babels  confusion,  so  much 
sooner  were  they  peopled.  Sure  it  is  that  some  Ages 
after,  the  best  and  most  frequent  Habitations,  and  neerest 
those  parts  were  but  meanly  peopled,  as  appeareth  by 
Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  Lot,  Laban,  and  their  child- 
ren wandring  and  remooving  from  place  to  place  with 
their  great  Flockes  and  Herds,  as  if  Grounds  and 
Pastures  had  then  even  in  the  Regions  of  Syria  and 
Canaan  beene  of  small  value.  Compare  Abrahams  time 
with  Joshua,  and  you  shall  see  a  great  difference,  more 
Cities  and  Villages  seeming  then  builded,  then  before 
were  Families  of  note,  and  that  in  foure  hundred  yeeres 
space.  Ammon,  Moab,  Ishmael,  all  the  Families  of  the 
sonnes  of  Keturah,  and  that  of  Edom,  with  innumerable 
other  were  not  in  rerum  natura,  neither  the  language 
(which  it  seemes  by  mixture  with  others  was  altered) 
nor  the  Nation. 

Yea  how  poore  a  thing  was  our  Britaine  in  Caesars 
time,  either  for  the  numbers  or  civilitie  ^  How  thinly 
is  all  the  Northerne  America,  from  thirtie  degrees 
upwards  towardes  the  Pole  inhabited .''  a  world  of 
Continent  by  no  probabilitie,  containing  in  the  whole 
so  many  people  as  some  one  small  Region  in  Asia  or 
Europe.  All  Virginia,  New  England,  and  New-found- 
land,  cannot  have  (notwithstanding  such  commodious 
habitations  and  innumerable  commodities)  so  many  In- 
habitants, so  farre  as  my  industry  can  search,  as  this 
one  Citie  with  the  Suburbs  containeth,  though  we  adde 
all  even  to  the  Pole,  and  take  one  hundred  miles  within 
Land  alongst  the  Coast  all  the  way ;  which  easily  argueth 
the  later  peopling  thereof  Neither  is  there  any  thing 
Jmerica  in   all   America   which    doth    not   indeed    proclaime   it   a 

newly  inhabit-  ^^y^j  World.     For  as  in  the  Old  World,  first  there  was 
"^-  simplicitie  of  Herdmen,  Shepheards,  and  Husbandmen ; 



and  after  that  Trades,  Merchandise,  Riches,  Cities,  King- 
domes,   more    curious    Rites    Civill    and    Religious,   and 
some    Monuments    of    them    (which    those    which    had, 
esteemed    others    for    the    want    therof    Barbarians    & 
Savages,  as   a  wilder    kind   of  men)   and    this   Civilitie, 
Cities,    Populations   and    Kingdomes    began    in    Assyria,  Chaldaa, 
Egypt,  and  other  places  neerer  the  first  confusion,  and  ^'^^^'^^ 
after  proceeded  to  Greece  (whom  the  Egyptians  called 
children,  as  is  before  said,  for  their  later  Civilitie,  Arts, 
and    Histories)    and    thence    to    Italy,    which    was    long 
swadled    in    Roman     rusticitie,    and    later    attained     to 
politer   Sciences ;    and   thence   into   France   (as  wee   now 
call  it)  and  after  that  into  Britaine,  and  later  into  Ger- 
many, all  by  Roman  Conquests  and  imparting  Arts  with 
their  Armes:    so   may  wee  judge  of  the   New  World, 
wherein    two    Empires    were    growne    great,   civill,   rich, 
and    potent,    after    their    manner,    as    our    Mexican    and 
Inca  stories  will  shew  in  due  place.     This  their  great- 
nesse  produced    stories  of  their  Acts  by  Quippos,  Pic-  5^^  Amta^ 
tures  and  other  Monuments,  which  derived  to  posteritie  f"*^  ^^]  ^% 
the  knowledge  or  former  times  and  acts.     By  which  we  2./.  c.flyy 
may  gather  that  the  Northerne  America  was  first  peopled,  Vega  his  Inca 
and  that  probably  from  the  Easterne  or  Northerne  parts  story. l.j. cat,. 
of  Asia ;    and    communicated    people    to   the    Southerne 
parts,     the     Northerne    Antiquities    of    Mexico,     being 
ancienter  then  those  of  Peru.     Those   first  stories   also 
(see  them  in  the  Picture-Booke,  and  in  Vega  and  Acosta 
following)   how   raw    and    infantly    beginnings   and    pro- 
ceedings    doe    they    shew .''      What    barbarisme }      Yet 
neither  containing   memorialls   of  one   thousand   yeeres : 
So  that  allow  sixe  hundreth  yeeres  to  meere  breedings 
and  barbarous   infancy,  with   creeping   in   dispersions,  as 
out  of  the  cradle  of  American  humanity  amongst  them, 
till  they  were  fuller  of  People  and  Townes,  where  one 
wit   whetts    another    to    new    devices,    yet    we    scarcely 
come  to  the  times  of  Christ  and   his  Apostles.     I  may 
adde,  that  till  about  one  thousand  two  hundred  yeeres 
after  Christ,  neither  of  those   Empires  were  worthy  the 
I  8i  F 


names  of  pettie  Kingdomes,  and  even  then  had  scarcely 
crept  out  of  the  shell. 

Now  for  Hands  in  the  Seas  betwixt  Asia  and  them, 
as  also  along  the  North  Sea,  as  they  cal  it,  on  the 
Easterne  shoare  of  America,  in  the  North  and  South 
parts  thereof  also,  these  Relations  will  shew  you  Worlds 
of  them  not  yet  peopled.  The  Southerne  Continent  is 
yet  but  saluted  on  the  shoares  and  Hands,  of  which  we 
may  no  lesse  conjecture  much  emptinesse.  For  the  ful- 
nesse  of  the  Continent  disburthens  it  selfe  into  Hands; 
and  fulnesse  of  the  first  peopled  parts,  Asia,  Africa,  and 
Europe,  made  them  seeke  to  root  out  one  another  by 
the  Sword,  or  to  possesse  vacant  places  by  Sea  or  Land, 
which  either  chance  or  industry  had  found.  But  except 
Deucalion  and  Pyrrha  had  sowne  stones  to  procreate 
Men,  or  Cadmus  his  sowne  teeth  had  procreated  Armies, 
or  the  Clouds  had  rained  Peoples,  as  they  are  said  to  doe 
Frogs,  I  know  not  how  wise  and  learned  men  (by  their 
leaves  inconsiderately  enough)  fill  China  and  America 
with  people  in  those  dayes  before  Moses  and  Abraham, 
and  find  great  commerce  and  knowledge  of  the  New 
World,  when  the  Old  was  but  yesterday  begun.  So 
necessary  to  Humane  and  Divine  knowledge  is  Geo- 
graphie  and  History,  the  two  Eyes  with  which  wee  see 
the  World,  without  which  our  greatest  Clerkes  are  not 
the  wisest  men,  but  in  this  part  blind  and  not  able  to 
see  farre  oflT.  If  any  deride  this  as  paradoxicall  and  new, 
I  say  againe,  that  in  America  alone,  so  much  hath  beene 
discovered,  and  whereof  knowledge  from  ey-witnesses 
hath  come  to  my  hand,  partly  in  the  Continent,  partly 
in  Hands,  as  much  (and  in  great  part  as  commodious 
for  mans  use)  as  all  Europe,  is  either  wholly  unhabited, 
or  so  thinly  inhabited,  that  men  roague  rather  then 
dwell  there,  and  so  as  it  would  feed  and  sustaine  a 
hundreth,  perhaps  a  thousand  times  as  much  people  by 
due  husbandry. 



§.  IX. 

Joctans  Posteritie  seated  in  the  East  parts  of  Asia,  [i.  i.  31. 
amongst  them,  Ophir  in   India  ultra  Gangem, 
where  Chryse  was  of  old,  and  now  is  the  king- 
dome  of  Pegu,  and  the  Regions  adjoyning. 

Frica  fell  to  Chams  part,  with  some  adjoyning 
Regions  of  Asia;  Asia  it  selfe  in  greatest  part  to 
Shem,    and    Europe  with   Asia    Minor,    and    the 

Northerne  parts  of  Asia  to  Japheth.     Their  very  names 

have  left  memorialls  of  them,  as  Arias  Montanus,  Junius,  MontaniPha- 

Broughton,  and  others  have  observed,   to    whose    Com-  ^^^-  ^''""g^- 

mentaries  I  referre  the  Reader.     But  for  Joctans  sonnes,  ^^^     '  p-,' 

we  find  in  and  neere  to  India,  the  prints  of  all  their  names.  /.  i. 

Elmodad  had  left  his  name  in  the  Hill  Emodus,  whence 

the  Indian  Rivers  flow,  and  Comedus,  the  greatest  Hills 

of  Asia,  elsewhere  called  Taurus,  and    by  divers   names 

as  it    runneth    thorow    divers    Countries,  from   the    one 

end    of  Asia    to   the  other :    also    in   the    Themeotae    or 

Thetmontas  in  Sarmatia.     Of  Sheleph  are  the  Mountaines 

Sariphi,  whence  Oxus  floweth.     Seilon  is  a  famous  Hand 

in   these   dayes.     Of  Hazarmaveth,   Sarmatia ;  of  Jerah, 

Aria  and  Arachosia  ;  of  Hadoram  the  Ori,  Oritas,  Oxi- 

dracae ;  also  the  Adraistae,  Andresti,  Adrestae :  Of  Uzal, 

Muziris,   Musopalle,    Ozoana,    Oxus,    Udia,   or    Odiae    a 

Citie,   and    Udezza    a    Kingdome,   in   India ;  Auzacia,   a 

Citie  extra    Imaum,    and   Auxacitis.     Of  Diklah,   Delly, 

Dankalee,   Tacola  and   Tagola ;  also    Dela,   Dekaka,   the 

Laos,  Bacola,  Bengala,  and  (by  conversion  of  D  into  R, 

not    unusuall)    Rhacan    and  Arracan,    Orixa ;  Dandagula 

and  Dasdala.     Of  Obal,   the   Bolitae  and  Cabolitae  neere 

Paraponisus ;     of  Abimael    the    Mount    Imaus,    and    the 

Massi  in  India  mentioned  by  Curtius. 

Now   for   Sheba    and    Havilah ;    Cush    had    Seba    and  Gen.  10. 
Havilah,    and    his   sonne    Raamah    had    also    Sheba ;    all 
mentioned  in  the  same  Chapiter  :  and  Jokshan  Abrahams 
Sonne  by  Keturah,  begat  Sheba.     Chush  his  two  sonnes,   Gen.  25. 



were  Authors  of  the  Sabaeans  in  Arabia,  so  famous  for 
the    Merchandise    of   Myrrhe    and    Frankinsence ;    some 

Job.  I.  15.  distinguish  the  Sabasi  in  Arabia  deserta  (whose  posteritie 
robbed  Job)  from  the  richer  Sabaeans  of  Sheba  in  Arabia 

I.  Reg,  10.  Fcelix,  whence  that  rich  Queene  called  of  the  South  (that 
Countrey  is  called  Alieman,  that  is,  the  South,  to  this 
day)  came  to  visit  Salomon.  Abrahams  Sheba  had  his 
habitation    Eastward    in    the    Northerly  parts    of  Arabia 

Gal  4.  deserta ;    as   if  his  kindred   by   the   flesh,   the   sonnes   of 

Keturah  and  Hagar  (the  carnall  Israelites,  and  such  which 
insist  on  Justification  by  their  owne  Workes  of  the  Law) 
should    never   have    to    doe    with    Canaans    fertilitie   and 

Rom.  14.  17.  felicitie,   the  type   of  Heaven,  Righteousnesse,  Peace  and 

Gal.  4.  jQy    •  j^     ^j^g    Holy    Ghost ;    but    distract    themselves    in 

wandring  errors,  &  a  disconsolate  miserable  estate,  as 
those  Arabians  do  to  this  day. 

Joktans  Sheba  was  Author  of  the  Sabae  beyond  Ganges ; 
of  Sabana,  Sahara,  Sobanus ;  and  now  Siam,  Champa, 
Camboia,  are  famous  in  these  parts. 

Havila  of  Chus  is  hee  which  planted  that  Countrey, 
at  the  entrance  of  Susiana  in  Persia,  commended, 
Gen.  2.  for  the  Gold.  And  of  him  also  might  Abila  in 
Syria,  and  Avalites,  a  Bay  and  Port  on  the  Red  Sea, 
and  the  Avalitas  populi,  which  thence  removed  into 
^Ethiopia,  and  the  Chalybes  among  the  Troglodytae  bare 

Joctans  Havila  might  give  name  to  the  He  Sundiva, 
the  Gulfe  Tavai,  to  Ava,  Martavan,  Cavelan  also,  and 
Cublan  all  Kingdomes  lately  subject  to  the  King  of  Pegu. 
The  Avares  in  the  Northerne  parts  might  bee  a  deduction 
from  him,  Chaberis  also  and  the  AvaSlai  a  Bactrian 
Nation,  by  some  called  Savadii,  and  the  Auchastae,  where 
Hipanis  springeth ;  the  Abii  and  Indian  Abali,  and  Zebas ; 
Abarimon  also  in  Scythia,  and  Jesual,  a  Kingdome  in 
these  daies.  Of  Jobab  came  the  Jabadii,  the  Ibi,  or  'I^oi 
(an  Indian  Nation)  the  Sobi,  and  Sarmatian  Ibiones ; 
Jacubel  also  in  the  Kingdome  of  Pegu,  the  He  Java, 
Jamba,  and  in  old  times  Barebe  and  Bepinga. 



Some  impression  of  the  name  of  Ophir  is  left  in  Ophar,   OrtelH  Thes. 

a  Sarmatian  River,  and  the  Opharitas,  and  in  those  names  ^°^^''  ^^  ""^^ 

.    ,       ^^,,     _,        '       „  \  -rii         1      •    J  1  Taurus. 

of  the  Hil  Taurus,  Paropamisus,  Fharphariades,  other- 
wise Pariades,  Parthenasis,  Partao,  Chaboras,  Oscobar, 
Pariedrus,  Para;  Choatra,  Parthaus,  Tapurius,  Opuro- 
carra,  Bepyrrus,  Parsuetus,  Paryadres.  I  might  adde 
the  renowmed  Indian  Hand  Taprobane,  the  Prasii,  Hip- 
puros,  the  Citie  Paraca,  Palibothra,  Perimula,  Doperura, 
Sobura,  Cottobora,  Sippara,  Mapura,  Caspira,  Brachme, 
Brachmanae,  Opotura,  Pharitras,  and  other  names  in 
Ptolomey,  and  the  Pharasii  in  Curtius.  Also  the  Hippuri 
in  Plinie,  to  omit  Porus  the  great  King  of  India,  whom 
Alexander  subdued.  And  many  places  of  principall 
note  in  India  in  these  dayes  have  such  a  termination, 
as  Fetipore  Jounpore,  Sinpore,  Merepore,  and  the  like, 
of  more  certaintie  then  the  occasionall  and  yesterday 
name  of  Peru. 

Thus  have  wee  brought  arguments  of  names,  to  find 
all  Joctans  posterity  in  the  way  to  India,  or  the  Inland 
Indian  Countries,  where  it  is  likely  they  first  seated  them- 
selves, and  afterwardes  spread  themselves  both  to  the 
Northerne  Sarmatians,  and  Sythians,  and  to  the  Sea  Coast 
Southerly  after  the  Floud,  some  feare  whereof  did  not 
a  little  terrific  the  first  Ages.  At  this  day  Tippara, 
Serepore  on  Ganges,  Caplan,  the  place  where  they  find 
the  Rubies,  Saphires,  and  Spinells,  sixe  dayes  journey 
from  Ava,  Pegu  it  selfe,  and  the  Bramas,  which  founded 
the  New  Citie,  and  which  still  people  the  Kingdomes 
of  Prom,  Melintay,  Calam,  Bacam,  Miriam ;  and  Pur- 
dabin,  Purbola  at  the  Spring,  and  Benpurbat  the  entrance 
of  Ganges  to  the  Sea ;  the  Straits  of  Cingopura,  with 
divers  other  places  in  those  Regions  where  wee  place 
Ophir,  have  some  foot-prints  left  of  that  name  after  so  [I.  i.  32.] 
many  Ages.  Their  Brachmanes,  Probar  their  chiefe 
God,  Talipoies  their  Priests  might  be  added  for  sound. 
But  words  are  windie,  sounding  and  not  sound,  wordy 
not  worthy  arguments,  except  things  agreeing  make 
the  truth  evident.     For  accidentally  names  are  the  same 



Ptoll.  J.  Tab. 


2  Reg.  17.22. 

y  19.  13. 

Esay  36   If^c. 

Hee  nameth 
Mesa  and  Se- 
phar  as  better 
knotvne,  ifS  but 
the  entrf  of 
their  further 
population,  ad 
montes  orientis 
usque,  as  Tre- 
melHus  trans- 

In   divers   Countries,  as  if   any  man   lust   to   observe  in 
a  Geographicall  Dictionary,  hee  shall  easily  see. 

These  are  onely  probabilities  which  are  to  be  weighed 
with  the  words  of  Moses,  And  their  dwelling  was 
from  Mesha,  as  thou  goest  unto  Sephar,  a  Mount  of 
the  East ;  ad  montes  Orientis  usque,  Tremelius  reades 
it :  Josephus  interpreteth  from  Assyria  to  a  River  of 
India  called  Cophene.  Sepher  is,  if  ye  receive  Mon- 
tanus,  the  Peruan  Andes,  the  Mountaines  of  the  West 
in  the  Worlds  situation  from  Babylon,  and  the  place 
where  Moses  wrote ;  Ptolemie  mentions  Sipphara  not 
farre  from  Euphrates  :  Postellus  makes  it  Imaus,  Saint 
Hierom  placeth  it  in  India :  Sepharuaim  of  the  Assyrians 
(which  is  perhaps  Ptolomies  Sipphara,  is  often  men- 
tioned, and  confirmeth  well  that  opinion  of  Josephus. 
From  Mesa  therefore  which  taketh  his  beginning  East 
from  those  parts  where  Moses  wrote,  being  also  part 
of  that  hill  Taurus,  whereto  we  have  found  all  Joktans 
Sonnes  neighbouring  (afterwards  called  Mount  Masius, 
in  Mesopotamia)  to  Sephar,  another  part  of  that  great  hill 
Taurus,  both  Eastward,  and  thence  also  in  processe  of 
time  to  further  Easterly  Mountaines,  the  remotest 
Easterne  parts  of  Taurus,  did  Joktans  Posterity  spread 
and  disperse  themselves ;  one  of  the  most  Easterly 
whereof  we  finde  this  questioned  Ophir.  Or  if  any 
like  rather  to  finde  them  more  Easterly,  Plinie  mentions 
the  Masuae  and  Mesae  in  India,  and  there  also  is 
Ptolomies  Sapara  and  Sippara,  agreeing  with  Sephar : 
Sarpedon  also  and  Sariph  are  hils  so  called,  parts  of 

It  remaines  then  to  see  whether  the  Commodities  of 
those  parts,  and  the  Voyage  thither  be  correspondent  to 
the  Scriptures  description.  For  the  Commodities,  we 
will  give  both  auncient,  middle,  and  moderne  testi- 
monies (with  this  difference,  that  the  auncient  and  middle 
are  not  so  particular  nor  directly  expressing  and  notify- 
ing places  and  things  as  the  last)  the  rather  because 
this    hath    beene  the   stumbling   stone   to    Ortelius,    and 



others,  to  make  them  seeke  for  Ophir  elsewhere.     The 

Ophirian  Voyage  (it   is   probable)  comprehended  all   the 

gulfe  of  Bengala  from  Zeilan  to  Sumatra,  on  both  sides : 

but  the  Region  of  Ophir  we  make  to  be  all  from  Ganges 

to   Menan,    and    most   properly   the   large   Kingdome   of  Tab.Jsiaw 

Pegu,  from  whence  it  is  likely  in  processe  of  time,  the  ^'^''^  ^^^• 

Southerly  parts,  even  to  Sumatra  inclusively  was  peopled 

before  Salomons  time. 

In  India  beyond  Ganges,  Ptolomie  placeth  both  Argentea 
and  Aurea   Regio.      Super   Argenteam   autem    regionem, 
in  qua  multa  dicuntur  esse  metalla  non  signata,  superjacet 
Aurea    Regio,    Besyngitis    appropinquans,    quae    &     ipsa 
metalla  auri  quam  plurima  habet.     Arrianus  in  his  Peri- 
plus,  or  Treatise  of  the  sailing  about  the  Erythraean  Sea 
(which  as  is  said  before  contained   the   Indian)   speaking 
of  Ganges  and  the  rising  and  falling  thereof  like  Nilus, 
placeth   XP^^^   °^   ^^^   Golden   Region,    neere   to   it,    and 
addes  the  reports  of  golden  Mines  in  those  parts.     Xeyerai 
T6  Koi  ■^pvaopvyia  irepi  Tot9  TO'7ro<9  eivai.     Marcianus  mentions 
this  golden  Chersonessus  also.    *Long  before  them  Hero-  * f  ^e  xjj  eVrSs 
dotus  in  his  Thalia  relatmg  the  Tributes  paid  to  the  Persian  ^  xpv<^v 
Monarch,  saith,  The  Indians  as  they  are  more  in  number  ''"^"jj^'jj 
then  other  men,  so  their  tribute  is  greater,  360.  talents  iari 
of  Gold :    and  then  addeth   the  reports  of  Ants,   not  so 
bigge  as  Dogges,  but  bigger  then  Foxes,  which  cast  up 
antheaps  full  of  golden  sands.     Arrianus  cites  Nearchus  Heml.  Thai. 
and  Megasthenes  (whom  Strabo  produceth  also)  for  these  ^''°-  °-  ^  3°- 
Ants,  which  I  thinke   rather  to  be  an  Embleme  then  a 
Story.     For  as  Salomon  sends  the  Sluggard  to  schoole  to 
the  Pismire,  to  learne  of  that  little  creature  great  industry 
and   providence,   so  Salomons   and   other   Princes    Mines 
could  not  be  better  expressed  then  in  such  an  alegory ; 
living   in   darkenesse,   and   as   it   were   buried   alive,    and 
bearing    excessive    burthens,   yet    baited   with    poore   diet 
and    wages.       And    thus    Georgius    Fabritius,    Indi    suos   P^t'-  ^^  reb. 
Metallicos  fxopii.r)K.a<i  appellarunt,  unde   fabulis   locus,  &c.  ^^^-  ^'-  ■ 
The  like  fable  they  had  of  monstrous  Griffons,  thereby 
expressing    the    miserable    monstrosity   of  covetousnesse. 



Plinie  hath  (speaking  of  the  Indian  Nations)  Fertilissimi 
sunt  auri    Dardae,  Setae  vero   argenti.       Sed   omnium   in 
India   prope,  non   modo   in  hoc   tractu,   potentiam   clari- 
tatemque   antecedunt   Prasii,   amphsma  urbe   ditissimaque 
Palibotra  :    unde  quidem  ipsam  gentem  Pahbotros  vocant, 
imo    vero    tractum    universum    a    Gange.       Regi    eorum 
peditum  sexcenta  M.  equitum  triginta  M.  elephantorum 
novem    M.    per    omnes   dies    stipendiantur,   &c.      These 
Plut.Alexand.  Prasii  placed  neere  Ganges,  Plutarch  cals  Praesii,  Curtius 
Pharasii,  Diodorus  Tabraesii,  all  which  names  they  which 
know  any  thing  in  Ebrew  can  tell  how  easily  they  may 
be  derived  from  Ophir,  passing  the  Greeke  termination 
after   other   changes.       And    Palabothra,    or   Palimbothra 
is   by   Arrianus   placed   at   the   confluence   of  the  Rivers 
"^Erannaboa     ^  Erannoboa  and  Ganges,  Strabo   speakes   of   the   sailing 
perhaps  ts  nozv  ^^  Ganges  to  Palibothra  against   the  streame,  and   saith 
Strab.'i    iq.    ^^^^  Ganges  descends  from  the  Mountaines  and  from  the 
plaines     takes     an    Eastward    course ;     then     passing    by 
Palibothra   a  very  great   Citie,   enters   the   Sea  with   one 
channell,  although  it  be  the  greatest  of  the  Indian  Rivers. 
Master   Fitch  our   Country   man   spent   five   moneths  in 
passing  downe  Ganges  (he  might    have  done  it   sooner) 
^Sanba! stands  and   mentions   Serrepore,  which  (as  Sanbal^'  by  the   first 
where  Jetmi     syllable)  may  seeme    to    be    the    same    by  the   situation, 
/fl^/w<5    an-  ^j.^^^]^g^  ^j^j  j^gj-  syllable;   and  tels  of  the  Gold  Mines 
in  the  way.     Diodorus  Siculus,  speaking  of  India  saith, 
Z).5. 7.3.^.10.   Nascitur    in    ea   ingens   argenti   aurique   vis,    non    parum 
quoque  aeris,  ferrique  &  orichalci.     Another  Diodorus  in 
his    Geographicall    Verses    saith    of    the    Indians    Gold- 
mining  : 

[I.  i.  33.1  Tcov  0'  olfxev  "^pva-olo  ixeToXkevovai  yeueOXrjv 

'^a/xjiiov     euyva/uLiTTrja-i  \a-)((uvovTe^  fxaKeXijcriu  and  after 

')(jpv(Tol.o  yeveBXrjv 
Aai^a\€i]v  'YTraw  re  (pepei,  Oetog  re  Meyaocro? 
Aa^poTUTOi  iroTajuwv  ',    utto  S^  oupeo?  'HjucoSoio 
Opvv/iieuoi  Trpopeoucriv  eiri  VayyrjTL^a  -^(aprju. 
Me/a. /.:{.. c. 8.        Pomponius    Mela    mentions    those    Ants,    More   Gry- 
phorum   keeping   the   Gold,  cum   summa  pernicie   attin- 



gentium.     He,  Solinus,  and  Plinie  mention  Chryse  and  Plin.l.6.z\. 
Argyre   so  plentifull  of  Mettals,  that  men  reported  the  ^°^^"-  '^''t'-  54- 
soyle   was    Gold    and    Silver :     so    hyperbolicall    reports 
were  raised  of  their  store. 

But  as  the  ancients  knew  not  these  parts  of  India  so 
well   as  later   times,  wee  will   produce   later   testimonies. 
And  generally  it  is  esteemed  in  the  remotest  East  parts, 
that    Gold    by  reason  of  the    plenty  hath    not    his   true  SeeTo.z.Li. 
and  natural  preasminence  above  Silver  Cwhich  ordinarilv  i'  f' 
is   twelve   to   one)    but  lower   by  much,  in    some   places   i^  pao-' 7qa 
more,    in    some    lesse,    as    the    following    Relations    will 
better  acquaint  you.     So   Marco   Polo   saith   that  in  the 
Province    of  Cardandan,  they  give   one  ounce   of  Gold  Cardandan 
for    five    of    Silver :     Gold    being    exceeding    plentifull,  ^^°^  ^^^^  ^^^"^ 
which   many  brought   thorow  the   Desarts   to  change    as  ' 

aforesaid,  the  wayes  being  unpassible  for  others.  I  omit 
the  golden  Monument  he  mentions  in  Mien.  In  Tholo- 
man  hee  saith,  is  great  quantity  of  Gold.  The  former 
place  is  somewhat  Northerly,  this  Easterly  from  the 
necke  of  the  Chersonessus.  Nicolo  de  Conti  mentions 
Bels  of  Gold  commonly  sold  in  those  parts,  still  in  use 
in  Pegu  to  put  in  mens  yards.  Odoardo  Barbosa 
mentions  store  of  Gold  at  Queda,  and  in  the  Kingdome 
of  Pam,  in  this  Chersonessus.  But  I  am  too  suddenly 
slipt  into  later  times:  Long  before  these.  Saint  Isidore  ///V./.  14.^.3. 
mentioneth  Chryse  and  Argyre  plentifull  of  Gold  and 
Silver,  and  those  golden  Mountaines  quos  adire  propter 
Dracones  &  Gryphas,  &  immensorum  hominum  monstra, 
impossibile  est.  ^lian  hath  a  long  discourse  of  those  -^Han  de 
Gryphons  out  of  Ctesias,  keeping  the  Gold  in  vast  ^^^^^'^^^  ^-  +• 
Deserts ;  of  which  I  noted  before,  as  of  the  Phenix  ^' 
and  the  Ants,  that  a  Mysterie  rather  then  Historie  is 
intended,  either  shewing  the  barrennesse  of  Misers  pro- 
ducing no  good  fruites  in  the  mids  of  golden  abundance, 
but  rather  ready  to  devoure  all  which  came  in  their 
clutches ;  or  else  intimating  the  difficulty  to  get  Gold, 
and  manifold  dangers  in  respect  of  the  neighbouring 
inhabitants,    &    of    famine    in    those    Deserts.     Rabanus 



See  the  Glosse 
l5  Lyran.  in 
I.  reg.  9. 

See  my  Pilgri- 
mage Lins- 
choten.  Fitch, 
Balbi,  all 
■which  have 
written  of 
these  parts, 
^lian  de 


See  L  10. 


Maurus,  and  long  after  him  Nicolas  Lyra  relate  these 
Beasts  perillous  to  such  as  seeke  the  Gold  in  these 
parts.  And  indeede  for  wilde  Beasts,  both  Lizards, 
Tygres,  and  others,  I  thinke  no  places  more  infested 
then  those  in  and  neere  Pegu :  for  which  cause  the 
Country  and  people  are  forced  to  build  their  houses 
above  ground,  that  they  may  goe  up  to  them  on  Ladders, 
Barros  tels  of  one  Tygre  which  in  Malacca  seised  on  a 
peece  of  wood  to  which  three  slaves  were  chained,  and 
carried  all  away,  leaping  therewith  over  a  high  wall  also. 
Neither  are  the  Tygres  of  other  Countries  comparable 
to  these  in  these  parts,  being  another  kinde,  called  Thoes, 
or  some  other  kinde,  rather  than  true  Tygres,  of  which 
are  many  in  Afrike  and  America.  But  leaving  the 
testimonies  of  auncient  and  midle  times,  wee  will  come 
to  later  dayes. 

Ludovico  Barthema  in  his  third  Booke  of  India,  c.  16. 
much  extolleth  Pegu  for  riches  (he  wrote  sixe  score 
yeeres  agoe)  especially  for  Jewels,  and  he  saith  the  King 
had  a  Million  of  Gold  in  revenue :  and  note  that  the 
Bramas  Empire  or  Monarchy  was  not  then  begun. 
Barthema  also  mentions  the  Gold  in  Somatra.  Barbosas 
testimony  is  before.  Caesar  Fredericke  which  was  at 
Pegu,  neere  sixty  yeeres  since  in  the  Bramas  reigne  in 
Pegu,  saith  that  the  King  had  divers  Magazines  full  of 
Gold  and  Silver,  every  day  increased  without  diminishing. 
He  is  Lord  also  of  the  Mines  of  Rubies,  Saphires,  and 
Spinels.  He  mentions  also  Colosses,  or  prodigious  and 
more  then  Gyantly  statues  of  Gold  and  Silver,  the  foote 
as  bigge  as  a  mans  body :  innumerable  Varelles  or  IdoU 
Temples  covered  with  leafe  Gold,  with  other  things 
which  I  omit.  Master  Fitch,  besides  the  Gold  Mines 
at  Patenaw  as  he  descended  the  Ganges,  relates  the  like 
golden  stories  of  Pegu  (where  hee  was  1586.)  as 
Fredericke  hath  related,  of  houses  of  the  King  full  of 
Gold,  of  guilded  Idoll  houses  and  statues.  The  Mer- 
chandise in  Pegu,  saith  he,  is  Gold,  Silver,  Rubies, 
Saphires,    Spinels,    Muske,   &c.   neither    is    their    money 



of  those  mettals,  but  of  a   kinde  of  Brasse  called  Gansa,  Gansa  is  a 

wherewith  Gold  and  Silver  are  bought,  sometimes  deerer,  ^^•^'"'"^  °f 
.  ,  11  CI        Brasse  and 

sometimes  cheaper,  no  lesse  then  other  wares,     bo  also  ^^^^ 

saith    Fredericke,    saying    that    every    man    may    stampe 

that    money  at    his    pleasure,    and    therewith    buy    Gold 

and    Silver,    as    aforesaid.     Gasparo    Balbi    a    Venetian  Balbi  began 

Jeweller    was    there    a   little    before    Fitch,    and    relateth  his  journey 

likewise  of  the  statues,  Magazens  of  Gold,  Silver,  Ganza,  ^/pj„^ ^j"^^ 

Jewels,  Cloathes,  Muske,  &c.  under  severall  Treasurers,  1583.  ^W 

and    concludeth,   that    this   King,   for    Gold,   Silver,  and  staid  till 

Jewels,   is    the    richest    Kinsf    in    the    world,  except    the  1586. /« 

?:  .  '  -  °  ^  which  space 

KmgofChma.  was  a  combat 

But  the  Jesuites  Letters  have  best  opened  these  Mines  betwixt  the 
of  the  King  of  Pegu.     N.  Pimenta    writes ;  Fernandus  Kings  of  Ava 
also  from  Syripore   1599.    16.  Kal.  Feb.  of  the  state  o^  ^"/ ^^-^^  ""  , 
Pegu  ;  that  the  Kings  father  a  Braman  had  subjected  twelve  ^y  ^il/'lf 
Kingdomes  to  his  scepter,  viz.  the  Kingdome  of  Cavelan,  ^^j,^  ^lame. 
whence  come  the  best  Rubies  and  Saphires :  Ava,  which 
hath   Mines    of  Cyprian   Brasse,  Lead,  and    Silver :   the 
Kingdome  of  Bacan  which  hath   many  Mines  of  Gold : 
the    Kingdome    of  Tangoma,    abounding    with    Copper, 
Muske,  Pepper,  Silke,  Gold,   Silver,  (all  which  are  also 
had,    saith    he,    in    the    rest    of   the    Kingdomes    of  the 
Peguan  Empire)   Cablan  abounding    with   Gemmes,  &c. 
Hee  proceedes  to  relate  the  miserable  ruine  &  destruction  [I-  i.  34-] 
of  that  Kingdome,  which  then  had  lately  happened,  not 
yet  recovered,  as   you  may  reade  at  large   in   him,  and 
in  my  Pilgrimage.     The  former  King  of  Pegu  is  reported 
to  have  cast  366.  combalengas  of  Gold,  each  containing 
180.  pound  weight,  which   none  knowes  what  is  become 
of  them.     This    King    had    67.    IdoU-statues    of   Gold, 
adorned   with  all    kinde    of  Gemmes.     He    killed    200. 
Eunuches  lest  they  might  disclose  his  treasures.    Andreas 
Boves,    another   Jesuite,   related   the    miserable   death  of 
the  King  (in  his   Letters   from   Sirian   in  Pegu,    March  P.P.l.s.c^. 
28.  1000.)  slaine  by  the   King  of  Tangu,  to  whom  he 
had  yeelded  himselfe,  who  neglecting  Silver,  and  things 
of  smaller  value,  onely  with  Gold  and   Gemmes  laded 



*  One  Copy      sixe  or  seven  hundred*  Elephants,  and  as  many  Horses. 
Hc^LT^oo    ^^^  ^^"^  °^  Arracan    tooke    his    leavings,   gleaning    so 
'     ■   much    Silver    as    was    valued    at   three    Millions    besides 
Ordnance  3300.  Peeces. 

Now   for   trade  of  Gold   out  of  the  adjoyning   parts, 
I  could  adde  hither  out  of  Fernand  Mendez  Pinto  which 
He  places  Ca-  travelled  from   Timplan   in    Calaminhan   (the    Emperour 
twixt  Pe  u      whereof,   he    saith,   hath    seven   and    twenty    Kingdomes 
and  Chitia       Subject  to  him)  to  Pegu,  An.  1546.  then  possessed  by  the 
neeretoProm.  Braman   Conquerour.     Hee  reporteth  that  the  Bramans 
Monarchy  had  anciently  contained  thirteene  Kingdomes  ; 
and   that  abundance  of  Gemmes,   Gold,    Silver,  and   in- 
numerable   riches   are    in    the    Calaminhan    Empire ;     in 
which   is   no  money  of  Gold,  or  Silver,  but   they  trade 
by  weight  of  Gates,  Tadis,  Maazes,  and  Conderins.     Hee 
also  reporteth  that  the  Lake  Chiama  containeth  in  circuit 
sixty  Jaons,  each  of  which  is  three  leagues,  alongst  which 
are    many   Mines    of  Silver,   Copper,    Tin,    and    Leade, 
which  they  carry  in  Cafilas  of  Elephants,  and  Badas  (I 
thinke  hee  meaneth   Rhinocerots)  to  the  Kingdomes  of 
Sornau,  to  wit,  Siam,  Passiloco,  Savady,   Tangu,  Prom, 
Calaminham,    and    returne    therefore    much     Gold,    and 
Diamonds,    and    Rubies.     As   for    the    Mines   of    Gold 
neere  the  Lake   Pinator  whence   the   River   of  Camboia 
runneth,   yeelding  yeerely  two    and  twenty   Millions    of 
Gold,  and  a  rocke  of  Diamants  there  also,  I  referre  you 
Peregrin.  F.     to    the   Author,  which    placeth    them    further    then    our 
^'  limits. 

Pinto  c.  39.  But  if  we  adde  Sumatra  (which  the  most  thinke  to  be 

Taprobone,   in   which   Ophirs    name    is    evidently    seene 
still)   we    have    the    tradition    of  the    people,   the    Gold 
also    (Bonferrus    a    Franciscan     hath    related    that    the 
Peguan  tradi-  Peguans    are    descended    of  Salomons    servants    sent    to 
'""'•  these    Mynes  ;    but    I    know    not   whether   the    Natives 

have  any  such  tradition,  perhaps  it  is  the  Friers  con- 
jecture) as  appeareth  by  the  following  testimonies.  And 
if  wee  adde  the  next  Neighbour  on  the  West,  which 
now    possesseth   the   Easterne   parts  of  Ganges,  and  the 



Kingdome  of  Bengala,  I   thinke  wee   shall   utterly  take 

away  Ortelius  his  scruple  (Sed   hanc   Chersonesum   auri  The  cause  why 

divitem  olim    fuisse,  nemo  veterum,  quod  sciam  auctor  ^rtehusre- 

est)  neque  nunc  etiam  esse,  ex  recentioribus  palam  est  :)  opi„io„  of 

Onely  remember  that  in  the  Ophirian  Voyage,  we  take  josephus. 

not    onely  the  Chersonesus,  but  all  the  Countrey  from 

Ganges,   and    thence    to    Sumatra,   placing  Pegu    in    the 

centre  as  the  Ophir  of  Ophir,  or  Ophir  in  most  proper 

sence ;   annexing   the    rest,    with    all    the   Choromandell 

coast  also,  as  being  subject  to  one  and  the  same  trade 

and    Navigation,    all   on    the    shoares   of   the   gulfe   of 

Bengala.     I  like  Master  Dees  simiHtude,  which  sets  the 

feete  of  his  Ophirian  compasse,  one  in  Zeilan,  the  other 

in  Sumatra,  the   head  I    place    in    Pegu.     This  head  is 

caput    caenae,    the    true    Ophir,    the    other    parts    of  the 

compasse,   the   parts   compassed   and   traded   in,    in   this 

Ophirian  Voyage.     From   Ganges  to   Menan  are  divers 

Chersonesi,   or  rather    Hands,   in   regard    of  the    Rivers 

which  come  from  the  Lake  Chiamay;  and  from  Bengala 

to  Menan  is  the  Peguan  Chersonesus,  which  perhaps  is 

the  true  Chryse  and   Aurea  (for  that    Malaccan    Cher- 

sonessus  hath  never  beene  renowned  in  latter  times  for 

any  great  quantity  of  Gold  that  I  have  read   or  learnd, 

not   yet   altogether  destitute,   as  we  have  shewed  ;    but 

not  sufficient   for  Salomons   Ophir)  from   which  as   first 

peopled,   the  Inhabitants  of  Sumatra  might  (as  is  said) 

be  a  Colony. 

Whether  it  were  so  or  no,  I  dispute  not,  nor  whether 
it  or  Zeilan  be  the  true  Taprobant ;  nor  whether  it  were 
anciently  an  Hand,  and  since  separated  by  the  Seas 
irruption :  that  it  is  well  stored  with  Golden  Mines 
needes  no  question,  and  therefore  fit  to  be  saluted  by 
Salomons  Navie,  then  in  their  Ophirian  Voyage,  and 
by  us  here  in  our  Ophirian  Discovery.  Of  Sumatra, 
Odoardo  Barbosa  witnesseth  that  there  are  many  Gold 
Mines,  vi  son  molte  minere  d'Oro :  and  speaking  of 
Menancabo  one  of  the  Kingdomes  in  the  South  part 
of   that   great   Hand    saith,  &    qui    e    il    principal    fonte 



dell'oro,  &c.  there  is  the  principall  originall  of  the  Gold 
of  that  Hand,  as  well  of  the  Minerals,  as  of  that  which 
is  gathered  neere  the  brinkes  of  Rivers.  He  wrote 
An.  1 516.  and  was  one  of  Magelans  companions  in  his 
Voyage  about  the  World.  Long  before  him  Nicolo  di 
Conti  testified  of  Sumatra,  that  in  it  is  abundance  of 
Gold.  Andrew  Thevet  mentions  the  gold  Mines :  but 
wee  have  later  and  better  testimonies  from  our  owne 
men.  Captaine  Davis  was  in  that  Hand,  Anno  1599. 
Seelnf.pAii.  and  mentions  not  onely  the  King  of  Achens  store,  but 
the  Mines  of  Gold  and  other  commodities  of  that 
Hand :  and  the  Brasse  Mines  to  be  also  rich  in  Gold  ; 
and  (which  maketh  most  to  our  purpose)  a  tradition 
of  the  Natives  that  Salomons  Ophirian  voyage  for  Gold 
was  to  that  Countrey.  Sir  James  Lancasters  Voyage, 
and  divers  other  English  Voyages  will  ratifie  Sumatras 
Gold.  But  what  neede  we  better  testimony  then  the 
Letter  of  that  King  to  our  King,  which  this  story 
^ See  Inf.  pa.  yeeldeth  to  your  ^  view,  and  worth  your  reading.  To 
468.  y  532.  ^j^^j.^  ^^^  ^Q  Walter  Paytons  testimony  of  the  Gold  of 
Passaman  in  this  Hand  I  referre  you.  Likewise  for 
the  next  adjoyning  parts  on  this  side,  I  will  trouble 
you  onely  with  two  testimonies,  one  of  Master  Fitch, 
[I.  i.  35.]  who  travelling  downe  the  River  Ganges,  at  Patenaw 
observed  the  golden  Mines,  where  saith  he,  they  digge 
deepe  pits  and  wash  the  earth  thence  taken  in  great 
boles,  and  so  finde  the  Gold :  the  other  of  Captaine 
Hawkins,  who  bare  the  name  of  the  English  Embas- 
sadour  in  the  Mogols  Court,  and  speaking  of  sixe 
severall  treasuries  of  that  King,  relates  the  particulars 
of  that  one  of  Agra,  which  stands  on  Jemni  or  Gemini, 
Inf.  217  y  a  River  tributary  to  Ganges,  where  his  Gold,  Silver, 
''^'  and    Jewels    may   seeme   to   our  poorer   World,   beyond 

credit.  But  I  had  rather  point  you  to  the  place, 
then  here  trouble  you  with  transcribing.  And  thus 
have  we  used  a  threefold  argument,  one  of  names, 
a  second  of  situation,  a  third  of  the  principall  com- 
modities   returned,   to    prove    that    Ophir    was    in    these 



parts,  and  have  before  shewed  that  it  could  be  in  none 
other  alleadged.  But  Gold  and  Gemmes  have  such 
a  lustre,  and  Salomons  other  rarities  were  so  precious, 
that  wee  may  I  hope  be  pardoned  to  take  longer  view 
on  them,  both  for  our  better  knowledge  in  such  things, 
and  for  better  confirmation  of  the  Ophirian  Pegu,  and 
the  Regions  adjacent. 

§.  X. 

Of  the  Gold,  Silver,  Gemmes,  Ivory,  Almug- 
trees,  Apes  and  Peacockes,  which  Salomons 
Fleet  brought  from  Ophir,  with  divers  other 
profitable  observations  inserted. 

Etals  are  our  Mothers  hidden  treasures,  by  mens 
covetousnesse  often  occasions  of  her  violent 
ravishments,    and     no     better     to     her     then     a 

Viperous   Issue,   or   as    Wormes,   or    Colike    passions    in 

her  entrals.      In    themselves,   and    in    divine    Ordinance, 

they    are    many    wayes    profitable    for    medicine    against 

diseases,   armour   against   enemies,   ornaments    for    peace, 

engines  for  Warre,  Instruments  for  daily  labour,  utensils 

for  daily  food,   and  in  money-emploiment,  they  are  All 

things.     Of  all  Metals  Gold  hath  preeminence,  as  likest 

the    Sun    in    purity    of    substance,    glory    of  splendour, 

powerfull    attraction,    longest    endurance    (in    despite    of 

Age   and    Fire)    most    operative    influence,   and    of  base  *^<'-  i-//-9- 

Idolaters    most    adored.       How    it    is    found    in    Grains,  ^12.  §3.  TV. 

2     /    C     r     2 

Pippins,    or    Powder,    this    Booke    elsewhere    sheweth.*  §'  *  y  * 
And    although    Silver    bee    a    durable    metall,    and    well   y^. 
induring  both    times   and    flames,  yet   herein   is   it  short  SeeBrerewood 
of  Gold  :  and  notwithstanding  the  colour  is  more  light-  ^^  '^umms  c. 

2022  Pollux 

some,  and  the  sound  more   delightsome,  yet  Gold  hath  ^^^g^^  Takn- 
in     great    proportion     alway    beene    preferred.       Jullius  turn  Hes.  in 
Pollux    citeth    Menander,    and    Hesychius    Polemarchus,  xpv<^ovi  y 
which  make  this  proportion  ten  fold,  which  the  Romans  ^^^^p)' f^"'^' 
also    observed    in     their    agreement    with    the    iEtolians,   ^  '^^^'.^ '  ^  ^" 
that   if  they  paid   in   Gold,   one   peece   should    counter-  TMia, 



vaile  ten  of  Silver.  The  old  Greekes  and  Persians 
seeme  to  have  observed  the  like  rate.  Plinie  mentions 
at  the  first  coyning,  the  proportions  of  fifteene ;  and 
neere  that,  to  wit,  fourteene  and  a  halfe,  is  observed 
in  the  Constitutions  of  Arcadius  and  Honorius.  Hero- 
dotus makes  one  Talent  of  Gold  equall  to  thirteene  of 
Silver.  In  Galbas  time  it  was  twelve  and  a  halfe.  But 
China  and  some  parts  of  the  East  Indies,  by  reason  of 
plenty  of  Gold,  and  small  store  of  Silver,  have  diversly 
undervalued  the  Gold.  The  most  generall,  which  Plato 
also  approved,  and  In  Plinies  time  was  currant,  and  is 
most  usuall  in  these  parts,  is  ordinarily  twelve  for  one, 
as  an  ounce  of  Silver  five  shillings,  of  Gold  three 

The  purest  Gold,  and  which  is  as  much  as  may  be, 
purified   from  all  other  mixture,   is  called   Obryzum,   a 
Gorop.  Pine,    word  procreated  in  the  Mints,  &  not  of  Ophirian  parent- 
y^-  age   (Obrlzum   quasi   Ophirlzum)  and  such  are  (as  they 

say)  the  Darike  coines  and  our  Edward  Nobles;  not 
above  the  nintie  sixth  part  being  of  other  mixture. 
They  say  (saith  Master  Brerewood)  that  it  may  be  so 
farre  refined  that  onely  the  three  hundred  eighty  fourth 
Tal.lmafol.  part  shall  be  of  other  mettall.  The  Greeke  coines  of 
44;  Philip   and   Alexander  admitted  a  fiftieth  part  of  Silver, 

Hter.  tn  Jer.    ^^    Romans    forty    eight,    now    observed    In    Turkish, 
Job.  21.  2^.    Hungarian,     Spanish,    and    Venetian    coines:    those    of 
y  28  16.       Rome,  Luques,    Mlllaine  have  alloy  thirty  two,  French 
iC^r.  29. 4.    Crownes   sixteene,    Italian    nine,   &c.      The  Talmudists 
mention  seven   kindes  of  Gold,  or  observe  seven  names 
by    which    Gold    is    named    in    Scripture:    Saint   Jerom 
also    Intimateth   the   same,   and   Pineda   hath   long   dis- 
courses of  them,  which  I  omit.     The  Scripture  seemeth 
to    ascribe  a   prerogative  to   the   Gold  of  Ophir,  before 
Salomons    time,   in    Job,    and    in    Davids    dales,    wherby 
It  may  seeme  that  the  Voyage  to  Ophir  for  Gold  was 
in    use    long   before  Salomon,   and    some    thinke    that  a 
great  part  of  Davids  Gold  consecrated  to  the  Temple, 
was  by  his  care   fetched   thence.       For  above  his  other 



preparations,  mentioned  i.  Chron.  22.  14,  which  were 
a  hundreth  thousand  talents  of  Gold,  and  a  thousand 
thousand  talents  of  Silver,  in  the  nine  and  twentieth 
chapter,  he  out  of  his  proper  goods  giveth  3000.  other 
talents  of  Gold,  of  the  Gold  of  Ophir,  and  7000.  talents 
of  refined  Silver :  the  Princes  offered  also  5000.  talents 
of  Gold,  and  loooo  drams,  and  of  Silver  loooo.  talents, 

This  is  diversly  summed  by  divers  Expositors  differing 
in    their    computation    of  a    Talent.      Master    Dee    and 
Master  Brerewood  have  seemed  to  have  given   the  best 
construction,  derived  from    Moses    himselfe,    Exod.    38. 
25,   26.   which   Rabbi  Salomon  and  Lyra,    had  observed 
before   them;  that   a  Talent   containeth   ^3000.   Shekles,  ^6003550. ^^ 
which    is    375    li.    a   Talent   of  Silver,   and   a   Talent   of  halfe  a  shekel 
Gold,  allowing  twelvefold  proportion,  is  4500.  li.    Accord-  '^  ^^^ Pp 
ing   to   which  just    reckoning  Salomons    foure   hundreth  ^„^,rro 
twenty   Talents    of  Gold   brought  from   Ophir,  came   to  shekels:  so 
one    million    eight    hundred    ninety    thousand    pounds.  ^^^^  600000 
Davids  3000.  Talents  of  Gold  of  Ophir,  i.  Chron.  29.  4.  ^^  3Joj^/- 
aforesaid,  was  thirteene  millions  and  five  hundreth  thou-  sequenth  a 
sand  in  English  money.     His  Silver  then  offered  (7000.  talent  is  6000 
Talents)    is   two    millions    625000.    li.     The    off^ering    of  halfe  shekels. 
the  Princes  (5000.  Talents  of  Gold)  was  two  and  twenty  t^-  ^-  3^-J 
millions    five    hundreth    and    seven    thousand     &     500. 
pounds :  and  their  ten  thousand  Talents  of  Silver  came 
to    three    millions    and    seven    hundred    fiftie    thousand 
pounds.     Salomon  had    also  given   him   by   the   Queene   i.i?^^,  10.10. 
of  Sheba   120.  Talents,  that  is  five  hundreth   and   fortie 
thousand   pounds.     As  much   was   sent   him   by   Hiram. 
Now    the    whole     Furniture    of    the     Tabernacle     was 
twentie    nine    Talents    of   Gold,    and    730.    Shekles;     in  Exod.T,%.2^. 
our    money,    one    hundreth    thirtie    and    one    thousand,  ^5- 
five    hundreth   ninety    and   five   pounds ;    the    silver    was 
100.    talents,    and    1775.    shekles,   that   is,   thirtie   seven 
thousand,    seven     hundreth     and     twentie     one     pounds 
seventeene  shillings  six  pence.     Thus  hath  Master  Brere- 
wood   cast    up   these   summes.     Now   for    this    Ophirian 
I  97  e 


Gold,  Salomon  is  said,  2.  Chron.  8.  i8.  to  have  had 
from  Ophir  foure  hundred  and  fiftie  talents,  thirtie  more 
then  I.  Reg.  9.  are  mentioned,  which  thirtie  Talents,  it 
seemeth  were  spent  in  wages  or  other  charges,  and  came 
not  to  the  Kings  Coffers. 

But  a  great  scruple  remaineth  about  the  1 00000. 
talents  of  Gold,  mentioned  before  out  of  i.  Chron. 
22.  14.  which  amount  to  foure  hundreth  and  fiftie 
millions  of  English  pounds ;  and  the  million  of  Silver 
talents  to  three  hundreth  seventie  five  millions  of 
pounds :  summes  stupendious  and  prodigious  beyond 
all  that  the  Persian,  Greeke,  or  Roman  Empires  ever 
saw  at  one  time,  after  greater  and  longer  conquests 
then  Davids ;  and  such,  as  even  Salomons  wealth  had 
beene  by  much  overtopped  by  Davids ;  which  agreeth 
♦2.  C/5r(?«.  I.  not  either  to  the  History*,  or  to  the  Mystery,  that 
12.  Heavens  peace  &  glory  should  be  surmounted  by  mili- 

tant Faith  and  Grace.  Alexander  the  richest  Conquerour, 
left  but  eighteene  millions  and  seven  hundreth  and  50000. 
pound  of  money  at  his  death :  and  in  conquest  of 
Darius,  had  gotten  but  thirtie  two  millions  750000. 
pound :  and  Cyrus  out  of  the  conquest  of  Asia  gathered 
but  125.  millions,  which  yet  is  the  greatest  sum  (except 
that  of  Sardonapalus  mentioned  by  Ctesias,  an  Author 
not  much  to  bee  credited)  which  any  Ethnick  story 
mentioneth.  Wee  must  therefore  find  another  accepta- 
tion of  the  word  there  translated  Talent,  which  is  taken 
sometimes  for  a  lumpe  of  mettall  in  forme  of  a  Cake, 
or  else  that  name  Talent  is  sometimes  taken  for  a  small 
summe,  as  out  of  Pollux  and  Homer,  M.  Brerewoods 
paines  have  observed ;  who  also  having  cast  up  the 
particulars,  findeth  that  such  summes  could  not  have 
beene  spent  on  the  Temple,  had  the  Walls  and  Pave- 
ments beene  of  massie  Silver,  the  Roofe  and  all  the 
Linings  of  the  Walls  and  the  Furniture  of  solid  Gold. 
Salomons  yeerely  revenue  (as  some  interpret,  2  Chron. 
9.  13.)  was  sixe  hundreth  sixty  sixe  talents  of  Gold, 
besides    his    Customes,    and    the    rich    Presents    of  Gold 



and  Silver  sent  him  from  the  Kings   of  Arabia  and  the 

Governours:     that    lackes    but    three    pounds    of  three 

millions  in  our   reckoning.     Some  would  make   up   this 

great  summe   of  the    Ophirian    Gold,   and   Hirams,   and 

the    Queene    of  Shebas   gifts,    which    all    lacke    but    six 

talents;    as    if   it    were    not    an    Annuall,    but    Casuall 

Revenue,   which    I    cannot    approve.     Some   interpret    it 

of  ordinary    tributes    levied    of   his    Subjects ;    some    of 

the  posteritie  of  the   Chanaanites  (a  thing  unhkely)  and 

some    of  forraine    voyages,   making    him   to   send   every 

yeere    a    Fleet,    though    none    of  those    Fleets    returned 

till   the    third   yeere.      Villalpandus*    makes   it    but    one  *Vilal.To.z. 

returne   from    Ophir,   the    first,   of  foure    hundreth    and  Explan.  p.  z. 

twenty    Talents,    the     second,    of   foure    hundreth    and  '^^^i^^,.  jj^omht 

fiftie,   the    third,    of   sixe    hundreth    sixty   sixe   of   Gold,  home  much 

besides   Silver  and   other  goods.     And,  as  for  Salomons  more  then 

entire  Revenues,  hee  with  great  paines  in   the   auditing,  ^o^^- 

raiseth  them  higher  then  the  Persians,  then  Alexanders, 

then    those    of  the    Roman    Empire:     arising    from    his 

Customes,   his   Gifts  and   Presents,   Taxations,   Tributes, 

provisions   of  Corne,  &c.     That   of  the  King  of  Tyrus 

he  reckoneth  a  tribute,  and  out  of  Eupolemus  alleageth 

that  the  Tyrians   were   tributaries.     Wee  may  here   also 

remember,   that   there    is  no   mention   of  the   summe   of 

the    Silver    which    they    brought    from    Ophir,    which    is 

likely  was   farre  more   then   the  Gold,  insomuch   that  it   i.  Chron.  9. 

was  reputed  as  Stones,  and  was   of  none  account  in  the  ^7-^^-J^^g' 

dayes  of  Salomon.  ,      ,      .    .       .       u'cLn.  9. 

To  mee  it  seemeth  that  the  sixe  hundreth  sixtie  sixe  23,  24. 
Talents  of  Gold  is  spoken  onely  of  forraine  Gold,  partly 
by  Ophirian  and  other  merchandising  Trades,  and  partly 
by  Presents ;  of  which  the  two  principall,  Hiram,  and 
the  Queene  of  the  South  are  expressed :  but  it  is 
added  of  others.  That  all  the  Kings  of  the  Earth  sought 
the  presence  of  Salomon,  and  brought  every  man  his 
Present,  vessells  of  Silver,  and  vessells  of  Gold,  and 
Raiment,  Harnesse  and.  Spices,  Horses  and  Mules,  a 
rate    yeere    by    yeere.     Grant    then    a    Fleet   yeerely    set 



forth,   which    came   not   home   till    the    third  yeere,   one 
succeeding   another   (as   in   the   Spanish   Fleets   to   Peru, 
and   ours  to  the  Indies,   of  which   is  a   yeerely  returne, 
yet  not   of  the   same)  and  these  yeerely  Presents,  there 
could  not  be   lesse  then  six  hundreth  sixty  six  Talents : 
besides  perhaps,  tenne  or  twelve  times  as  much  in  Silver, 
and   all   the   Spices,   Horses,   Mules,   Customes  of  Mer- 
chants, Tributes  of  the  Edomites,  Moabites,  and  Vassalls, 
*Vili^p.  ubi    Taxes  on  his   Israelitish*   Subjects,  Revenues  out   of  his 
sup.  ratseth      Pastures    and    innumerable    Cattell    and    husbandry    of 
e  ti  ues  0/  Qj.Q^j^g  Lands  (wee  will  not  adde,  with  some,  Chimistry; 
Israel  to  izo.  v  i    i  •      /-n    i  •  •  •        \         j      n     1 

talents  each      that  might  have  saved  his  Uphirian  paines)  and  all  the 

Tribe,  y  as  riches   left   him   by   Inheritance   from   his  Father.     Now 

much  of  ^}^^|-  {-j^e  six  hundreth  sixtie  six  Talents  is  to  be  under- 

^hos^ub'ec  Stood  of  Strangers,  appeareth  in  that  exception.  Vers.  14. 

tion  I  dispute  where  none  but  forraine  Incombes  are  mentioned.     And 

not,  it  agreeth  hereby  most    lively  is    both    the    calling  of  the   Gentiles 

with  Canaans  figured,   of  which   the   72.  Psalme  was  by  the  Spirit  of 

7romisTofa'll  ^^'^  purposely   indited   in   correspondence    of  this   type, 

Caanan  to  ^nd    the    Christian    Truth  ;    as    also    the    glory    of    the 

Israel)  which  heavenly  Jerusalem,  which  ariseth  not  out  of  the  workes 

together  make  of  righteousnesse  which  we  have  done,  but  of  free  gifts, 

262°' for''  °^  ^^^^^  '^  ^^  ^^^^'  ^^^y  ^^^^^  ^""g  ^^^  &^°^y  ^"^ 

Roinanducats:  honour  of  the  Nations  into  it.  Rev.  21.  where  in  vision 
besides  Silver  that  glorious  Citie  is  represented,  and  correspondent 
and  all  other  to  Salomons  type.  The  Citie  was  of  pure  Gold,  and 
projits  which  ^^  foundations  and  gates  of  precious  stones,  but  there 
he  brought         .  ^-  ^     11      r  c-i 

together  above  ^s  no  mention  at  all  of  Silver. 

Assuerus,  Another  question  ariseth  out  of  Davids  3000.  Talents 

Jlexander,the  of  Gold  of  Ophir,  whether  hee  practised  the  Ophirian 
Roman  Em-     Yoyapre   also  :    and    some   suppose  that   hee    had    made 

tire  with  fair e  •'    °  ,  .  ,  1  •   1  1        •  t'  1      ^ 

probabilities      seven    voyages    thither,    which    reckoning    420.     lalents 

[I.  i.  37.]       a  time,  makes  much  about  that  summe  of  three  thousand 

Whether  Da-  Talents.     For  my  part,  I  thinke  David  a  greater  Warrior 

v^dj^ntTleets  ^]^^^    Merchant,    allowing    the    greatest    summes    before 

t,     '         questioned   to   be    reserved   and  consecrated  out  of  the 

■   yig  11'  spoiles,    as   himselfe   confesseth,    In    my  trouble   I    have 

D.  Dee.  prepared    for   the    house    of  the  Lord    1 00000.  Talents 


of  Gold,  &c.  and  more  plainly,  i.  Chronicles  i8.  ii.  con- 
sidering   also    that    it  was    long   before   his    State    could 
be    setled    at    home,    and    fitted    abroad    to    attend    such 
Navigations ;    which    likewise    have    neither    ground    in 
the  Sacred  Story  (for  the  Gold  of  Ophir  is  proverbiall, 
usually   in  Scripture  for  fine  and  pure  Gold)    nor  agree 
with  the   type,  David  one  way,  Salomon  another  resem- 
bling   Christ,  and  their  times  the  state   of  the   Church  ; 
likewise    that    David    had   much   care  of  husbanding   his 
estate  to  the  best,  thrift  being  the  Jewell  of  Magnificence,   i.  chron.  27. 
as  appeareth  in  the  particular  enumeration  of  the  Officers  2  5»  26,  27, 
for  his  Rents,  Store-houses,   Husbandmen  in  the   Field,   ^^'  ^9*  3°. 
Vineyards,   Olive-trees,   Sycamores   and   Oyle,   Herds    in 
Sharon,    and    in    the    Vallies,    Camells,    Asses,    Flockes  ; 
it  is  no  marvell  if  such  industry  acquired  such  substance 
in    such    continuance    of  time,  and   that  hee  said  I  have 
of  mine    own    proper    goods  of  Gold  and  Silver  which 
I   have  given  to  the  house  of  my  God,  over  and  above 
all  that  I  have  prepared  (to  wit,  in  consecrated  spoyles) 
for    the    holy    House    three    thousand    Talents    of  Gold 
of   Ophir,    &c.     This    example    of  David    sheweth    that  Two  remark- 
it    is    no    impeachment,    yea    the    true    advancement    of  t^^'^jj/'^^  ^-^ 
Honour    for    Princes    to    use    all    frugall   husbandry  and  JJ^g„^g^  ^^"^. 
meanes   of  thriving  at  home  ;  as  that  other  of  Salomon,  handry  on 
to  adde  helpe  of  Discoveries  and  Trade  abroad  (both  in  Land,  and 
a  Royall  manner  by  their  just  Officers)  that  Magnificence  ^^^^ig^^on  by 
may  stand  firme  on  both  legs  :   the  want  whereof  hath 
denied  that  wealth  (not  to  speake  of  power)  these  many 
Ages  to  many  Kings  out  of  farre  farre  greater  meanes 
(besides   other    inconveniences    to    themselves    and    their 
Subjects)    which    David,    Salomon,   and    other   Kings    in 
the    old    World  had.     Once    these    examples    so    moved 
that    good    King    Tehoshaphat,    that    hee   built   Cities    o^  ^ ■  Chron  xj. 

°        ,  °        1     1       J  T-l        1  J  J        CU-  11,12.  C5  20 

Store  at  home,  and  had  many  Hockes,  and  made  bhips  ^^^  ^^^  ^^ 
also    to    goe    to    Tarshish,  and  they   made   the  Ships   in 
Ezion-Geber,    the    same   Port    where  Salomon  made  his 
Navall    provisions ;    but    joyning    therein   with    Ahaziah 
King  of  Israel,   who  did  very  wickedly  (So  much  worse 



before  God  is  an  Ahaziah  then  a  Hiram,  the  one  an 
honest  minded  Gentile,  the  other  a  schismaticall  Idolatrous 
Israelite)  that  the  Lord  broke  the  workes,  and  the 
Ships  were  not  able  to   goe  to   Tarshish. 

We  have  beene  very  long  in  this  metall  Discourse  : 
yet  how  much  longer  was  Salomon  in  his  three  yeeres 
Voyage,  and  how  much  longer  the  most  of  men,  which 
make  their  whole  life  a  voyage  to  Ophir  for  Gold  and 
Silver,  thorow  so  many  diversified  Seas  of  Arts,  force, 
frauds  to  get  those  metalls  which  procreated  neerest 
Hell,  carry  these  eager  seekers  thither  altogether.  That 
the  Silver  was  more  by  farre  then  the  Gold,  was  before 
proved  ;  but  the  quantitie  is  not  expressed,  as  not 
D.  Dec.  agreeing  with  Salomons  either  Litterall  Story,  or  Mysticall 

Glory.  Some  thinke  that  there  was  in  every  voyage 
24.  times  as  much  Silver  as  Gold  ;  both  because  they 
conceive  that  Nature  hath  given  so  much  more  thereof 
in  quantitie,  as  the  qualitie  and  price  is  undervalued  ; 
and  because  all  Stories  Ancient  and  Moderne  magnifie 
India  for  store  of  Silver  ;  and  so  prodigious  prodigality, 
I.  Kings  20  to  give  Silver  in  Jerusalem  as  stones,  must  have  a  deep 
^7-  fountain  for  such  a  flowing  streame,  besides  those  other 

Silver    Hooks    and     Brooks    mentioned     in     Salomons 
History.     But    we    still    leave    these    precious,    specious 
Gemmes.  objects  to  take  view  of  Gemmes. 

And  herein  American  Peru,  and  Sofala  are  beggarly 
in  comparison  of  those  parts  of  India,  where  we  have 
placed  Ophir,  as  the  former  testimonies  well  weighed 
with  whatsoever  can  be  brought  for  the  other,  will  easily 
and  superabundantly  convince.  In  Northerne  America 
are  some  Turkesses,  in  the  Southerne  are  saide  to  bee 
(which  others  question)  Emeralds,  in  both  Pearles,  but 
not  comparable  to  the  Orientall  :  these  Bezars  are 
twice  so  good  ;  in  Spices  to  make  comparison  hath  no 
spice  of  knowledge.  And  first  for  the  first  of  gemmes, 
Plin.  I.  37.  Diamants,  Pliny  saith.  Maximum  in  rebus  humanis  non 
^-  4-  solum  inter  gemmas,  precium  habet  Adamas,  unus  modo 

in    metallis    repertus.     Some    have    conceited    it    to    dull 



the    Loadstones    attraction,    and    to    resist    all    force    of 
Hammer,  which   experience   hath  found   contrary.     The 
Kingdomes  of  Narsinga,  Biznagar,   Orissa,    Masulipatan, 
and    all    the    Countries   on  the   Choromandel   Coast,  are 
the  most  famous  for  Rockes  of  Diamants,  and  now  also 
Soccodanna  (where  they  dive*   for   them  as  for  Pearles)  *  See  C.  Saris. 
Decan,    Delli,    and   Agra,  Tarriam   also  in  the  Tract  of  ^+"/"  ^ 
Malacca,    and   Java.     Here    then  is  the  Worlds  Centre     ^"'^P"'^- 
of  Diamants,  both   for   the   most   and  best.     Garcias   ab 
Horto   writes,   that  he  hath   seene   one  of  one  hundreth 
and    forty    Mangels    (that    is    seven    hundreth    Graines) 
another   of  one   hundreth   and  twentie,   and    hath    heard  [I.  i.  38.] 
of  one  of  two   hundreth   and   fiftie,  and  a  credible  man  Garc.abHorto 
told  him  that  hee  saw  one  as  big  as  a  small  Hens  Egge      ^'  ^'  ^'^' 
in    Bisnager.     This   soyle    is    so  diamantine,  that   where 
you  have  digged  and  taken  them    now,  in    two    yeeres 
space  you  may  dig  and  find  others.     Neither  is  it  poyson, 
as  some  affirm,   but  he   hath   knowne  the    whole    stone, 
and  the  powder,  taken  without  hurt. 

The   Heaven-coloured  Sapphire,   with    some   obtaineth  Exod.  24.  10. 
the  second  place,  because  of  the  likenesse  thereof  under  Epiphan.hbeL 
the  feet  of  the   Almightie   when   hee    spake    to    Moses;  ^j^'i^^T"' 
or  which  are  store  in   Zeilan,   and    the   most  true,  hard 
&    fine   as  Barbosa  testifieth.       But    M.   Fitch  and   M. 
Fredericke    have    before   told    you    of  Mynes    of   them 
in  Pegu ;  and   these  saith    Garcias    and    Linschoten,    are 
esteemed  the  finest,  and  are  in  great  plenty.     So  is  there  Linschot,  cap. 
also    of  the    Rubie,   a   stone  of  greater    value,    none    in   86. 
the  world  exceeding  that  King  in  excellencie  and  varietie 
of  Gems,  as  appeareth  by  generall  voyce.     Of   Rubies, 
the    Carbuncle    is    esteemed    the    best,    the    Ballas    next, 
the    Spinell    in    the    third    place,    of  fiery    colour :  there 
are    besides.   White,    Carnation,  halfe   White,  halfe   Red 
Rubies,    others    halfe    Sapphires,    halfe    Rubies,   and    one 
thousand  other  sorts,  if  wee  beleeve  Linschoten.     Garcias 
ascribeth    this    to    the    generation    of  the     Ruby,    which 
at  first  is  whitish,  and  groweth  unto  rednesse  in  processe 
of   time :    and    because    the    Sapphire    and    Rubie   grow  Gar.  cap.  49. 



in  one  Rocke,  they  are  found  sometimes  such  participles 
as  is  delivered,  Sapphire-rubies,  called  Nilacandi.  The 
Granado  and  Hyacinth  are  also  reckoned  by  some 
amongst  the  Rubies,  calling  the  yellowish  Rubie  the 
Hyacynth,  and  the  blackish  a  Granado.  These  are 
plentifull  in  Cananor,  Calecut,  and  Cambaia  (neerer 
Westward,  and  in  the  way  to  the  Gulfe  of  Bengala) 
in  Zeilan  also,  as  Nicolo  di  Conti  and  Andrea  Corsali 
affirme  ;  Pimenta  his  testimony  of  Cavelan  and  Cablan, 
two  gemme  Kingdomes  you  had  before.  The  Jaspar 
is  found  in  much  plenty  in  Cambaia  ;  Chrysolites,  and 
Amatists,  there  and  in  Zeilan  and  in  Balagate  (the 
Apennine  of  the  Great  Indian  Chersonesus)  where  they 
have  also  the  Alaquera  or  Quequi,  which  stayeth  the 
issue  of  bloud  presently.  Pegu,  Brama,  Zeilan,  yeeld 
the  Cats-eye  and  Agat,  of  which  the  Indians  conceive 
the  owner  shall  increase  in  wealth ;  and  Garcias  saith, 
Hee  hath  tried  that  no  fire  can  burne  a  linnen  Cloth 
pressed  to  the  eye  of  it.  The  Armenian  Stones  are 
found  also  in  Balagate,  the  Loadstone  in  Zeilan,  neere 
to  which  is  the  fishing  for  Pearles,  but  the  best  of  the 
world  are  in  the  Persian  Gulfe  neere  Ormuz  :  The 
Alambie  in  Cambaia.  The  Bezar  Stones  are  at  Pahan 
neere  Malaca,  and  Cambaia,  taken  out  of  the  maw  of 
a  Sheepe  or  Goat.  The  Berills  are  in  Pegu  and  Zeilan. 
The  Topaz  is  almost  like  a  Diamant,  and  is  digged 
out  of  the  Earth  in  many  places  of  India.  There  are 
White  Sapphires  and  Rubies  hardly  knowne  from 
Litis,  c.  87.  Diamants.  In  Cambaia  also  is  found  plentie  of  the 
Stone  Alambre.  There  are  found  in  Zeilan  also  the 
Topaz,  Jagongas  and  Marucha,  whose  names  I  can 
better  give  you  then  the  understanding.  There  are 
also  many  sorts  of  Stones  (you  reade  Linschoten)  as 
well  Precious  Stones  as  against  poyson  and  other  diseases 
of  many  properties  and  vertues  :  but  I  have  onely 
mentioned  those  that  are  daily  bought  and  sold,  and 
are  commonly  knowne.  The  Emeralds  I  mention  not, 
though    said  to  bee  in  these  parts,  because   some   doubt 



of  them,  and  in  other  parts  are  found  better,  wherewith 

the  Venetians  have  made  good  gaine  at  Pegu  in  exchange 

for    Rubies :    those    also    of    Peru    are    suspected.     For 

gemmes  (wee  now  conclude)  no   part  of  the  world    but 

India,  could  fit  Salomons  turne  ;  wherein,  if  Aarons  brest- 

plate  were  so  glorious  in  the  Tabernacle,  to  how  precious 

height    will    Salomons    Temple    elevate    our    thoughts  ? 

and  consequently  both  manifest  and  magnifie  the  Indian- 

Ophirian  Voyage,  these  being  found  either  naturall  in  the 

Peguan    Ophir,    or   by  trade   there   or  in  the  way  from 

Ophir    by    the    Westerne    parts    of    India,    part    of   the 

Persian   Gulfe,  and  the  shores  of  Arabia   and  ^Ethiopia. 

Of  which,  Arabia  is  said  to  yeeld  the  Hemathite,  Topaz,  PmedadeReb. 

Sardonyke,  Onyx,   Molochite,   Myrrhite,  Corall,  Andro-  5^^^om.L^.c. 

made,    Iris  ;     Ethiopia,     the     Chrysolite,     Chrysolamp,   Qfi„ji^„ 

Heliotrope,     Hyacinth,     Hemathite,     Chrysoprase  ;     the  store  of  Jewells 

Persian   gulfe  from  Babylonia  the  Sagda,  &    Sardy,  and  and  their  rkh- 

the  best  Pearles  :   ^gypt  in  ordinary  trade,  the  Galactite,  ^^"^  ^^^  '«/ 

Emerald,  and  iEgyptilla  :   some  of  which  you  had  before  ^'^"  55°- 

particularly  mentioned  in  India,  and  likely  enough  should   j.  ji^g.  lo. 

there  find  most  of  the  rest  with  many  other  unknowne,   12. 

if   India    were    as    much    frequented    with    Philosophers 

from  hence  as  Merchants.  ^ 

Wee  are  next  to  consider  the  Almug  Trees,  whereof  ^fJ^^^"^l°J^_ 
were  made  Pillars  for  the  House  of  the  Lord,  and  for  ^^^^  ^  ^M 
the  Kings  House*,  Harpes  also  and  Psalteries  for  Singers :   9.  u  Jos.  i. 
there  came  no  such  Almug  Trees,  nor  were  seene  unto  8.  c  2 
this    day.     Josephus    Interprets    Pine    Trees,    but    saith,  ^^^7-J/«  ^nV- 
they   differed   from    the    usuall,  resembling    the    Timber  ^g„  j,^  -j^ 
of  the  Figge  Tree  to  the  eye,  but  that  they  were  whiter  Hak'l.  hand, 
and    brighter.     There    is    mention    of  Algum    Trees    in  amongst  whose 
Lebanon,   2.    Chron    2.    8.    which    some   thinke    to    bee  f/f  y^^f^^'' 
the   same  with    the    former,  and  the  word  onely  altered  ^/^^  ^^^^ 
by    transposition    of    letters;    others,     that     that    trans-  much  use  of  it, 
position   intimates    no    lesse    specificall   difference   in    the  although  much 
wood  then   in  the  word,  though  otherwise  having  some  ^'^'^f  ^^f..  ^^^' 
likenesse  to  those  of  Lebanon,  but  of  greater  excellency.  ^^  ^^^.^  ^^^^ 
D.  Dee  hath  written  a  laborious  Treatise  almost  wholly  cited. 



of  this  Ophirian  argument  (the  same  yeere  in  which  I 
was  borne,  A,  1577.  of  seventie  sheets  of  paper)  how- 
soever intituled,  Of  Famous  and  Rich  Discoveries ; 
of  which  I  have  a  written  Copie,  and  could  willingly 
but  for  the  length  have  published  it ;  which  may  appeare 
in  this,  that  he  hath  ten  sheets  of  paper  about  these 
Almug  trees,  more  profitable  to  the  leasurely  SchoUer, 
then  commodious  to  be  inserted  to  so  voluminous  a 
Worke,  as  this  Library  of  ours.  Hee  there,  as  Com- 
missioner for  Salomons  Timbers,  like  a  learned,  both 
Architect  and  Planter,  hath  summoned  a  Jury  of  twelve 
[I.  i.  39.]  sorts  of  Trees  (mentioned  by  divers  Interpreters)  to 
examine  or  to  bee  examined  rather,  which  of  them  were 
the  Almugs  here  mentioned.  I  should  bring  you  into  a 
Wood  to  relate  his  labours  in  this  kind ;  the  kinds  are, 
the  Deale,  Boxe,  Cedar,  Cypresse,  Ebonie,  Ash,  Juni- 
The  Spanish  per.  Larch,  Olive,  Pine,  Oke  and  Sandall  Trees :  all 
Bible  reads  which  with  their  severall  qualities  and  fitnesse  for  Royall 
and  Sacred  buildings  hee  examineth  by  best  testimonies, 
and  concludeth  nothing  absolutely,  but  inclineth  to 
Josephus,  who  either  by  some  Monuments  in  writing 
might  have  learned,  or  in  some  remainders  to  his  time  in 
Instruments  Musicall,  or  other  profane  or  sacred  memo- 
rialls,  might  probably  bee  thought  to  have  seene  thereof. 
Plin.  I.  1 3.  r.  I  easily  beleeve  that  these  Pines  or  Thynes  (Thyina)  or 
16.  whatsoever  other  Trees,  were  both  odoriferous  to  the  Sent, 

of  beauteous  aspect  to  the  Eye,  of  fittest  temper  to  refract 
Qfth  '  T  sounds  to  the  Eare,  smooth  to  the  Touch,  and  of  long  con- 
andofEle-  tinuance  and  strong  substance  for  building,  therein  to  bee 
phantSyseeM.  serviceable  to  all  senses.  Of  which  sorts  it  is  evident  out 
Terry  /.  9.  c.  of  Ancient  and  Moderne  Writers,  and  out  of  the  foUow- 

^'^•^'/f       ing  Relations,  that  India  hath  the  best  in  the  World. 

their  Apes  as        d_,      ,.    .         „  .  1     i-i      1 

bis:  as  Grey-         ^  '^^  living  Creatures  remaine  to  our  search,  Ulephants, 

hounds  ib.%  7,.  Apes,  Peacockes ;  of  which  I  need  say  little,  saying  so 
See  also  San-  much  in  our  following  Histories,  and  having  said  so  much 
tosy  Jobson,  already.  Elephants  come  neerest  Men  in  understanding, 
others  in  this  Apes  in  forme  (Simia  quam  similis  turpissima  bestia  nobis } 
worke.  said  Ennius)  and  Peacocks  for  their  beauty,  as  Parrots  also, 



Birds  of  Paradise,  and  many  other  Indian  Fowles  might 
be  desired.  The  greatest  Elephants  are  found  in  all  this 
our  Ophirian  Tract,  from  Zeilin  to  Pegu ;  those  esteemed 
to  have  a  naturall  preeminence,  and  these  had  of  late  a 
Politicall,  the  King  of  Pegu  stiling  himselfe,  The  King  of 
White  Elephants,  and  keeping  them  Royally  attended,  his 
Subjects  and  Tributary  Kings  also  (it  is  Gasper  Balby  his 
report)  kneeling  to  them.  Once  all  India  is  plentifull  of 
them,  and  therefore  of  Ivory;  this  Countrey  also  neere 
Ganges  is  stored  with  the  Abada  or  Rhinocerote,  whose 
Home  is  (in  Bengala,  by  reason  of  certaine  Hearbs  hee 
there  feeds  on)  a  good  Counter-poyson.  Indian  Asse- 
horne  in  these  parts  is  also  used  for  Bucklers,  and  drinking 
Cups,  and  esteemed  a  great  Jewell,  as  Master  Finch 
affirmeth,  infra  Pag.  436. 

For  Peacocks  or  Parrats,  translate  which  you  will,  heere  Peacocks  tvild, 
are  not  onely  so  many  of  both,  that  they  flie  wild,  as  the  ^^^'JJg^^-^^' 
following    Relations    shew,    but    for    excellency  ^  beyond  ^^ff^^^^^c^ 
those  of  other  parts ;  as  the  Apes  also  are  for  their  beauty 
and  strength.     See  Sir  T.  Roe,  Master  Finch,  and  others 
Journalls,    or    rather   talke   with   our   Indian    Merchants, 
which  usually  trade  and  travell  those  parts,  some  of  which 
in  the  Mogolls  Countrey,  carrying  with  them  an  English 
Grey-hound,  one  of  the  company  shot  at  a  great  white 
shee  Ape  on  a  Tree,  and  wounded  her,  whereby  shee  with 
her  Cub  fell  downe :   they  set   on  the  Grey-hound,   and 
this  Ape  before   seeking  shifts  for   her   Cub,   seeing   the  These  Apes 
Grey-hound  come,  layd  it  aside  and  encountred  the  Grey-  ^^'^  '''^'^^'^• 
hound  so  fiercely  about  the  necke,  that  hee  dyed  within  a 
few  houres,  the  company  with  their  weapons  comming  in, 
and    killing    the    Ape    (as    themselves    related    to    mee) 
and  carrying  away  the  young  one.     The  Countrey  people, 
in  I  know   not  what   superstition   forbeare  to  kill  them, 
whereby  they  multiply  exceedingly.     Heere  by  the  way 
may  bee  observed,  that  it  appertaineth  to  Royall  Magnifi- 
cencie,    and    disagreeth    not    to    humane    Excellency,    to 
procure  rarities  of  living  Creatures,  and  to  keepe  them  as 
testimonies  of  our  admiration  of  Gods  various  Workes, 



Plin.  I.  6.  cap. 


As  covetous 
rich  men  are 
ever  needy  \3 
greedy,  so  In- 
dia hath  ever 
sivallowcd  in 
Trade  the 
worlds  Trea- 
sure, and  yet 
is  the  Trea- 
sury of  the 
[I.  i.  40.] 

and  exercise  of  the  Minds  Contemplation,  the  Bodies 
pleasure,  with  the  right  Humane  over  Sensitive  Creatures : 
which  Nature  taught  Alexander  ;  yea  Motezuma  and  the 
Incas  in  that  wilder  World  ;  and  Divine  Grace  our 
Salomon,  as  these  Scriptures  manifest.  The  imitation  of 
whose  Wisdome  hath  whetted  my  Studies  almost  to 
curiositie  to  give  to  the  World  a  world  of  Rarities  in  that 
kind,  as  any  occasion  offered  it  selfe  in  these  voluminous 

§.    XI. 

Probable  conjectures  of  the  Course  taken  in  the 
Ophirian  Voyage,  and  accounts  given  of  the 
three  yeeres  time  spent  therein:  also  of  the 
Course  taken  in  like  Voyages  by  the  Romans: 
and  the  divers  Ports  whereto  the  Spices  and 
riches  of  India  have  in  divers  Ages  beene 
brought,  and  thence  dispersed  to  the  several! 
parts  of  Europe. 

Ee  have  now  undertaken  a  hard  taske,  where  we 
tell  not  but  spell  a  Voyage,  and  from  reasonable 
conjectures  grounded  on  other  experiments,  gather 
what  is  most  likely  in  this  of  Salomons,  D.  Dee  hath 
written  23.  sheets  of  paper  in  examining  the  miles,  the 
dayes,  the  way,  the  employments  of  the  time,  and  muster- 
ing of  Men  and  Ships  employed  in  this  service.  I  cannot 
presume  either  of  so  much  learning  in  my  Selfe,  or  so 
much  patience  in  the  Reader.  Yet  I  shall  bee  bold  both 
to  follow  him,  and  to  adde  somewhat  for  further  light. 
Pliny  writes,  that  in  his  time  this  Voyage  from  Egypt  to 
India  was  made  every  yeer.  Every  yeer  India  consumed 
H-S  500.  (which  Jacobus  Delachampius  in  his  notes 
summeth  to  1200000  Crownes)  of  the  Roman  Empires 
Treasure  yeerely,  yeelding  merchandises  therefore  in 
returne  sold  at  a  hundreth  times  so  much.  Their  course, 
hee  saith,  was  from  Alexandria  twelve  dayes  by  Nilus  to 



Coptus,  thence  by  Camells  over  Land  to  Berenice,  two 

hundreth    fiftie    eight    miles    (travelling    most    part    by 

night   by   reason   of  the    heate)    in    twelve   dayes    more. 

From   Berenice   on   the   Red    Sea,    they    beginne    to    set 

forth  at  Midsummer,  or  about  the  beginning  of  Dogge- 

dayes,   and   in  thirtie    dayes   come    to    Ocelis    in   Arabia, 

(or  to   Canaan  or  Muza,  if  they  goe  not  to  India,  but 

for  Arabian  Frankincense  and  Odours)  and  from  Ocelis 

in    fortie   dayes    they    arrived    at    the    first    Indian    Port 

Muziris.     Remember  that  in  this  Course  they  both  tooke  Muziris  is  by 

benefit  of  the  Monson,  and  went  the  neerest  way  :   for  so  some  thought  to 

a  little    before    hee   mentioneth    another  Course    by    the    j-f"J;J 

Shoare,  Secuta  atas  propiorem  cursum,  &c.  donee  com-  his  Periplus  it 

pendia    invenit    Mercator,   Lucroque    India    admota   est.  is  placed  more 

Quippe    omnibus    annis    navigatur.      Hee    mentions    the  Southerly,  on 

Voyage    of   Onesicritus    and    Nearchus    from    India    to  fj/j/^^t^! 

Tigris,  in  the  bottome  of  the  Persian  Gulfe,  which  helde  ^^^  Qg^st.  D. 

them  till  the  seventh  moneth.     So  much  was  Navigation  Dee  thinkes  it 

improved  in  Plinies  time.     Their  Pepper  they  tooke  in  Surat. 

on    the   Malabar    Coast,  and  returned  in   December  the 

same  yeere.     The  names  which  then  they  gave  to  places 

were    quite   differing   from    the    Antients ;    and    the   like 

Indian  mutations  have  continued  to  our  times. 

The   course   to    Taprobane    had    accidentally  come    to 
their  knowledge  a  little  before,  found  in  Alexanders  time 
to  bee  an  Hand  by  Onesicritus,  mentioned  by  Megasthenes.  Foyage  of 
The   Antients  deemed  it    another    World.     The    Sea    is  Onesicritus 
full  of  shoalds,  the  North-starre  is  not  seene  there,  and  ""pf^li^f^';^ 
they  observed  their  course,  by  sending  out  Birds  which  yo^age  to 
they  carry   with  them  and  followed  their  flight.     But  in  Taprobana. 
the  Empire  of  Claudius,  Annius  Plocanus  having  farmed 
the   Customes   of  the  Red  Sea,  one  of  his  Retainers  or 
Free-men  *    sayling    on    the    Arabian    Coast,    was    by    a  *Libertus, 
Northerne  storme    carried  alongst  the  Carmanian  shoare 
to   Hippuros  a   Port   therein,   and   was   kindly   used    by 
the  King,  who  admiring  his  Roman  Relations,  sent  foure 
Embassadours   backe  with  him.     These  related  amongst 
other    things     that    the    side    of  the    Hand    which    lieth 



*  That  is  toward  India,  is  loooo.  furlongs*,  and  that  they  had 
1250,  miles,  trade  with  the  Seres.  I  will  not  recite  Nearchus  out 
whtch  cannot    ^f  Arrianus     nor    Ptolemey    and    Marianus,    which    can 

agree  to  Letlan   ,.1,  .  jcii  i  ij  r 

but  Sumatra:  ^^^"^  advantage  us  in  regard  or  the  lesse  Knowledge  or 
the  Easterly  the  former,  and  lesse  certainty  of  the  later  passing  the 
situation  also  ignorance  of  Transcribers,  aad  above  one  thousand  yeares 
ultra  montes  darknesse.  Yet  herein  is  Ptolemey  profitable,  where  his 
commerce  with  Longitudes  and  Latitudes  are  false,  that  by  his  order 
Seres  agree  to  of  position  and  successive  setting  downe  of  places  some 
Sumatra.  knowledge  may  arise.  But  the  length  of  the  way  is 
Jrrian.  I.  8.    better  knowne  by  later  Writers, 

John  di  Barros  hath  set  downe  the  coasting  distances, 
from  the  Bab  or  Mouth  of  the  Red  Sea  to  Cape 
Nigraes,  the  Southerly  part  of  our  Peguan  Ophir,  whose 
Portugall  leagues  (allowing  for  each  three  English  miles, 
and  a  fifth  part  of  a  mile)  come  to  57694  and  from 
that  Cape  to  Singapura  is  1008.  miles  more.  From  the 
Bab  or  Mouth  of  the  Red  Sea  to  the  bottom,  is  by 
Inf.  to.  \.  I.  J.  Comito  Venetiano,  in  Ramusio  reckoned  1441.  miles, 
f- 6.  and   in    his    returne    15 14.   the    breadth    in    some  places 

two  hundreth,  the  way  full  of  shoalds,  so  that  it  cannot 
bee  sailed  neere  the  shoare  but  by  day.  So  trouble- 
some is  this  Sea,  and  so  difficult  to  bee  sayled,  that 
Don  John  di  Castro  (whose  voyage  followeth  at  large) 
spent  no  lesse  then  three  moneths  in  the  way  from 
Cosir.  the   Straits   to    Sues,    from    the    nine   and    twentieth    of 

January,  1541.  to  the  seven  and  twentieth  of  April; 
and  returning  the  eight  and  twentieth  of  April,  arrived 
at  the  Bab  the  eighteenth  of  July  ;  So  that  here  the 
way  is  to  be  weighed  by  the  qualitie  as  well  as  the 
quantitie.  Hieronimo  da  Santo  Stephano  in  Ramusio, 
spent  from  Cosir  to  Aden  fiftie  dayes,  almost  three 
hundreth  miles  Southward  from  Sues,  and  therefore  so 
much  lesse  way. 

We  must  here  note  also  that  neither  the  ships,  nor  their 
furniture ;  the  shipmen  also  nor  their  furniture  of  skill, 
could  in  Salomons  dayes,  be  any  way  comparable  to 
these  later  times  :  and  that  if  three  moneths  were  spent  by 


the  Portugall  Navie  from  Sues  to  the  Bab,  we  may  at 
least  allow  so  much  time  to  these  Ophirians.     For  if  these 
had  more  haste,  the  other  had  more  skill  and  better  ships. 
Neither  may  we  thinke  that  they  durst  there  saile  but  by 
day  in  Salomons  fleete,  and  therefore  were  likely  to  make 
it   longer.      The    lesse   vessels   and    many   men,    would 
require  also  oftner  stales  for  water  and  refreshing,  besides 
the  seventh  dayes  rest,  which  Salomons  servants  according 
to  the  law,  and  especially  in  a  Voyage  for  adorning  the 
Temple,  built  in  honor  of  the  legall  worship,  must  not 
breake.     Being  out  of  the  Straits  into  the  Ocean,   they 
were  neither  willing  nor  able  (as  appeares  by  the  mentioned 
Voyage  of  Onesicritus  and  Nearchus)  to  adventure  the  sail- 
ing beyond  ken  of  Land.      And  therefore  also  Ptolemie 
in  his  longitudes  and  latitudes,  abates  of  Marinus  and  the 
Mariners  reckonings  one  third  part,  because  of  the  crooking 
in  their  coasting,  as  every  Bay  and  point  enforced  them. 
And  that  compendious  way  mentioned  by  Plinie  was  then 
new  in  his  time,  when  shipping  and  the  Mariners  art  had 
beene  by  frequent  experience  much  improved,  and  from 
the  swadling  bands  in   Salomons   time   growne   to   some 
virility.     So  that  except  forced  by  distresse  of  weather  we 
cannot  make  the  Ophirian  course  but  within  ken  of  shoare 
all  the  way.     Now  then  if  it  were  the  seventh  moneth,  as 
we  have  read  in  Plinie,  before  Alexanders  fleet  could  arrive 
in  Tigrus  from  Indus,  in  which  Arrianus  reporteth  that 
there  were  Phaenician,  Egyptian  and  Cyprian,  besides  his 
best  Graecian  Mariners,  they  all  being  then  his  subjects  : 
we  can  allow  no  lesse  to  Salomons  fleete  before  it  could 
touch  the  neerest  Indian  Port,  being  no  lesse  way.     And 
howsoever  it  may  be  objected  that  triumphall  devotions, 
and  tempests,  and  fights,  and  reparations  of  the  Fleete,  [I.  i.  41.] 
tooke  up  much  of  Nearchus  his  time  :    I  answere,  that 
this  Ophirian  fleet  was  neither  warranted  from  enemies 
nor  tempests,  &  was  likely  also  to  spend  time  in  repara- 
tions, and  in  provisions,  and  in  devotions,  specially  that 
which  was  peculiar  to  them,  the  Sabbaths. 

And  although  single  ships  in  the  Arabike  gulfe,  and  in 


the  Ocean  might  even  then  make  quicker  way  then  this 
mentioned,  yet  in  that  of  Castro,  of  Nearchus,  and  this 
of  Salomon,  where  care  was  to  keepe  a  whole  fleet 
together  for  mutuall  helpe  and  common  security,  the 
greater  body  must  needes  have  slower  motion.  Thus 
then  allowing  three  moneths  to  the  Red  Sea,  and  sixe 
moneths  from  thence  to  India,  we  shall  follow  Comito 
Venetiano,  who  reckons  the  one  15 14.  miles  from  the 
Straits  to  Sues  inward,  and  thence  outward  to  Diu  2023. 
to  which  adde  the  coasting  about  to  the  Ormuzian  strait, 
and  comming  to  any  Port  in  India,  as  namely  Muziris,  or 
any  in  the  Malabar  coast,  it  could  not  much  lesse  then 
double  the  length  of  the  way,  and  therefore  the  time. 
By  this  proportion  we  should  spend  the  three  yeeres  in 
going  and  returning,  if  we  adde  that  spacious  way  from 
Muziris  to  our  neerest  Port  in  Ophir :  and  so  should 
both  their  labour  and  ours  be  vaine,  and  nothing  should 
be  done.  Barros  himselfe  (to  make  this  more  evident) 
hath  reckoned  short  of  the  way  which  Salomons  Fleet 
must  make  in  bouts  and  windings  by  the  shoare,  for 
which  he  makes  no  allowance.  D.  Dee  is  sparing  in 
this  calculation,  and  yet  makes  it  from  Ezion  Geber  to 
Cape  Negraes  9155.  miles;  of  which  we  deduct  for  the 
Arabike  gulfe  but  1514.  and  leave  7641.  remaining.  We 
therefore  in  regard  of  the  manifold  dangers  and  shelfes 
of  that  Gulfe,  allow  to  it  eighty  dayes,  of  which  deduct- 
ing eleven  Sabbaths,  there  remaine  sixtie  nine,  to  which 
(one  with  another)  we  allow  one  and  twenty  miles  a  day, 
somewhat  more,  as  much  as  can  conveniently  in  that 
Sea  be  allowed  to  a  Fleet  sailing  together.  And  this 
allowance  is  so  large,  that  Castro  was  eighty  eight  dayes 
(and  that  in  the  daies  of  better  Navigation)  in  the  way 
which  we  allow  to  sixtie  nine.  Now  in  the  Ocean,  where 
they  might  make  better  use  of  the  Monson  and  Tides, 
as  freed  from  the  dangers  which  attend  the  Gulfe,  wee 
will  allow  thirty  two  miles  a  day  one  with  another  (the 
Sabbaoths  deducted)  which  by  the  yeeres  end  will  bring  us 
to  our  Port  at  Pegu,  or  some  other  the  neerest  to  Cape 


Negraes,  where  we  may  harbour  our  Fleete.  For  to 
Cape  Negraes  it  selfe  (deducting  the  one  and  forty  Sab- 
baths remaining  of  the  yeere)  7641.  miles  are  proportioned 
in  each  daies  equall  saiHng,  in  requisite  and  direct  way, 
one  and  thirty  miles  and  -gVr  which  being  very  far  from 
any  safe  Port,  must  needs  make  it  two  &  thirty  miles 
the  day  to  bring  us  thither,  allowing  nothing  for  New 
Moone,  or  any  other  Jewish  solemnitie,  or  other  occa- 
sionall  stay  whatsoever :  nor  for  those  bords,  gibes  and 
fetching  turnes  (which  Mariners,  and  specially  coast- 
winders  must  make)  and  consequently  much  superfluous 
way,  which  alone  (besides  force  of  stormes)  would  make 
this  thirty  two  to  be  above  forty  miles  a  day  ordinary  way, 
broken  and  whole,  one  with  another. 

And  if  this  seeme  to  any  man  a  small  thing,  let  him   Thirt-^  two 
consider  the  weakenesse  of  Navigation  then,  both  in  skill  ^^^^^  ^  ^p 
and    shipping  :     the    Phaenicians    before    this    time    not  l^^^^ /°'JJ 
acquainted  with   those  Indian   Seas,   but   onely  with   the  g„g  ^^y  with 
Mediterranean,  as  probably  may  be  thought;  their  using  another:  for 
the  Care  more  then  the  saile,  and  not  daring  to  saile  by  ^hatthatfrac- 
night  when   they   could    not   see   shoare,   their   necessary  ^["^Ji^JgYin 
occasions  of  stay  sometimes  for  watering  and  provisions,  going  from 
sometimes  by  foule  weather  detained,  sometimes  for  re-  Cape 'Negraes 
parations  of  some  of  the  Fleet  occasionally  needing  helpe,  either  to  the 
that  all  the  Fleet  may  keepe  together,  sometimes  for  trade  7/,t^s.tfT 
by  the  way,  sometimes  for  healthfull   disport,  recreation  ^^^^  ^^}^^^ ' 
and  joy :  and  (which  is  of  principall  observation  in  those  Port. 
Seas)  for  expectation  of  the   Monson,  or  season  of  the 
winde,  which  there  keepes  an  even  course,  as  out  of  the 
following  Voyages  you  shall  see.     All  which  laid  together, 
it  will   not   seeme  miserably  and  unjustly  done   to   have 
allowed  the  proportion  before   mentioned.     If  you  read  t^^^/  2  c  i- 
the    first    Discoveries^   on    the   coast   of  Africke   by   the  §  2  j  ^'^g/^ 
Portugals,  and  see  how  little  they  discovered  in  a  whole  age  had  passed 
Summer,   when    their    skill    was    not    inferiour    to    these  before  they 
Phaenicians,   and    experience    more,   you    will    thinke   me  f^l°^'^ll ^^g 
liberall    if    not    prodigall    in    this    allowance.      Captaine  Q^p^  ^y  q^^^ 
Hawkins  in  the  Hector  (a  ship  not  the  worst  of  saile,  Hope. 
I  113  H 


and  which  before  had  beene  twice  at  the  Indies)  was  from 
the  first  of  Aprill  1607.  till  August  24.  1608.  ere  he  could 
arrive  at  the  Barre  of  Surat,  in  the  neerest  part  of  the 
Indies,  almost  seventeene  moneths  space,  where  no  Jewish 
Sabbath,  nor  shore-creeping  enforced  their  stay.  The 
Dragon  at  the  same  time  was  longer  in  her  way  to 
Sumatra,  and  I  beleeve  many  of  our  later  Voyages  doe 
not  much  exceede  this  proportion.     It  seemeth  therefore 

Sum.  total,  to  me  probable  in  a  round  reckoning  to  allow  but  one 
yeere  little  more  or  lesse  on  the  Voyage,  a  second  in  the 
stay  at  their  severall  ports,  and  in  the  mines  of  Gold  and 
Silver,  and  for  further  provisions  of  Almug  trees,  Ivory, 
Apes  and  Peacocks ;  and  a  third  yeere  in  their  returne. 

D.  Dees  Doctor  Dee  allowes  fiftie  miles  a  day  of  requisite  way, 

reckoning,  j-j^^^.  jg  1200.  miles  every  foure  weekes,  resting  the  Sab- 
bath, and  forty  miles  a  day  within  the  Gulfe  or  Red  Sea  : 
the  miles  he  computeth  9155.^,  and  the  whole  Voyage 
to  be  performed  in  seven  moneths  and  six  and  twenty 
dayes  outward,  and  as  much  homeward ;  one  fortnight  of 
rest  after  their  landing  before  they  fell  to  their  Mine- 
workes,  to  be  spent  in  mind-workes  of  devout  thankful- 
nesse,  prayers  and  festivall  rejoycing  ;  as  much  before 
their  shipping  for  returne,  the  rest  in  their  workes  and 
purveying  of  commodities.  So  that  for  what  I  allow  a 
yeere,  to  each  of  these  he  alloweth   the   space  of  eight 

[I.  i.  42.]  moneths  or  there  abouts :  the  third  yeere  he  bestoweth 
on  their  businesse,  rest,  and  triumph  at  home,  care  of 
their  family  and  state  preparations  for  the  next  returne, 
as  trimming  the  ships  (in  these  times  the  wormes  which  in 
those  Seas  breede  in  ships,  and  eate  them,  compell  us  to 
sheath  them)  and  other  provisions.  He  alloweth  4500. 
workemen  for  the  mines,  not  all  at  once  working,  but  in 
courses,  some  resting  by  turnes,  others  working,  and  then 
those  succeeding  to  their  workes  whiles  they  againe 
rested  (the  workes  and  yeeldings  whereof  hee  diligently 
examineth)  three  hundred  for  the  Almug  trees,  for  Ele- 
phants teeth  twenty,  for  Apes  and  Peacockes  ten  :  one 
hundred   Officers  :    in  all   5040.     To    this    businesse    he 



holdeth  requisite  fiftie  tall  ships,  to  each  ship  thirty 
Mariners,  in  all  1500.  which  with  the  former  number 
make  up  6540.  men.  Thus  he  and  more  then  thus  with 
much  curiositie  of  minerall  and  navall  learning,  which 
cannot  here  be  expressed  without  that  libertie  of  long 
discourse,  which  neither  the  vulgar  reader  could  under- 
stand, nor  others  perhaps  (except  some  few)  finde  leisure 
to  reade.     Otherwise  I  would  have  inserted  it. 

I  honour  his  great  industry,  but  cannot  conceive  that 
that  age  yeelded  such  great  ships  to  carrie  so  manie,  nor 
that   they  could   one   day  with   another   make   so   much 
way,   nor    that    Salomon    would    permit    so   long   a   stay 
as  a  whole  yeere,  but  rather  presse  new  men.     As   for 
the   Phaenician  Mariners,  upon  this  occasion  it  is  likely 
that  they  setled  their  dwelling  at  or  neere  Ezion  Geber, 
as  all  antiquitie  mentioning  Phaenicians  in  the  Red  Sea, 
seemeth   to  argue.     And   for  the   servants  of  Salomon,  Salomons  ser- 
they  were  the  posteritie  of  the  people  that  were  left  of  ^qZ^'1\^° 
the  Amorites,  Hittites,  Perizzites,  Hivites,  and  Jebusites,  /^^  Urlelites. 
which  were  not  of  the  children  of  Israel.     Their  children   i  Reg.  9.  20. 
that  were  left  after  them  in  the  land,  whom  the  children  21.  22. 
of  Israel  also   were   not   able   utterly  to    destroy;    upon 
those  did  Salomon  levie  a  tribute  of  bond  service  unto 
this  day.     But  of  the  children  of  Israel  did  Salomon  make 
no   bondmen.      Thus    the    holy  writ    but    a    few   verses 
before  the   mention   of  this   Ophirian   Navie.     Of   these 
it  is  said  2  Chro.  2.   17.     And  Salomon   numbered  all 
the  strangers  that  were   in   the   land   of  Israel  after   the 
numbring  wherewith  David  his  father  had  numbred  them, 
and  they  were  found  an  hundred  and  fiftie  thousand  and 
three  thousand  and  sixe  hundred.     And  hee  set  70000.    i  ^eg.  5.  14. 
of  them   to   be   bearers  of  burthens,  and   80000.  to   be 
hewers   in  the   Mountaines,   and   3600.  overseers  to   set 
the   people  aworke.     If  Salomon   would   not  ease   them 
by   courses    neerer    home   (for    they   were    the   Israelites 
which   served    by  those   courses,   not    these   strangers)   I 
cannot  here  ease  them ;  and  if  he  would  not  employ  the 
Israelites    in    the    neerer    quarries    and    Forrests,   neither 



would  he  send  them  to  remoter  Mines,  a  more  danger- 
ous and  difficult  worke.  Now  some  of  those  hewers  in 
the  Mountaines  were  fittest  for  this  hewing  and  mining 
in  the  Mountains  for  Mettals,  to  which  that  place  may 
also  be  intended  and  extended.  Officers  to  Ophir  and 
men  of  command  he  might  have  out  of  Israel,  but  for 
the  Oare  by  Sea  and  Ore  at  land,  these  were  likely  to 
be  the  servants  of  Salomon  mentioned  in  the  text :  the 
rather  because  that  name  ever  after  continued  to  them, 
as  you  may  read  even  after  the  return  from  the  captivitie 
in  Ezra  2.  55.  Nehem.  7.  60.  This  hath  beene  omitted 
by  others  handling  this  argument,  and  therefore  I  am 
the  fuller  in  it. 
ViUalpand.  Besides,  it  is  as  likely  (which  others  also  observe,  and 

Pineda,  tffr.  before  is  mentioned,  &  agreeth  to  the  666.  talents  of  Gold 
yeerely)  that  Salomon  after  the  Temple  buildings  were 
ended,  emploied  Fleetes  yeerely  to  Ophir,  one  under 
another,  that  each  should  make  their  voiage  in  three 
yeers,  but  of  them  every  yeere  one  should  returne : 
which  agrees  not  with  D.  Dees  speculation  of  a  yeers 
stay.  Neither  is  it  probable  that  in  seven  or  eight 
moneths  so  much  Gold  and  Silver  could  be  gotten  by 
so  unexpert  miners.  Nor  doth  D.  Dee  consider  the 
Monsons  of  those  Seas  which  are  by  six  moneths  regu- 
lated, and  not  by  eight.  Nor  may  we  thinke  but  that 
many  of  Salomons  servants  setled  some  abode  in  the 
Countrie,  so  long  (at  lest  if  we  will  permit  courses,  which 
I  will  not  much  quarrell  amongst  them)  as  Salomon  used 
the  voiage ;  by  whom  the  Ivorie,  Apes,  and  Peacockes 
might  be  procured,  and  Gems  also  without  any  speciall 
allowance  of  men  each  third  yeere  to  that  purpose ; 
except  as  the  Fleet  in  comming  or  going  might  touch 
by  the  way  at  each  good  mart,  for  which  Doctor  Dees 
time  of  eight  moneths  seemes  also  too  short.  Yet  if  any 
approve,  and  lust  to  follow  him,  I  have  no  Empire 
First  Mer-       ^^^^  opinions. 

divers  Marts        ^^^^  Ophirian  voiage  which  brought  the  riches  of  the 
for  Spices.        East  to  Ezion  Geber,  occasioneth  a  quaere  of  the  voiages 



of  Spices,   and   the   manifold  shiftings   of  the   Marts   & 
Ports  thereof  in  former  times,  in  a  worke  of  voiages  not 
unfit  for  consideration.     The  first  mention  of  Merchants  Gen.  37.  23. 
is    of  Ishmaelites   and    Midianites,   which   travelled   in    a  ^^• 
Caravan  together  with  Camels  carrying  spicerie,  &  balme, 
and    Mirrhe   to    Egypt.     These   inhabited   not   far   from 
Ezion  Geber,  or  the  shoares  of  the  red  Sea.     Whither 
their  Spicerie  came  out  of  the  Southerne  parts  of  Arabia, 
or  further  out  of  India  brought  into  some  Arabian  port, 
is  not  easie  to  determin.     Their  Balme  they  might  have 
at  Gilead  by  the  way,  though  Arabia  yeelds  of  that  also,  Jer.%.zi.  I3 
as    the    Myrrhe    likewise;    what   Spicerie   the   first   men-  ^^-    ' 
tioned  is,   is   not  so   easie    to    decide.     Jobs   mentioning 
the   gold   of  Ophir,  and    other   passages    in   that   Booke 
may   cause    conjecture    of  an   Indian   trade   in   his  dales.   Suidas. 
But  this  is  easily  gathered  out  of  Histories  that  the  great 
Monarchs   endevoured    to    make    themselves    Lords    of 
India   for    the    riches    aforesaid.      Semiramis    is    said    to 
have  invaded  India,  &  to  have  beene  repelled  by  Stauro- 
bates,  which   I   can  beleeve,  though   not   so   prodigal   of 
faith  as  to  accept  the  report  of  three   Millions  of  foot,  See  Full. 
and  five  hundred  thousand  horse  in  her  army;  no  more  ^^^^^^• 
then   that  she   was   the  founder  of  Babylon.     But   both 
Ninus  or   Ninive  (which   her  husband  Ninus  had  made 
the  seate  of  the  Assyrian  Empire)  standing  upon  Lycus 
which    floweth    into    Tigris ;    and    Babylon    seat    of  the  [I-  i-  43-] 
Chaldasan  Empire  on  Euphrates,  Seleucia  also  &  Bagdet 
of  later  building   not  farre   from   thence,   have    in    their 
times   beene    fitting    seats    to    receive    either    by  land  or 
sea,  or  both,   the  Indian  riches,  thence  to   be  dispersed 
to   other   Marts   and   thorow    the    world.     The   Persians 
were  Lords  of  India,  as  both  the  Scripture  &  Herodotus  Este.  8.  9. 
affirme,   &  Alexander  advanced  the  Macedonian  Empire  ^^^^^ 
thither  also;  whose   Empire  after    his   death   being  rent 
into    foure    parts,     Seleucus    possessed    Babylonia,    and 
Ptolemeus   Egypt,   which    by   the    red    Sea   made    most  Egyptians. 
advantage  of  the  Spicerie.  jo,_  Antiq.  I. 

Sesostris  (whom   Josephus   esteemeth    to    be    Shishak,   8.  c.  4 



2  Chro.  12.  the  King  of  Egypt  which  tooke  away  great 
Strab.  I.  1 6.     part  of  these  Ophirian  treasures)   is  by  Strabo  reported 
the  first  which  subdued  Ethiopia  and  Troglodytica :  at 
the    straits    of  Dira    (where    the    red    Sea    is    but   sixtie 
furlongs  or  seven   miles   and  a  halfe  broad)  left  Monu- 
ments   of  his    exploits,    a    pillar    engraven    with    hiero- 
glyphikes :     he   passed    thence    into    Arabia   and    thorow 
all  Asia.     His  westerne  expedition  I  omit  (Lucan  singeth, 
Venit  ad    occasum    mundique    extrema    Sesostris)   but  it 
is   like    that    being    in    the    time    of    Salomon    and    his 
2  Chro.  35.     emulous  enemie,   that    the  glory  of  Salomons   Ophirian 
'^'     arts  had  whetted  him  to  this  Asian  and  Indian  expedi- 
Pl.  I.  6.  c.  29.  tion.     Pliny  mentions  the  Tyrians  in  this  coast,  and  the 
Diod.  Sic.  I.    port   Daneon    whence    Sesostris    first    of  all   thought    to 
' ■  J^-  3  bring  a   Navigable   River   to   Delta   of  Nilus   62.   miles. 

9-  ;^echo  long  after  (hee  which   slew   King  Josias)  is  said 
to   have   sought  to    make    a    marriage    betwixt   the    Red 
Sea    and     Nilus    (the    cause    is    evident,    the    Arabian, 
^Ethiopian  and  Indian  commerce  to  be  joyned  with  the 
Mediterranean)   and  to  have  sent  Phasnecians  from   that 
Sea    upon    discoverie    round    about    Africa ;     in    which 
voiage    they    spent    two    yeeres.       Cambyses    conquered 
Egypt,    and    built    Cambisu    a    Citie    on    the    red    Sea. 
Darius    the    Persian    pursued   Nechos    project,    thinking 
Some  make       to  perfect  a  trench  from  the  River  to  the  Sea,  but  was 
Psammeticusa  deterred  by  those  which   said  that  Sea  was  higher  then 
lhis%end"  ^gyP^'    ^^^    therfore    would    drown    it.      Yet   did    this 
project  outlive  the  Persian  Empire  in  Egypt,  for  Ptolemie 
made  a  trench   100.  foot  broad  and  30.  deepe,  37.  miles 
and  400.  paces,  as  far  as  the  Bitter  fountaines,   and  then 
brake  off  fearing  an  inundation,  the  red  Sea  being  found 
three    cubits   higher    then    the    land    of    Egypt.       Some 
(saith   Plinie)   say   the   feare   was,   lest    Nilus   should   be 
corrupted   by  the   Sea  water.      Yet    by   three   waies  did 
^rsinee  or       they   then   passe  to   Arsinoe   built   by  Ptolemasus  Phila- 
r  ^'^'^'    ■       delphus.      The    Trench    still    continues,    as    Furerus    a 
inf.  12,  c  \\    German  (which  saw  it  in  his  way  to   Mount  Sinai  from 
Cairo)  testifieth. 



Coptus  way  was  found  by  King  Ptolomie,  and  the 
Egyptian  Exchequer  thereby  so  advanced,  that  that  in 
Auletes  time,  a  King  nothing  frugall,  the  prodigall 
Father  of  prodigious  Cleopatra  (Strabo  cites  it  out  of  5//v7^.  /.  17. 
an  Oration  of  Cicero)  the  royal  revenues  came  to  12500. 
talents,  which  is  of  English  coine  by  M.  Brerewoods 
reckoning,  two  millions,  three  hundreth  forty  three 
thousand  &  seven  hundreth  &  fifty  pounds.  And 
if  that  he,  saith  Strabo,  which  carelesly  and  negligently 
administred  his  Kingdome  had  so  much  revenue,  what 
may  we  thinke  of  the  present  Roman  government,  the 
Indian  and  Trogloditicall  Merchandises  being  added.'' 
For  whereas  afore  scarsly  20.  ships  adventured  out  of 
the  Straits,  now  very  great  fleets  are  set  forth  to  India 
and  ^Ethiopia ;  whence  precious  Merchandises  are  brought 
to  Egypt  and  thence  transported  to  other  places,  with 
the  benefit  of  double  custome  for  importation  and  ex- 
portation. But  those  precious  wares  have  heavie  imposts, 
because  of  the  Monopolies,  onely  Alexandria  receiving 
and  dispersing  them.  Thus  Strabo,  who  calleth  Alex-  Alexandria. 
andria  efxiropelov  /meyiarov  t  oiKov/mevr]^  the  greatest  Mart 
in  the  World.  How  gainfull  this  trade  was,  and  what 
course  they  held  in  this  voiage  in  Plinies  time,  you 
have  heard  out  of  him  alreadie. 

Alexandria  being  orewhelmed  with  a  Saracen  Deluge,   See  Leo  y 
by  Schismaticall  Chaliphas   beganne   at  last   to    hold   up  Sandys. 
head  againe,  and  whiles  the  Mamalukes  Empire  lasted, 
was   the  chiefe  Mart  for  the  Spices  brought  to  Mecca, 
and  thence    carried    to    Alexandria,    the    Trade    whereof 
was  in   the  Venetians  hand,  and  enriched  their  Signiorie 
very  much,  till  the  Portugals  in  our  Grandfathers  dayes 
found  the   way  by  Sea  into    the    Indies,  whereby  both 
the   Moores    and    Venetians   were    impoverished.       This  See  inf.  I.  2. 
Trade   set   Henrie   that   Noble    Prince    of  Portugall    on  f-  i-  §•  2. 
worke  to  begin   that,  which  was  so  long  before  it  pro- 
duced any  fruit.     Yea,  this  Indian  Trade  set  Columbus, 
and  after  him   Cabot  on  worke  to  find   the  way  to  the 
Indies  by  the  West;  which   their  industrious  simplicitie 



God  rewarded  with  a  New  World  by  them  discovered. 
Rham.  vol.  I.  But  to  returne  to  our  Romans,  Rhamusio  cites  out  of 
fol-  371-  the   Roman   Law,   the    Customes    for  the    Indian    goods 

set  downe  in  the  Reigne  of  Marcus  and  Commodus : 
viz.  Cinamon,  Pepper  long,  and  white,  Cloves,  Costus, 
Cancamo,  Spikenard,  Cassia,  Frankincense,  Xilocassia, 
Myrrhe,  Amomum,  Ginger,  Malabathrum,  Ammoniake, 
Galbanum,  Laser,  Agolochum,  Gumme  Arabike,  Carda- 
mome,  Carpesium,  Silkes,  Parthian  and  Babylonian 
Workes,  Ivorie,  Ebonie,  all  sorts  of  precious  Stones, 
Pearles,  Sardonix,  Ceravnia,  Hiacinth,  Emerald,  Diamond, 
Saphire,  Callimo,  Berill,  Cilindre,  Indian  and  Sarmatian 
Clothes,  &c.  which  I  have  mentioned  that  we  may  see 
the  Trade  then,  and  now  are  much  alike. 

Strabo  and  Plinie  (before  this  greatnesse  of  Alexandria, 
Dioscurias.  as  it  may  seeme)  extoll  Dioscurias  in  the  bottome  of 
pT'^/V'*  the  Euxine  or  Blacke  Sea,  where  people  of  seventie 
Languages,  or  as  Timosthenes  affirmed,  three  hundred 
severall  Nations  resorted ;  and  after  that  the  Romans 
used  one  hundred  and  thirtie  Interpreters  in  their 
businesses.  In  Plinies  time  this  Babylon  was  waste. 
I  imagine  that  when  the  Persian  Empire  possessed  India 
and  Asia  Minor,  this  Dioscurias  was  the  Staple  of 
Indian  Commodities :  brought  partly  by  the  Persian 
Gulfe  as  farre  as  Tigris  would  permit,  &  the  rest  by 
land,  which  is  no  great  way.  Or,  as  some  thinke,  and 
[I,  1.  44.]  not  without  cause,  those  Seas  being  so  infested  with 
Pirats,  as  appeares  in  Plinie,  and  the  Arabs  being  alway 
Robbers ;  they  carried  their  goods  up  the  Indus  (as 
many  still  doe  from  Tatta  to  Lahor)  and  thence  by 
Caravan  over  the  Candahar  and  other  Hils,  the  River 
Oxus,  and  over  the  Caspian  Sea  to  the  River  Cyrus, 
and  so  to  Dioscurias. 

When  the  Seleucidas  succeeded  in  those  parts,  it  is 
like  that  the  Trade  continued,  though  weaker,  till  the 
Romans  drew  all  to  Alexandria :  especially  the  Parthian 
Empire  not  permitting  such  Commerce  to  their  Roman 
Enemies,  as  neither  the  Persians  after. 


That  Barbarous  myst  of  so  many  Nations  which  over- 
came the  Roman  Empire,  buried  this  Trade  in  darknesse, 
till  the  Saracens  grew  to  some  height,  and  Bagdet  was 
made  the  chiefe  Seate  of  their  Caliph,  builded  on  Tigris, 
and  commodious  to  attract  the  Trade  of  the  East,  and 
disperse  it  to  the  West.  A  great  part  of  this  Trade 
after  the  declination  of  Bagdet,  the  East  beeing  infected  Bagdet. 
with  Mahumetan  follies,  honoured  also  with  colour  of 
Religion,  was  conveyed  by  the  Arabian  Moores,  and 
Moorish  Indians  to  Mecca  (the  sinke  of  that  Superstition)  Mecca. 
by  the  Red  Sea,  Judda,  and  Ziden  being  their  Ports, 
and  thence  was  much  of  it  carried  to  Damasco,  and 
thence  to  Aleppo,  which  Trade  hath  continued  to  our 
dayes ;  and  another  part  to  Cairo,  hereby  flourishing, 
and  thence  to  Alexandria  as  aforesaid :  which  is  still 
used  also,  but  much  empaired,  and  almost  forsaken  by 
the  Europaean  Navigations''  into  India.  ^ This  caused 

Whiles  the  Tartarian  Empire  flourished,  these  Indian  ^^  ^'^'^^  ^"^''^ 

Wares  were   carried   much   (as   you  may  reade  in  Polo)  ^^  f  S  °' "l 
TV ,         .  ^,  .  r-     y  1  -1  gals  from  the 

to   Mangi   or  Lhma ;    to   Cathay,   many   also   carried   to   Moores  the 

Boghar    in    Bactria,   and    to    Samarcand,    and   thence    to  Mamalukes, 

other  parts.      Also    in    those    troublesome    times    when  ^"'^  ^^^ 

the   Tartars   had  overrunne   all,   and    when    Boghar    was  ^}^^'^^l'  ^" 

f.  J  ,         Ti-  ivyri         T  Since  from 

m    esteeme    tor    trade,    the    Indian    Merchandises    were  ^^^^  ^^  q^^.^ 

shipped  on  the   Caspian  Sea   by  Oxus,  and  thence  con-  andtkeDutcH. 

vayed  to   Astracan,   on   the   River    Rha,  or    Volga,    and  ^«^-  Galvam 

so   to    Novogrode,    and    thence  partly    over-land,    partly   r^  i^^^^^' 

by  water  to   Caffa,  or  Theodosia,  where   the  Genowayes  jstracan. 

fetched  it  (who  then  were  of  great  power  in  these  parts)  Novogrode. 

and  dispersed  it  in   Christian  Ports ;   the  Venetians  and  Caffa. 

Genowayes   being   Corrivals  in    this  Trade,    as    in   other 

things,  and  in  those  dayes  very  great.     Much  also  passed 

to   Trapezond,   that  Citie   so  flourishing   that   it   became  Trapezond. 

an  Empire,  a  Title  too  heavie  for  it,  and  the  ruine  both 

of  Constantinople   the    Mother   thus    weakened,    and    of 

it  selfe. 

Ormuz  was  famous  by  this  Trade,  and  Moha  in  the  Ormus. 

Red   Sea,   but   both    have    their    course    to    Aleppo ;    of  ^o^'^- 




Jnastas.  Sin- 
ai tai  lib.  I  2. 
Pined  de  reb. 

Acosta  de  Nat. 
Novi  orb.  I. 
I.  c.  13,  14. 

which  our  Travellers  shall  in  due  time  tell  you  in  the 
following  Discourses.  And  now  we  see  London  an 
Indian  Mart,  and  Turkie  it  selfe  from  hence  served 
with  Pepper,  and  other  Indian  Commodities,  as  Master 
Mun  Deputie  of  that  Company  in  his  following  Tractate 
will  shew  you. 

Thus  much  of  the  Ports  made  famous  by  Indian 
Spicerie  and  Merchandize.  Anastasius  Sinaita  affirmeth, 
that  Salomons  Fleet  made  a  returne  every  yeere,  which 
of  the  same  Fleet  cannot  bee  understood.  Pineda  yeelds 
to  this,  but  he  makes  us  more  labour  about  Tharsis, 
to  which,  now  wee  are  returned  from  Ophir,  he  enforceth 
us  to  a  new  Voyage,  and  to  finde  Tharsis  in  Spaine. 
Josephus  Acosta  also  hath  made  a  scruple  both  of 
Ophir  and  Tharsis,  and  makes  them  to  signifie  no 
particular  set  place,  but  generall  and  remote,  as  India 
doth  now  with  us  signifie  all  the  Easterne  World  in 
vulgar  appellation.  Yet  doth  he  acknowledge  the  sub- 
stance of  that  wee  have  spoken,  and  professeth  to  agree 
with  Josephus,  so  that  with  him  wee  shall  have  but  a 
Grammer  quarrell.  We  will  adde  a  word  of  the 
Phaenicians  which  here  are  expressed  to  have  beene 
Solomons  Mariners,  and  of  their  ancient  Navigation, 
and  so  shall  we  make  an  end  of  our  Ophirian  Voyage, 
which  to  some  Readers  will  perhaps  seeme  much  longer 
then  three  yeeres. 


§.  XII. 

Of  Tharsis  or  Tharshish,  whether  it  bee  the  same 
with  Ophir,  and  both,  some  indefinite  remoter 
Countrey ;  whether  it  be  the  Sea,  or  Tartessus, 
or  any  place  in  Spaine.  Of  the  ancient  Navi- 
gations about  Africa,  and  of  the  Phsnician 

Earned  Acosta  having  alleaged  Reasons  sufficient  Jcost.deNat. 
for  confuting  that  Opinion  of  Peru  to  be  Ophir,  ^-  O^^-  ^-  '• 
an  upstart  name,   unknowne  to  the  Natives;  and  ^"  '^'       ^^' 


whence  neither  Ivorie  nor  such  precious  Gemmes  could 

be  brought,  and  whither  Solomons  Navie  in  those  times 

ignorant   of  the    Load-stone,    could    not    come  to   fetch 

them ;    the  Easterne    India   being   fitter    then    the  West 

for  Solomons  purposes  :  he  concludeth,  Ego  sane  Ophir 

&  Tharsis  in  divinis  Uteris  saepius  non  certum  aliquem 

definitumque  locum  sonare  suspicor,  sed  generale  potius 

esse  vocabulum,  idemque  efficere  apud    Hebraeos,   quod 

apud  nos  vulgo  Indiarum  vocem.     He  conceiveth,  that 

as  India  is  a  name  given  to  any  remote,  rich,  and  strange 

Region  very   much   differing    from   ours,  as    to   Mexico,  [I.  i  45.] 

Brasil,   Malaca,  &c.      So   likewise    Ophir    and   Tharsis; 

and  as  for  Tharsis,  it   signifieth   either  the   maine   Sea, 

or    most    remote    and  strange  Regions.      Thus  he    con- 


For  Ophir  we  have  before  found  it,  the  proper  name 
of  a  man  and  of  a  Region  denominated  of  him ;  but 
withal  have  acknowledged  the  Ophirian  voyage  to  com- 
prehend more  then  the  Region  of  Ophir,  including  the 
other  Indian  Ports  wherat  they  touched  and  traded  in 
that  voyage,  especially  the  two  Hands  now  called  Seilan 
and  Sumatra,  and  all  places  on  the  Coast  within  the  Gulfe 
of  Bengala,  which  might  fit  their  purpose.  It  is  usuall 
now  to  call  an  Indian  Voyage,  not  only  to  lacatra.  Bantam, 
or  Banda,  but  thereto  also  they  reckon  their  touching  at 
Soldanha,  on  the  maine  of  Afrike,  or  at  the  River  of  Saint 



Augustine  in  the  great  Hand  of  St.  Laurence,  and  the 
Hands  of  Comoro,  or  Socatra,  or  wheresoever  they  arrive 
on  the  Abash  or  Mohan  shoare  in  the  Red  Sea,  or  in 
any  Arabike  Port,  or  in  the  Persian  Gulfe  before  they 
come  to  India :  and  there  also  Surat,  Diul,  Calicut,  or 
wheresoever  they  touch  besides  on  this  side  or  beyond 
that  principal  Port  where  they  make  their  Voyage,  as 
they  terme  it,  that  is,  where  they  take  in  their  chiefe 
ladings.  Of  which,  the  following  Relations  will  give  you 
many  instances.  So  the  Straits  Voyages,  intimate  not  the 
meere  sayling  to  or  thorow  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar,  in 
vulgar  appellation,  but  all  Voyages  within  those  Straits 
whether  to  Venice,  or  Ligorne,  or  Zant,  or  Constanstinople, 
or  Scanderone,  or  Alexandria,  or  in  one  Voyage  to  visit 
many  or  all  of  these  Ports,  is  yet  called  but  a  Straits 
Voyage.  We  may  yeeld  thus  much  therefore  to  Acosta, 
The  bounds  of  that  Ophir,  was  a  proper  Countrey  (as  India  also  is) 
Ophir.  extending  from  Ganges  to  Menan,  and  betwixt  the  Lake 

Chiamay,  and  the  Gulfe  or  Sea  of  Bengala ;  but  as  it 
happened,  that  India  being  the  remotest  knowne  Region, 
gave  name  in  old  times  to  all  later  Discoveries  beyond  it, 
and  in  after  times  accidentally  to  the  New  World,  which 
the  first  finders  mistooke  for  Easterne  India;  so  also  the 
Voyage  to  Ophir,  accidentally  might  give  name  to  all 
those  Remote  parts,  and  comprehend  all  the  farre  Ports, 
which  by  occasion  of  the  Voyage  to  Ophir  they  visited, 
lying  in  the  way  thither,  or  somewhat  wide  or  beyond. 
And  as  there  is  a  Region  truly  and  properly  called  India, 
even  al  that  which  extends  from  Indus  (whence  it  is  so 
named)  to  Ganges ;  which  name  by  others  ignorance  of 
the  proper  names  of  Regions,  was  extended  further  both 
beyond  Ganges,  and  to  all  remote  Regions ;  so  was 
there  a  true  Ophir,  named  of  Ophir  the  sonne  of  Joktan, 
which  occasioned  other  remote  Countreyes  to  beare  that 
appellation,  at  least  in  this  Voyage  thither. 

But  for  Tharsis  or  Tarshish,  or  Tharshish ;  we  see 
Acosta  himselfe  in  his  finall  upshot,  to  make  an  aut  of  it, 
Aut  immensum  mare,  aut  regiones  semotissimas  &  valde 



peregrinas  accipl  solere.     So  that  his  former  Proposition 

admits  now  another,  that  either  it  is  the  maine   Ocean 

(which    I   take   to   be  the  true   sense)    or   some    remote 

Region.     Some  are  of  opinion  that  the  Voyage  to  Ophir,  Ribera, 

and  that  to  Tharsis  differed,  because  the  Scripture  saith,  P^^^da,  iffc 

according  to  our  Translation,  For  the  King  had  at  Sea  a   i.Reg.10.22. 

Navie  of  Tharshish,  with  the  Navie  of  Hiram  once  in  2.  C/iron.  9. 

three  yeeres,  came  the  Navie  of  Tharshish,  bringing  Gold  ^^^  ^.^  ^ 

and  Silver,   Ivorie,  and  Apes   and  Peacockes.  ^j^ip^  ^g„f  fg 

Tremellius  hath  it.  Nam  classis  Oceani  pro  rege  cum   Thanhhh'^c. 

classe  Chirami  erat :  semel  ternis  annis  veniebat  classis  ex  every  three 

Oceano   afferens  aurum,   &c.     The  Vulgar,   Latine    and  r^res  once 
„  .-._._,,',  .  _  ,      o     ^  ,  .  came  the  ships 

Septuagmt,  Navis  Tharsis  erat  regi  balomom  m  man  cum   r^^  rj.^^^_ 

navibus  Chiram.  shish. 

Saint  Jerome  in  many  places  examineth  this  Tharshish, 
as  in  Es.  2.  Melius  est  Tharsis  vel  mare  vel  pelagus 
absolute  ponere,  and  alledgeth  Jonas  his  fleeing  to  Tharsis, 
who  from  Joppe  could  not  come  to  India  by  Sea. 

Most  of  the  late  Writers  agree  with  Tremellius,  that  R'tbera  in 
Tharsis  is  the  Ocean ;  and  make  that  a  difl^erence  betwixt  •^°"-  '• 
Tharshish  and  O"'  Jam  which  signifies  the  Sea,  as  the  Red  g^  ^' 
Sea,  or  Mediterranean,  and  withall  those  lesse  collections  Forerius  in 
of  waters  as  the  Dead  Sea,  the  Sea  of  Galilee,  and  that  Es.  2. 
Brazen  Vessell  for  the  largenesse,  called  a  Sea,  2  King.  25.  j^^-  ^^"^ '" 
1 6.   whereas  Tharshish  is  only  the  Maine  or  large  Sea.  j^'^^/„'  i„ 
R.   Mose  Hadarsan  citeth  foure  significations,  Tarsus  a  jrca.  Leo 
Citie  of  Cilicia,  Carthage,  India,  and  the  Sea.     This  place  Jud.  3. 
cannot  admit  Tarsus  nor  Carthage,  beeing  in  another  Sea,  ^.f,  }'^'     . 
to  which  Esiongeber,  on  the  Red  Sea  had  not  beene  the  ^^/'zT 
Port  to  have  sailed  from,  but  Joppe  or  Tyrus,  or  some  R.Mos.Had. 
other  Haven  in  the  Mediterranean.     Now  if  any  thinke  in  Ps.  71. 
them  two  Voyages  from  two  severall  Ports,  the  Scripture 
is    plaine,  where   it   is   said,   Jehoshaphat  made   ships   of 
Tharshish  to  goe  to  Ophir  for  Gold  ;  but  they  went  not, 
for  the  ships  were  broken  at  Esiongeber.     And  lest  any 
might  thinke  that  they  were  called  ships  of  Tharshish, 
because  the  materials  came  from  Cilicia,  it  is  more  full, 
2  Chron.  20.  35.      And  after  this  did  Jehoshaphat  King   i.;?^^.22.4.8, 



of  Judah,  joyne  himselfe  with  Ahaziah  King  of  Israel, 
who  did  very  wickedly.  And  he  joyned  himselfe  with 
him  to  make  ships  to  go  to  Tarshish,  and  they  made  the 
ships  in  Esiongeber.  Then  Eliezer  prophesied,  &c.  and 
the  ships  were  broken  that  they  could  not  goe  to  Tar- 
shish. Note  also  that  the  vulgar  translateth  in  one  place 
Sea,  in  the  other  Tharsis, 
Post  de  Some  hence  gather  it  to  be  a  Region  in  India,  as  that 

Ori^n.  Rabbi,  and  Jerome  also  doth  in  some  sort  averre,  with 

Josephus,  and  many  late  Writers,  But  because  no 
such  Region  in  India  can  be  found,  hence  so  many 
opinions.  Postellus  placeth  Ophir  in  the  Golden  Region 
where  Malaca  standeth,  but  makes  Tharsis  to  extend 
further,  even  to  the  South  Sea;  or  the  Peruan  Coast, 
so  that  Ophir  and  Peru  are  divorced  for  a  marriage 
Chal.  2.  with    Tharsis.     The    Chaldee  will    have    it    Africa,  and 

Parap.^.        Emanuel    Saa    in    Angola ;    Acosta    no    certaine   place ; 
Rib'inJon  i    Rit)era  will  have  them  two  Voyages,   and  not  the  same 
[I.  i.  46.]       to    Ophir  and   Tharsis  ;  Pineda  and   Goropius  bring  us 
to  Tartessus  in   Spaine.     But  I   embrace  the  opinion  of 
Cornelius  Cornelii.    Villalpandus  (and  heerein  Ribera  also 
agreeth)  which  say  that  of  Tarshish  the  Sonne  of  Javan, 
Gen.  10.  4.     Cilicia  tooke  name  at  first,  still  continued  to  Tarsus  (where 
Saint  Paul  was  borne,  famous  in  old  times  by  Straboes 
report  for  the  Universitie  and  other  Antiquities)  and  the 
Inhabitants    therof,   and    the    adjoyning     Regions    being 
famous  at  Sea,  might  cause  that  great  Sea  (as  the  Scrip- 
*Jos.  15.  12.   ture  cals*  it,  in  comparison  of  the  lesser  Seas  in  Judaea) 
to  be  called  Tarshish,  a  name  then  easily   by  the  Jewes 
derived    to   all    great   Seas,    whether    Mediterranean    or 

Now  that  which  makes  Interpreters  to  question  some 
place  in  India,  or  elsewhere,  is  the  phrase  of  going  to  and 
comming  from  Tarshish,  and  bringing  goods  from  thence, 
a  kind  of  speech  which  to  Pineda  seemeth  ridiculous,  if 
thereby  be  not  meant  some  certaine  place  on  Land.  Wee 
see  at  this  day  the  Hill  Atlas  in  Afrike,  hath  given  name 
to   that  huge  huge  Ocean,  extending  even  to  the  New 



Worlds  of  the  South  and  West.  The  Straits  betwixt 
Spaine  and  Afrike,  give  name  with  our  Mariners  to  all 
the  Midland  Sea  within  and  beyond  them.  Indus  gave 
name  to  India,  and  all  the  Ocean  adjoyning ;  and  the 
South  Sea  (the  greatest  of  knowne  Seas)  is  so  termed, 
because  Vasques  Balboa  first  saw  it  lying  to  the  South 
from  him ;  neither  can  the  Westerne  Scite,  take  away  that 
name  Del  Sur  to  this  day.  Is  it  then  any  marvell,  that 
Tarshish  the  Cilician  Sea  next  adjoyning  to  Judaea,  should 
give  name  to  all  the  deeper  and  larger  parts  of  the 
Mediterranean,  which  they  had  occasion  after  to  take 
notice  of,  and  to  other  Seas  from  the  Red  Sea  forward 
more  wide  and  spacious.  Pineda  himselfe  confesseth,  that 
Tartessus  which  hee  would  have  to  be  Tharsis,  gave  name 
not  only  to  Boetica,  but  to  all  Spaine.  And  is  it  any 
more  ridiculous  or  absurd  to  say,  the  King  had  a  Navie  of 
Tharshish  at  Sea,  then  that  which  our  vulgar  Mariners 
say,  the  Straits  fleet  is  now  at  Sea,  or  the  Straits  fleet  is 
come  from  Sea,  speaking  of  our  Merchants  ships,  which 
keep  company  together  in  the  Seas  for  feare  of  Algier 
Pirats  ?  Do  not  they  cal  them  Straits  Merchandise  ?  and 
say,  that  such  &  such  goods  are  brought  out  of  the  Straits, 
or  caried  to  the  Straits,  that  are  sent  thorow  those  Seas, 
and  brought  by  those  Seas  to  or  from  any  Port  therein  ? 
And  as  usuall  a  Phrase  it  is,  which  Pineda  judgeth  so 
absurde,  that  a  Mariner  being  asked  whither  he  goeth, 
should  answere  to  Sea,  or  that  Gold,  Silver,  Ivorie,  Pea- 
cockes  and  Apes  should  be  said  to  be  brought  from  Sea : 
For  our  Mariners  (which  learne  not  their  Idiome  of 
Scholers)  use  to  say,  when  all  their  money  is  spent,  they 
will  goe  to  Sea  and  get  more ;  that  they  brought  this  or 
that  from  Sea,  that  shortly  they  are  to  goe  to  Sea,  or  have 
lately  come  from  Sea,  without  naming  any  Port ;  that  such 
a  man  hath  got  all  his  goods  by  Sea,  great  wealth  hath 
come  to  him  by  Sea ;  hee  hath  had  great  losse  by  Sea, 
and  other  like  phrases  of  Sea-men  (for  so  also  are  they 
called,  in  opposition  to  Land-men,  in  regard  of  their 
Trade  and  course  of  life,  though  the  habitation  of  both  be 



Jonas  I. 

H'leron.  in 
Jon.  I. 

Ps.  72.   II. 

By  some  un- 
discreet  and 
vain  Cutters 
or  Printers 
fiatterie,  or 
ignorance  in- 
sensible of 
divine  mys- 
teries, in  the 
forefront  of  a 
great  Booke, 
some  tvords  of 
this  Psalme 
proper  to 

on  Land.)  This  then  may  be  the  sense:  Salomon  had  at 
Sea  a  Navie  at  Tharshish,  that  is,  ships  built  for  long 
voyages  at  Sea :  as  we  call  men  of  Warre,  or  ships  of 
Warre ;  which  are  built  for  that  purpose.  And  how  easie 
is  the  construction,  Jehoshaphat  made  ships  of  Tharshish 
to  goe  to  Ophir,  in  these  words,  a  Sea-navie,  or  ship 
of  the  Sea,  to  goe  to  Ophir;  that  is,  not  such  Fisher- 
boates,  as  they  saw  in  the  Sea  of  Galilee,  or  such  small 
Barkes  as  they  used  in  Palaestina  to  trade  from  Port  to 
Port,  but  a  Navie  Royall  of  strong  ships  able  to  brooke 
long  Voyages  in  the  Ocean. 

I  also  thinke  that  in  regard  of  the  length  of  those 
Voyages,  in  which  they  were  two  thirds  of  the  time  at 
Sea  (after  our  account)  and  three  whole  yeeres  in  each 
Voyage  from  their  Land-home,  in  a  kind  of  eminence, 
they  were  in  these  Voyages  said  to  goe  to  Tharshish  or  to 
Sea.  And  so  Jonas  likewise  minding  to  flie  from  that 
Land  whither  he  was  sent,  was  hurried  in  the  strength  of 
temptation,  a  quite  contrarie  way,  whether  that  ship  in- 
tended Tarsus  in  Cilicia,  or  whithersoever  it  went,  he 
chusing  rather  a  certaintie  of  flight  then  of  scite,  or  setling 
himselfe  any  where,  as  Saint  Jerome  saith  of  him,  Non  ad 
certum  fugere  cupiebat  locum,  sed  mare  ingrediens,  quo- 
cunque  pergere  festinabat.  Et  magis  hoc  convenit 
fugitivo  &  timido,  non  locum  fugae  otiose  eligere,  sed 
primam  occasionem  arripere  navigandi.  Likewise  in  that 
Psalme  which  mystically  and  fully  is  true  of  Christ  in  the 
calling  of  the  Gentiles ;  typically  and  in  part  verified  in 
Solomon  (wickedly  and  Antichristianly  since  applied  to 
the  Pope  in  many  passages  of  the  last  Councell  ofLateran 
under  Julius  the  Second,  and  Leo  the  Tenth)  it  is  said, 
The  Kings  of  Tharshish  and  of  the  lies  shall  bring 
presents,  the  Kings  of  Sheba  and  Seba  shall  offer  gifts ;  it 
is  plaine  by  the  Historic  of  Solomon  in  Scripture,  and  by 
joyning  of  Tharshish  and  Sheba  together,  that  no  Tartes- 
sus,  nor  Angola,  nor  Peru,  are  intended ;  and  that  Mari- 
time Kings  are  meant  (Tremellius  reades  Reges  Oceani 
accolas)  which  ruled  in  Hands  (which  is   also  added)  or 



Coasts  and  Ports  neere    the    Sea    (sure    as    Hiram    then  Christ  are 

was,    and    all    remote    Maritime   Provinces  the  Scripture  'ffj^fjj"  f" 
1  1       1         /        •         1  r     L      majesties  pic- 

cals  Hands)   which    used    also  (as    m    those   parts  or  the  ^^^^ .  q^^„^^ 

East    Indies,    almost     all    the    Kings    are    at    this    day  gentes  servient 
Merchants)     trade    by    Sea,    and    perhaps    enjoyed    the  ei,  ^c  zvhich 
Title   of  the   adjoyning   Seas   (as   his  Majestic  is  King  f.«;;_j 
of  the    Bnttish    Ocean,    and   another   Pacihcus    his    Vx^-  ^^^^  Scripture 
decessor    added    it    to    his    Royall    Title,  Ego   Edgarus  andhisMajes- 
Anglorum    Basileus,*    omniumque    Regum,    Insularum,  tie from^ 
Oceanique      Britanniam      circumjacentis,      cunctarumque  '^^^J'^"^'^^  ^ 
Nationum,    quas  infra    eam    includuntur,     Imperator    &  p^^^ ^^_ 
Dominus.      Such   were  the   Kings  of  Tharshish,    whose 
Customes  from  the  Sea,  and  Trade  by  it,  made  them  have 
their   ships  of  Tharshish,  &  wealth  from  Tharshish  :    as 
in  later  dayes,  the  Kings  of  Aden,  Ormus  and  Malacca ; 
and   still   of  Fartaque,   Socatra,   Calicut,   Cochin,   Zeilan, 
Achen,  and  many  others  included  in  the  circuit   of  our 
Ophirian  Voyage  are  ;  and  might  therefore  justly  be  called  [I.  i-  47-] 
Kings  of  Tharshish  :  from  all  which  no  doubt  either  in 
the  course  of  this  Ophirian  Voyage  and  Trade,  or  other- 
wise sent  by  speciall  Messengers,  Solomon  had  presents, 
as  in   I.   Reg.   lo.  24.   25.  is  expressed. 

Pineda  himselfe  citeth  out  of  Straboes  third  Booke  of 
the  Gaditans  (which  is  Tartessus,  or  with  him  Tharshish) 
plerique  mare  incolunt,  pauci  domi  desident :  and  in  this 
respect  Tyrus  may  by  the  Prophet  be  called  filia  Thar- 
sis,  daughter  of  the  Sea,  as  seated  in  it,  ruling  on  it, 
and  living  of  it.  The  Chaldee  Paraphrase  hath  the 
Kings  of  Tharsis,  and  the  Hands  of  the  great  Ocean 
Sea ;  which  may  bee  understood  of  the  Indian  Sea :  and 
not  as  Goropius  and  Pineda  would  urge  us,  of  Spaine. 
Pineda  citeth  Anastasius  Sinaita,  that  Tharsis  is  Hes- 
peria  Regionis  Occidentalis  ;  and  Forerius  &  Eugubinus 
to  assist  Goropius:  whose  authoritie  shall  so  farre  moove 
as  their  reason  is  weightie. 

As  for  Goropius,  his  fifth,  sixth  and  seventh  Bookes 
of  his  Hispanica  are  principally  spent  on  Tharshish  the 
Sonne   of  Javan,  which  he  writes  Tarsees,  as  signifying 
I  129  I 


in    that    which    he    makes    the    first   of  Languages   (the 
Dutch  tongue  mother  of  ours)  one  that  dares  adventure 
the   Seas,  or   one   which    tarries   in   the    Seas :    therefore 
also  sirnamed  Atlas  or  Atlant,  quasi  Hat-lant,  or  Hate- 
land,  Him  he  makes  with  his  brother  EHsha  the  peoplers 
of  Spaine,  and  saith,  that  of  his  skill  in  Astronomie  and 
invention    of  the    Sphere,  he    was    fabled    to    beare    the 
Heavens  ;   and  to  have  named  his  daughters  with  names 
of  starres  ;    to   have   sailed   also    to   Ophir,  so   called   as 
over   the   v/idest   Sea,   as   Peru   of  a   peere   there    built ; 
and  other  like  collections  hee  hath   very   wittie,  learned 
and  pleasant,  not  solid  enough  to  convince,   nor  so  con- 
temptible  as  very    easie    to  be    confuted.      Pineda    hath 
written    many   sheets    of  paper   to    honour    his    Spanish 
home  with  Salomons  Voyages  for  the  Temples  structure, 
wherein    his    error    amoris    and    not    amor    erroris    may 
plead  his  excuse,  according  to  that   of  the  Poet,  Nescio 
qua    natale    solum    dulcedine    cunctos    Ducit,  &    imme- 
mores  non  sinit   esse   sui.       I   cannot   but   marvell,  that 
two  so  learned  men  are  so  strongly  carried  by  so  weake 
reasons   as   the   likenesse   of  words  in   Tharsis  and  Tar- 
tessus,  when    Geographers    tell    us    of,    and    themselves 
confesse,   Tarsus   in    CiHcia,    Tarsis   in   Syria,   Tarsius    in 
Pannonia,   and   a  River   of  that   name   in   Troas,  with  I 
know   not    how    many    others  ;     and    besides,  Tartessus 
being   a  Phaenicean   Colonie   might   of  Tharshish  or  the 
Ocean   receive   the  name  (whether  we   intend   Gades   or 
Cadiz  thereby,  or  the  whole  Bcetike  Province  as   seated 
in,   or  on    the   Sea    or    Coast,  and    living    by    Maritime 

But  of  names  of  places  wee  have  before  spoken  how 
casuall  and  accidentall  they  are.  Even  Tartarus  the 
Strab.  1.  3.  name  of  Hell  is  neere  the  former,  &  Strabo  ghesseth 
that  Homer  called  it  so  of  this  Tartessus  in  the  remo- 
test West ;  which  Hellish  kindred  of  termes,  me  thinks, 
should  not  be  very  gratefull  to  Spanish  eares.  Etimo- 
logists  may  easily  runne  mad  if  they  bee  permitted 
libertie  ;  neither  is  any  argument  sound  from  the  sound 



of  syllables  without  other  credible  Witnesses.     Therefore 
Pineda  addeth  the  frequent  Circumnavigation   of  Africa 
in  those    dayes  ;    of  which  he  citeth  one   out  of  Hero- 
dotus, of  the  Phaenicians  long  after  this  sent  by   Neco, 
which  makes  against  him  ;  for  Herodotus  both  doubted 
of  it,  as  a  matter  seeming  to  him   incredible,  that   they 
should    saile    beyond   the   Sunnes   course,  and   therefore 
could  not  be  frequent  ;    for  that  Navigation  would  have  Circumnavi- 
made    both    Tropikes   familiar  :    he    also   saith   in    hunc  ^f!°!'^  °^ 
modum  Africa  primum  est  agnita  :   if  that  were  the  first     ■'^^  ^  ^^^^' 
Voyage,  Salomons  were  none,  or    at    least    his    Title    is 
false,   De    frequenti  &   celebri   a   mari   Arabico    in    His-  Herod  I.  4. 
paniam  navigations 

They  wintered  also  by  the  way,  and  stayed  the  grow- 
ing and  ripening  of  Corne,  which  argueth  no  people,  at 
lest  no  Trade  in  those  parts.  His  next  testimonie  is  of 
Setaspes,  who  having  defloured  the  Daughter  of  Zopyrus 
should  therefore  have  beene  crucified,  but  by  his  mothers 
intreatie  Xerxes  pardoned  him  upon  condition  of  this 
African  Circumnavigation  ;  which  argueth  the  rarenesse 
of  the  attempt,  as  did  the  sequell  also :  for  having 
sailed  out  of  the  Straits,  and  coasted  some  parts  of 
Afrike,  he  returned  (in  despaire)  and  said  he  could  saile 
no  further,  his  ship  beeing  detained  that  it  could  not  goe 
forwards.  As  for  Darius  sending  to  Indus,  it  is  not  to 
this  purpose.  The  fragments  of  Spanish  ships  in  the 
Arabike  Gulfe  is  mentioned  by  Plinie,  as  a  wonder  in  PUn.l.z.c.S']. 
Caius  Caesars  time  ;  and  that  of  Hanno  agreeth  not 
with  the  Historie  which  is  extant  of  his  Voyage,  and 
more  credible :  and  for  Eudoxus  fleeing  the  tyranny  of 
Lathyrus,  and  comming  to  Gades  by  that  Circumnavi- 
gation it  was  not  for  Trade,  but  at  a  dead  lift,  to  save 
his  life.  Another  is  said  by  Antipater  to  have  sailed 
from  Spaine  to  ^Ethiopia,  which  might  be  to  the  neerest 
Blackes  before  he  came  to  that  which  now  is  called 

And   these   are   all    which   are   brought    for    that   fre- 
quenti   &    celebri     navigatione,    that    of    Neco    and    of 



EudoxuSj  and  a  Spanish  wracke,  being  all  that  all  Ages 
could  yeeld  unto  Plinies  time  ;  and  all  also  long  after 
Salomon  :     and   of  these   that   of  Eudoxus  which  is  the 

Strab.  I.  2.  most  likely  is  farre  otherwise  told  by  Strabo,  and  at 
large  refuted.  As  for  the  long  tale  of  Semiramis  out 
of  Suidas,  it  was  to  India  by  the  Indian  Ocean  (if  it 
were  at  all)  and  not  to  Spaine.  And  out  of  Silius  his 
Verse,  Et  celebre  Oceano  atque  alternis  aestibus  Hispal, 
to  gather  the  Baetike  Navigations  to  India,  round  about 
Africa,  or  to  Mexico  &  Peru,  argueth  the  Author  to 
be  Hispalensis  ;  a  Bastike  wit,  ravished  with  I  know 
not   what    beatike    fancies :    as  that   also    that   Salomons 

Psal.  72.  raigning  from  Sea  to  Sea,  must  be  from  the  Red  Sea 
to  the  Gaditan,  as  if  from  Esion-geber  to  Joppe,  were 
not  from  Sea  to  Sea. 

From  hence  he  turneth  to  the  Phaenician  Navigations, 

ri  i  48 1  which  to  mention  here  is  more  to  our  purpose  (they 
being  Salomons  Mariners  to  Ophir)  then  to  his  of  Tar- 
tessus.  Plinie  and  Mela  applaud  the  Phenicians  for 
invention  of  Letters,  Astronomie,  navaU  and  militarie 
Sciences.  Cains  posteritie  first  in  the  old  World,  & 
Chams  in  this,  florished  in  Arts  and  humaine  Sciences. 
Joshuahs  conquest  caused  many  of  them,  as  Procopius 
and  others  affirme,  to  flee  into  remoter  Regions,  spe- 
cially the  Maritime  parts  of  Africa.  Commerce  added 
Spaine,  and  whatsoever  was  fitting  to  that  purpose  of 
trade,  Navigation  and  riches,  especially  to  the  Phenicians, 
both  before  and  after  Carthage.  Their  comming  in  and 
thorow  Spaine  is  acknowledged  by  Varro  also  (in  Uni- 
versam  Hispaniam  pervenisse)  and  they  were  the  first 
discoverers  of  the  Fortunate  Ilands  in  Straboes  opinion, 
and  before  Homers  age  held  the  best  places  in  Africk 
and  Spaine,  tiU  the  Romans  dispossessed  them.  Car- 
thage in  Africa  is  knowne  a  Phasnicean  Colonie  to 
schoole  boies,  and  Plinie  saith,  that  all  the  Bastike  coast 
was  of  Phasnicean  originall,  or  of  the  Paeni,  which  in 
authors  are  often  confounded  with  the  former,  of  whom 
they  proceeded,  and  as  Saint  Jerom  observeth,  are  called 



Paeni  quasi  Phaeni,  still  in  great  part  retaining  that 
language  ;  as  is  also  the  name  Carthaginian,  of  whom 
Polybius  testifieth  that  they  possessed  all  Spaine,  from 
the  Strait  to  the  Pyrenasan  hils.  But  he  that  will  view 
a  Map  of  the  Tyrian  greatnesse  and  the  auncient  Phas- 
nicean  Navigations,  Traffiques  and  Discoveries,  let  him 
read  the  27.  of  Ezekiel,  with  some  good  commentarie  ; 
and  from  the  best  evidence  it  shall  appeare  that  all  the 
best  parts  and  Ports  in  Asia,  Afrike  and  Europe  were 
then  familiar  to  this  Daughter  of  Tharshish.  The 
Baetike  by  Strabo  are  reputed  the  most  learned  of  the 
Spaniards  using  Grammer,  Poesie,  Antiquities,  and 
Lawes  as  they  said  6000.  yeeres  old  ;  which  agreeth 
with  their  Phaenician  originall.  To  hunt  the  Legends 
of  Bacchus,  &  Osiris,  I  here  purpose  not,  as  having 
little  truth,  and  no  mention  at  all  of  Spaine :  nor  is 
that  more  credible  of  the  Phaeniceans  besieged  by 
Nabuchodonosor,  and  relieved  from  their  Phasnicean 
Colonies  in  Spaine,  and  his  revenge  upon  them  there- 
fore invading  the  Spaniards.  Aldrete  a  learned  Spaniard 
rejects  both,  however  Megastenes  otherwhere  found 
fabulous,  may  make  somewhat  for  them. 

Yet  I  beleeve  their  commerce  and  Phasnician  originall, 
and  great  trafficke ;  their  Mines  also  of  Gold  and  Silver : 
but  such  as  yeelded  more  to  the  Phasnicians  and  Car- 
thaginians then  all  the  New  World  hath  hitherto  to  the 
Spaniard,  or  many  yeeres  after  Goropius  his  hitherto, 
added  by  Pineda,  Credat  Jud^us  apella.  Yea  still  Pineda 
brings  testimonies  to  prove  it  no  lesse  rich  in  Mines  ; 
which  makes  me  not  a  little  marvell  at  their  wisedome 
to  be  at  such  cost  to  fetch  so  farre  off  that  which  they 
have  so  plentifull  at  home  ;  and  that  as  the  throate 
which  swalloweth  all  the  meate  and  nothing  staies  there 
(it  would  cause  suffocation)  so  the  Spaniards  before 
Columbus  his  time  were  so  poore  and  quiet  accordingly  ; 
and  that  at  that  time  there  appeared  so  little  monie  or 
credit,  that  the  Queene  pawned  her  Jewels  to  borrow  a 
small  summe  of  2000.  Duckets,  or  litde  more  ;  and  that 



since,  Spaine  hath  (except  soone  after  the  returne  of  the 
Indian  Fleete)  so  little  coine  stirring  but  base  monies. 
Shall  we  thinke  them  miserable,  miser-like,  rich-poore, 
or  is  it  that  their  Mines  seeme  wholly  recollected  in  their 
mindes  ?  they  being,  if  you  beleeve  Pineda,  a  Nation 
opum  tarn  contemtrix  quam  lucratrix,  ingenio  acuto  (hoc 
quorundam  exterorum  ineptissima  invidia  suspiciosum  & 
callidum  vocat,  saith  he)  ad  magnas  res  nato  (hoc  sor- 
dida  aliorum  socordia  superbiam  &  tumorem.)  I  envie 
not  their  happinesse  to  them  so  much  chanted  by  this 
Spaniard,  I  wish  that  they  were  so  contented  therewith, 
that  they  disturbed  not  the  quiet  of  others  ;  and  that 
as  they  have  their  Navies  of  Tharshish  yeerely  bringing 
Gold  and  Silver  (as  for  Apes  and  Peacockes  they  neede 
not  goe  so  farre  for  them)  so  they  would  doe  as 
Salomon,  live  in  peace  with  their  neighbours  and  build 
the  Temple  at  home :  which  had  they  done,  much  of 
this  our  paper  Navie  of  Tharshish  had  not  beene, 
neither  had  their  Gaditane  Tartessus  become  a  pray  to 
Her  Navie  of  Tarshish,  who  in  her  daies  was  filia 
Tarshish  indeede,  not  Venus  orta  Mari,  but  Cui  conjur 
ati  venere  ad  classica  venti,  who  defended  her  owne  at 
home,  by  home  invading,  by  hunting  her  enemies  round 
about  the  World.  Let  us  leave  the  Spaniards  magni- 
fying the  present  riches  of  their  Mines,  as  that  of 
Guadalcanal,  one  of  the  best  in  the  world  by  the  Kings 
Treasurer  reported  in  a  Letter  to  our  Author,  dated 
1607.  and  another  of  Francisco  Tesada  his  Sonne,  so 
farre  extolling  the  Spanish  (hee  names  divers)  beyond 
those  of  Potossi,  that  whereas  a  quintall  (that  is  1600. 
ounces)  of  Potosi  Ore,  or  earth  digged  up,  yeeldes  but 
an  ounce  and  halfe  of  pure  Silver,  most  of  the  Spanish 
yeelde  ten  ounces  of  a  quintall,  some  more  to  15.  30. 
60.  Markes,  each  of  eight  ounces.  It  is  fit  in  a  long 
tractate,  and  as  it  were  another  Voyage  to  Ophir,  to 
end  with  Mines :  and  fitter  in  Salomons  Ophir  to  end 
with  honorable  mention  of  our  Salomon,  who  without 
any  Hirams  helpe,  sent  her  servants  to  Ophir  and  Peru 



too,  and  round  about  the  universe  to  repaire  that 
Temple,  and  to  defend  the  Faith,  which  a  greater  then 
Salomon  had  by  her  in  England  restored  from  Baby- 
lonish captivitie :  which  the  greatest  powers  on  earth 
sought  in  vaine  to  hinder,  she  sailing  further  by  her 
servants,  raigning  longer  in  her  owne  person,  more 
glorious  in  her  last  daies,  then  Salomon,  and  leaving  a 
peaceable  Salomon  to  succeede  her  ;  yea  to  exceede, 
with  addition  of  another  Kingdome  ;  (not  a  Rehoboam, 
to  loose  the  greatest  part  of  the  former.)  Him  God 
defend  to  defend  his  faith  long  amongst  us,  with  Salo- 
mons vertue  and  Ophirian  magnificence.     Amen. 

Chap.    II.  [I.i.  49-] 

Mans  life  a  Pilgrimage.  The  Peregrinations  of 
Christ,  and  the  first  Encompassing  the  habit- 
able or  then  inhabited  World  by  the  holy 
Apostles  and  first  planters  of  the  Gospell. 

§.  I. 

Man  by  sinne  becomne  a  Worldly  Pilgrime ; 
Christs  Pilgrimage  in  the  flesh  to  recover  him : 
Mans  spirituall  Pilgrimage  in  and  from  the 

OD  which  in  the  beginning  had  made 
the  World,  and  endowed  Man  with  the 
Naturall  inheritance  thereof,  whom  also 
hee  made  another,  a  living  and  little 
World,  yea,  a  compendious  Image  of 
God  &  the  World  together :  did  in  the 
^fulnesse  of  time  send  his  owne  Sonne  ^  Gal.  4. 
(by  whom  hee  had  made  the  World  and  Man)  to  be 
made  a  Man  in  the  World,  that  he  might  make  new 
and  recreate  the  World  and  Man,  now  lost  &  vanishing 
to  perdition.  Which  salvation  first  accomplished  in  the 
infinit  worth  and  worthinesse  of  his  person  and  passion, 



He  committed  to  faithfull  witnesses,  giving  them  charge 
^  Marke  i6.  to  go*'  into  all  the  world  and  preach  the  Gospel  to  every 
'5-  creature,  that  by  those  Ministerial  conduits  (in  the  co- 

operation of  his  Spirit)  his  amiable  and  imitable  Example 
might,  as  the  loadstarre  of  Christians  be  proposed ;  his 
saving  vertue  as  heavenly  influence  infused ;  his  all- 
covering  and  al-curing  merits  imputed  to  his  beleeving 
members  by  spirituall  grace  to  prepare  them  to  super- 
caelestiall  Glory,  whither  Hee  is  before  ascended  as  our 
Priest  to  make  intercession,  and  as  a  King  in  humane 
flesh  to  take  possession  for  Us,  by  him  made  Kings 
and  Priests  unto  God. 

Thus  have  we  one  Author  of  the  World,  of  Man, 
of  Peregrinations  by  men  in  and  about  the  World.  The 
first  he  made  by  his  omnipotent  Word,  he  commanded 
and  in  sixe  dayes  this  huge  Fabrike  was  both  made  and 
furnished.  The  second  is  vouchsafed  greater  indulgence, 
in  preparation  premised  as  of  consultation,  Let  us  make 
"Gen.  1.26.  Man;  in  the  worke  doing ''j  as  of  a  Master-peece,  he 
y  2.  7.  22.  formed,  and  builded  ;  in  the  exemplar  or  prototype  in 
our  owne  image,  after  our  likenesse :  in  his  bountifuU 
portion,  the  Sea  and  earth  with  all  their  appurtenances, 
subjected  to  his  regall  possession,  the  heavens  with  their 
reall  influence  and  royall  furniture  to  his  wise  un-erring 

Thus  at  first ;  but  the  first  became  last,  by  setting  the 
last  first,  and  preferring  the  Creature  to  the  Creator,  and 
therefore  is  justly  turned  out  of  Paradise  to  wander,  a 
Pilgrime  over  the  world :  But  therefore  did  his  Creator 
(for  medicines  are  of  contraries)  preferre  this  Creature  to 
himselfe,  by  infinitenesse  of  humilitie  to  make  satisfaction 
for  his  unspeakable  pride;  and  hee  which  had  before 
made  Man  after  his  image,  makes  himselfe  after  mans 
image,  to  recover  that  which  was  lost.  Q  (piXavOpcoma  !  O 
amanda  &  admiranda  dignatio  !  propicious,  unspeakeable, 
superadmirable  bounty  !  The  World  he  made  that  he 
might  give  it  Man.  Man  he  made  such  as  might  be 
capable  of  the  world,  and  gave  him  now  a  double  world, 



adding  to  the  former  greater,  this  lesser  of  Mans  selfe. 

And  when  both  these  were  lost,  by  wilfull  Treason  and 

voluntary   actuall    rebellion,    that   he    might    forgive  the 

Traitor   He  gave   the  Prince,  who  to  Himselfe   forgave 

not    the    demerits    of  his   servant ;    nor  was   content  to 

regive  the  forfaited  world  of  creatures,  but  added  a  world 

supercelestiall,  where  fallen  regained  Man  might   supply 

the  roomes  of  fallen  forlorne*  Angels:  yea  Hee  restored  *  Folly  and 

lost  Man  to  himselfe  in  a  surer  and  nobler  possession :  '"'^'^''^^■^^  °f_ 

•  CtlVlB  £V€lt  111 

and  for  the  complement  of  Bounty  he  gave  to  this  lost  ^^^^^  ^^^^^^ 
Creature  the  Creators  selfe :  dedit  se  in  meritum,  dabit  cretures  taken 
se  in  prasmium.     In  this  unity  given  God  hath  observed  by  a  higher 
a  Trinity  of  giving.     Hee  gave  his  Sonne  unto  us,  doth  ^11^°"'^^" 
give  his  Spirit  into  us,  reserveth  Himselfe  for  us  to  be  craftlnesse! 
our    exceeding  ^  great    reward,   our  *  crown  of  glory   &  who  envying 
diadem  of  beautie  in  that  glory  where  we  *"  shall  see  him  as  man  his  Para- 
he  is,  and^  God   shall  be  all  in  all  unto  us.     Nor  was  j^^'/^^fj^'" 
this    a   six   daies   worke,   but  he  which  made  the  world  °andGodTyea, 
and   man   in   sixe   daies,   vouchsafed    to   be    made    Man,  kft  those 
indured  to  converse  with  sinners  more  then  halfe  sixtie  Thrones  and 
yeeres;    and    not   with    a    word    commanded    this    new  Ppn^ipaltties 
creation  to  be  made,  but  the  Word  was  commanded  (&  °<^^  ^and^^  ^' 
dixit''  multa  &  gessit  mira   &   petulit  dura)    God   over  Thrones  to  bee 
all  blessed  forever  was  made  obedient'  to  the  death,  even  byGodsmerde 
the  death  of  the  Crosse,  and  was  made  ^  a  curse  for  us,  recovered  and 
to  redeeme  us   from  the  Curse,  and  to  make  us   heires  ^/^^"'^X/?/ 
of  blessednesse.  _  they  had  made 

This    was    indeede   the  greatest  of  all    peregrinations,  sinful, 
when    the  word   was   made  flesh  and  (leaving  in  a  sort  y^^'-  >5-  i- 
his    heavenly    Country,    and    his    Fathers    house)    dwelt  f  ^  ^"^^'^^  •  5- 
amongst    us.      The    next    remote    peregrination    was    his  g  /  Qq^..  15. 
ascention  from  the  lower  parts  of  the  Earth  (where  also  ^  Ber.  de 
his  life  was  a  certaine  uncertaine  pilgrimage,  farre""  above  ^^h-  F>eo. 
all  heavens,  to  leade  captivitie  captive,  and  give  gifts  to  ^^^'^  ^• 
Men.     And  he  gav6  some  Apostles,  and  some  Prophets,  j-j  j  '^oj 
and  some  Evangelists,  and  some  Pastors  and  Teachers,  ^jo.  i. 
By  whom  in  the  worke    of  the   Ministery  is  effected  a  "^Eph.i..^,^. 
double  remote  Peregrination;  one  in  us,  when  we  travel   ^°'  ^^• 


"  Jmb. 



1.  2. 











from  our  selves,  that  each  man  might  say  to  his  corrupt 
corrupting  flesh  (as  that  traveller  to  his  quondam  Mis- 
tresse",  seeking  after  his  returne  to  renew  her  dissolute 
acquaintance,  and  saying,  when  she  saw  him  strange  as 
if  he  knew  her  not,  Ego  sum  ?  Tis  I :  At  ego  non 
sum  ego,  answered  he,  I  am  not  I  now)  I  travell  in  birth 
till  *  Christ  be  formed  in  me,  and,  I  live  °  not  but  Christ 
lives  in  me,  that  I  may  ^  deny  my  selfe  and  take  up  my 
crosse  and  follow  him.  The  other  is  when  wee  put 
off  our  earthly  tabernacle,  and  departing  from  this  house 
of  clay,  whose  foundation  is  in  the  dust,  arrive  in  the 
faire  havens  of  Heaven,  in  the  quire  of  Angels  and 
triumphant  societie  of  the  Heavenly  first  borne.  And 
thus  is  Mans  whole  life  a  Pilgrimage,  either  from  God 
as  Cains,  or  from  himselfe  as  Abels,  and  all  the  Saints 
which  confessed  themselves  Pilgrims  on  the  earth,  and 
* Heb.w.iG.  to*  seeke  another  Country  that  is,  a  heavenly.  Unto 
Ps.  39.  12.  this  spirituall  and  celestiall  peregrination,  was  subordinated 
that  bodily,  of  those  first  Evangelists  unto  all  Nations 
thorow  the  World  to  plant  the  Church  and  settle  it  on 
'^Mat.z\.\\.  her  foundation,  which  also  in  their  'i times  was  effected 
Mark.ib.ult.  according  to  the  Prophesie  and  precept  of  our  Saviour, 
whose  peregrinations,  if  wee  had  all  the  particulars,  were 
alone  sufficient  to  yeelde  a  large  Volumne  of  Voyages. 

Christ  indeede    vouchsafed,    even    in   literall  sense,   to 

honour  peregrinations  in  his  owne  person,  whose  blessed 

Mother     soone     after     his     conception     travelled    from 

Nazareth   in   Galilee,    into    the   hill   Countries  of  Judaea, 

to    her    cousin    Elizabeth,    and    after   her   returne   is    by 

' Luk.  2.         Cassars  Edict  brought  back  that  in""  an  Inne  at  Bethlehem, 

"■Mat.  2.         this  Pilgrime  might  in  a  Pilgrimage  bee  borne,  the  ^  Gov- 

ernour  of  his  people  Israel,  that  is  of  spirituall  Pilgrimes. 

And  there  from  a  remote  place  by  Pilgrimes  of  the  East 

is    he    visited ;    and   how    soone  is   his   infancy  forced  to 

an   Egyptian   peregrination  }  how   restlesse   and  manifold 

were    his    after-peregrinations    in     Galilee,     Samaria,     the 

Wildernesses  and  Cities  of  Judaea  in  the  Coasts  of  Tyre 

^Mat.  9.35.   and   Sidon,  in  Decapolis  by  Sea,  by  Land,  'going  about 



all  the  Cities  and  Villages,  teaching  and  preaching,  and 
healing  every  disease  among  the  people,  till  the  Heavens 
received  him  into  a  certaine  rest.  But  my  Pen  is  un- 
worthy to  follow  his  foot-prints. 

§.  II. 

How  Apostles  differed  from  Bishops  :   their  preach- 
ing the  Gospell  to  all  Nations. 

I  Is   Apostles  as  they   differed   from    others  in  im-  ^"^^  Belkr- 
mediate  vocation,  to   Evangelicall  Ministery,  and  ^^^"^^  ^ -"//^/l 
infallible  revelation  of  the  Evangelicall  mysterie ;  touching  the 
so    in    the    unbounded  limits  of  their  Mission   unto  all  Pope  and 
the    world  :     whereas    other    ordinary    commissions    and  Bishops  suc- 
callings    are    (though   of  God,   yet)   by   Men;   nor  have  "j'^l"figf\^^ 
priviledge  of  unerring  illumination;  and  must  take  heede  yf^y/  Torti p. 
to  the  severall  flockes  over  which  the  holy  Ghost  hath ""  set  248.  and  hozv 
them    overseers :     whence    also   Episcopall    Churches  are  improperly 
called  Cathedrall,  and  sees,  from  their  sitting''  or  teaching      fPP  " 

/    ^  \        *  ■y  ■%    •  /^1  *  11        Called  OtlT 

(that   being   the   preachmg   posture   or  the  ancients    both  jp^^^ig  .^z.. 
Jewes  and  Christians)  in  their  speciall  places  of  charge,    ^  Acts  zo.z'i. 

Well   therefore   did  Saint  Gregorie''   Bishop  of  Rome  f^f^o  eVio-Ko- 
hold  the  title  Oecumenicall  incompetible  to  a  Bishop,  and  "^Uat.  z^.z. 
Antichristian  :  and  as  ill  have  his  Successors  in  that  See   ^5.1.  Luk. 
swelled    over    all    Episcopall    bankes    into    Titles,    and  4-  20. 
universalitie  Apostolicall.  J^h    ^' 

The  Apostles  were  not  all  in  all  places,  and  sometimes  d  ^i^i_  ^^,._ 
as  in  consideration  of  divine  blessing  upon  Pauls  Minis-  andiRat.l.z. 
tery    amongst    the    Gentiles,*"    as  of  Peters   amongst  the  in  principw. 
Jewes,    they    did    especially    employ    themselves    where     ^^  ■'^-   '  7- 
they    saw    their    labours    most    fruitfuU,    in    which    re- 
spect some  setled  their  longer  abode  in  certayne  Cities, 
and  some  scarsly  departed  from  Jerusalem,  whiles  others 
of  them  went^  forth  and  preached  every  where,  and  the     Mar.\6.\o. 
Gospell  was^  in  all  the  world  (not  vertually,  but  actually)  2 CV.  1.6,23. 
and  was  fruitfull,  and  was  preached  unto  every  creature 
under  Heaven,  that  is  in  Saint  Matthewes  phrase,  to''  all  ^^Mat.  28. 
Nations,  or  to  all  sorts  of  men.     After  which  Embassage 



Rom.  II.  12. 

Sulp.  Sever. 

1.    2. 

Idem  Bed.  in 
Mat.  13. 
[I.  i.  51.]  Rom. 
Pont.  I.  3.^.4. 
Lessus  de  An- 
tich.  d.  8. 

^Rom.  II. 

""Luk.  2.  I. 

wacav  TT]i' 

°  Acts  2.  5. 

accomplished,  the  Temple  as  Christ  had  prophesied, 
and  all  the  Legall  Ceremonies,  which  dyed  in  the  death 
of  our  Saviour,  received  a  more  solemne  then  honourable 
Funerall,  by  the  revenging  Romane ;  Divine  Providence 
ordering  that '  The  fall  of  the  Jewes  should  bee  the  riches 
of  the  World,  and  the  diminishing  of  them  the  riches  of 
the  Genetiles  ;  and  preventing  the  revolting  of  weaklings, 
which  seeing  those  things  to  remaine,  which  the  Prophets 
had  built,  and  God  had  ordayned,  might  in  a  Judaizing 
retire,  embrace  the  shadow  for  the  bodie,  and  preferre  the 
dazeling  lustre  of  carnall  shewes  to  the  synceritie  of  faith 
and  spirituall  truth :  Nimirum  id  Domino  "^  ordinante 
dispositum  ut  legis  servitus  (saith  Sulpitius)  a  libertate 
fidei  atque  Ecclesis  tolleretur. 

And  that  this  was  accordingly  in  the  Apostles  daies 
effected,  we  have  not  onely  generall  testimonies  of  the 
Ancients,  but  the  particular  Regions  and  peoples 
mentioned  and  acknowledged  elsewhere  by  that  genera- 
tion,*  which  in  the  question  of  Antichrist  hence  raise  a 
demonstration,  (no  lesse  still  serves  them,  their  Geese 
are  all  Swans)  that  he  is  not  yet  comne,  because  the 
Gospel  is  not  yet  preached  thorow  the  World.  Neither 
doe  we  seeke  advantages  of  the  word  World,  as  it  is 
used  in  opposition  to  the  narrow  limits  of  Judaea,  where 
the  Church  in  her  nonage  was  impounded,  and  as  it 
were  swadled  in  that  cradle  of  her  Infancy  (so  you  even 
now  read  the  fall""  of  the  Jewes  the  riches  of  the  World.) 
Nor  in  a  Roman  challenge,  wherein  Rome  pretends  her 
selfe  Head  of  the  World,  in  the  stile  of  her  quondam 
Emperours  (succeeded  and  exceeded  therein  by  her 
Moderne  Prelate)  one  of  which  decreed  in  the  Edict 
above  intimated,  That"  all  the  World  should  bee  taxed; 
which  World  was  no  more  then  the  Roman  Empire,  as 
since  also  the  petty  Councells  Papall  are  called  Oecu- 
menicall  (even  that  of  Trent)  and  the  Church  of  Christ, 
in  a  strange  Babylonian  contradiction,  Catholike-Roman  : 
Nor  yet  in  a  figurative  Hyperbole,  as  that  seemes 
spoken    of  the    Jewes    at    Jerusalem    of  every  °   Nation 



under  Heaven,  which  heard  the  Apostles  in  their  severall 
Languages,  uttering  the  great  things  of  God.     But  their 
sound  P  went  over  all   the    Earth,   and    their   words    to  ^ Rom. lo.iS. 
the  ends  of  the  World,  is  true  of  the  heavenly  Bodies, 
and    these    heavenly    Messengers  ;    Neither    can    any   of 
the  World  bee  shewed  then  inhabited,  that  is,  no  Nation 
of  the  World,  whereof  wee  have  not  plaine  History,  or 
apparant  probability,  that  the  Gospel  had  there   sounded 
before  that  generation  of  the  Apostles  passed.     Whereof 
as    wee    have    alleadged    Divine    both    prophecie    before, 
and  testimonie  after  the  fulfilling:    so  our  Ecclesiasticall 
Authors  are   herein   plentifull.      Thus   doth  Saint   Chry- 
sostome  "^    interprete    that    prophecie    of    our     Saviour,  ^  CArys.  in 
Matthew  24.  to  have  beene  fulfilled  before  the  destruc-  Mat.hom.-jS. 
tion   of  Jerusalem,   and   proves   it   by  the  fore-alleadged 
places,   Romans    10.    18,   Colossians    i.   6.   and    23.     So 
Theophilact ""     after     him.        So     Saint     Hilarie '     Cum  '  Tkeoph.  in 
universis    fuerit    cognitio     Sacramenti    coelestis     invecta,  ^^^-  f+*^^* 
tum     Hierusalem     occasus    &    finis    incumbent:     Then   q^^'^"^ 
shall  bee  the  end  of  Jerusalem,  when  the  knowledge  of 
the   heavenly   Mysterie   hath    beene    carried   to   all    men. 
So     Tertullian,^    Beda,    Euthimius,     Lyranus,    Tostatus,  'Temlde 
Jansenius,  Barradius,  and  others  cited  by  the  Reverend  '*^^*^-  ^''.J" 
and    learned    Bishop    Downam,    to    whom   I    referre    the  ^j)Q^^,„^  jg ' 
Reader.     And   how  else   had    they  executed    their  com-  Antich.  part. 
mission  to  all  Nations,  if  this  mission  had  not  succeeded.''  2.  ad  Lessii. 
For   if  by  succession   of  after  Popes    or   Bishops ;    then  '^^'^-  ^-  f'^" 
ought  that  gift  of  tongues   to  have  continued  or  beene  ^^J^ 
restored,  and  that  of  immediate  revelation,  whereby  the  Hleron.  Am- 
glory  of  the  Worlds  conversion  might  be  Gods  peculiar,  bros.  Theod. 
and    not    diminished    by  the  arts  (nor   by  the   acts   and  Ignatius  l^c. 
labours    alone)    of    Men."      Ad    quid    enim    necessariae  p^^^^^"' 
linguas    gentium    nisi    ad    conversionem    gentium  .''     And  x  Qg„g},^ 
Genebrard''  accordingly  affirmes  that  whiles  the  Apostles  Chron.  An. 
lived,  in  thirtie  yeeres  space  at  most,  the  Gospell  (which  4+- 
hee  calls  the  Faith  of  the  Romans)  was  divulged  thorow 
the    World,    even    all    the    most    remote    Nations    and 
barbarous.      Hereof    he    citeth    witnesses    (besides    the 



^ Acts  8.  I. 
y  II.  19. 

Acts  10.  13. 

Gal.  2.  6,  7. 

^  Acts  6. 1 .  y 

I .  Pet.  1 1 . 
^Jo.  7.  35. 
V'td.  Jos.  Seal. 
Annot  hi 
Euseh.p.  124. 
y  Can.  Lag. 
pag.  278. 

^  Sctf/.  cont. 
Serar.  trib. 

^  Acts  6.  9. 

former)     Clement     Alexand.     Justin     Martyr,     Irenaeus, 
Origen,  Cyprian,  and  the  Prophecie  of  Esay.  c.   66. 

§.   III. 

The  peregrination  of  Saint  Peter. 

E     see     the     persecution     which     began     against 

Stephen     proceeded     to     the     dispersion    of    the 

Disciples^     into     the     Regions     of    Judaea     and 

Samaria,  and  Phaenice,  Cyprus,  and  Antioch  (where  they 

first    heard    the    name    Christians:)     Peter   also    warned 

by   vision,  breakes   the  partition  wall,   and   preacheth   to 

Cornelius^   and    other   Gentiles,   unto  whom   soone  after 

Paul    and    Barnabas    receive    larger    commission.      Saint 

Peter    also     (as    Ecclesiasticall    writers    testifie)     besides 

Palestina,   Syria,   and   the   Regions  adjoyning   to   Judaea, 

preached    the  Gospell  in   Antiochia,  and    after  in    Rome 

(in    both    which    places    they    constitute    and    celebrate 

his    Episcopall    Chaire)    in    Pontus,    Galatia,   Cappadocia, 

Asia,  Bithynia,  to  whom  is  inscribed   his  former  Epistle, 

that  is,  to  the  dispersion  of  the  Jewes,  in  those  Regions, 

he   being   principally  the  Apostle   of'=   the    Circumcision. 

For    the    Jewes    were    divided    into    three    sorts,    the 

Hebrewes    (which    were    the    inhabitants    of    Palestina) 

and  the  scattered  strangers,  which  were  either  Hellenists, 

Siacnropd  EXXr/i/wjv,  or  ^  Suxa-Tropd  Ba^uXwj^o?,  the  remainders 

of  the   Babylonish    deportation  which   still   continued    in 

those    parts,    when    others    returned,    and    from    thence 

were  occasionally  dispersed  afterwards.     The   Metropolis 

of   these  was    Babylon,    of  the    former  Alexandria.     Of 

this  sort  were  the  Italian,  Egyptian  and   Grecian  Jewes, 

which  used  the   Greeke  tongue   in   their  Synagogues,  in 

which    also    they  read    the    Scriptures    translated    by  the 

seventie    two    Interpreters  :    yea    they  were    ignorant    of 

the    Hebrew,    as     Scaliger    affirmes^    of    Josephus    and 

Philo,  two  of  their  most  learned  :   they  had  a  Synagogue 

at    Jerusalem,    (called^   of    the    Alexandrians)    of  which 

were    those    Disputers    against   Stephen.     Of  the    Baby- 



Ionian    dispersion    were    the    Jewes    in    Asia,    to    whom 
Saint    Peter    wrote    that    Epistle    from    Babylon.     And 
although    Baroniuss    and    our    Rhemists    out    of  divers  ^  Baron,  torn. 
Ancients  labour  to  proove   by  Babylon   in   that   place  of  J"  p/^/'^^/i^, 
Peter,   to  bee   ment    Rome,   that   some   Scripture    might   y  ;j^'^^' 
testifie    his    beeing    there    at    least    (though    little    could  Annot.on those 
thence   be   inferred  a  25.  yeeres   Episcopality,  and  lesse,  words  {the 
ApostoHke   succession,   and   least    of  all    an    approbation   ^H'-^iJi^alu- 
of  later   novelties    successively  hatched    in   the    last    and  teth'you.) 
worst  ages  (yea  the  current   of  the   Jesuites  argue  (not  Bellarm.  de 
say  onely)  that  Rome  is  the  mysticall  and  Apocalypticall  ^-  P-  ^^^era 
Babylon,  and   cry  out   upon   us   for  unhonest   partiality,  p^  \\z\ 
that    there    acknowledge    it,    here    in    Peter  disclaime   it, 
not    considering  what   a   hooke   they   swallow    with    this 
baite  :     yet    because     that     Epistle     of    Saint    Peter'     is  '  See  this 
delivered   in   litterall   and   not   mysticall   forme,   like   the  Z^rlS°'^'^ 
Apocalyps,  and  because  that  opinion  ot  ir'eters  hve   and  j>^ainold.  Ch. 
twenty    yeeres    Bishopricke    delivered    by    Eusebius,     is  6. 
manifestly    repugnant    to    the    Scriptures  ;     and    because 
that    some    of  the    Romanists ''    themselves    differ    from  '^  Onuph  in 
the   received   opinion    as    incredible,  as    '  Onuphrius    and  P{'^^-  ^^^"-  3- 
Genebrard,    and    Marianus    Scotus    also    alleadgeth    out  V^J^'^^.^^^ 
of  Methodius  that  Peter  preached  at  Babylon,   to  which  ^„  ^2.  Baby 
hee    also    addeth    Corinth    and    almost    all    Italic,    and  hniam  verba 
because   the  Ancients'"    received   that   conceit   of  Papias,  pr^dicatioms 
a    man    of    no    great    judgement,    as    appeared    by    the  !,f^^^^^J^^J^;^ 
Millenary  fancie    derived   from    his   tradition  :    though    I  Ec.Lz'.ca.\\. 
will    not    meddle   with    that    controversie,  whether  Peter 
were    ever    at    Rome,    or    no,    the    negative    whereof   in 
whole    bookes  Velenus    and    Bernard    have    written,    yet  "  U/ricus 
I  cannot  beleeve  but  that  he  wrote  that  of  and   in   the  f'^^^enus  his 
Chaldaea    Babylonia.     The    rather   because    that   was    the    "Jifl^-Fishei 
Metropolis  of  the  Asian   dispersion  (as   is   said)  &   that  his  answer, 
it    wel    agrees    with    the    prime    Apostle    to    execute    his  printed  at 
Apostolicall    mission     to     remote     and     many    Nations,   ^"^■^erpe 
especially  to  the  Circumcision   (whose  peculiar  Apostle  °  I  ^q^j  ^  ^ 
he  was)  in  all  Countries  where   they  were   scattered,   as 
appeares   by   his   care   of  the   Hellenists    and  Alexandria 



"^Nicep.  Cal. 
Ec.  hist.  I.  2. 

c-  35- 

'^Metaph.  in 
29.  Jun. 

'  Onup/i.  ad 
Pla.  in  Vita 

^  In  Ckoropis- 
copos  sive  co- 
adjutores  suos 
instituit.  pere- 
deinde  per 
iotamferi  Eu- 
ropam  sus- 

'Hier.  de 
Eccles.  in 
^ Iren.  I.  t,.  c. 


*  Eus.  Chron. 
y  hist.  I.  3. 
c.  19. 
""Iren.ubi  sup. 

^  Rufin.  pre- 
fat.  recognit 
Clem,  ad 

'  Epipha.  hoer. 

their  Mother  Citie,  where  he  placed,  as  Authors  affirme, 
Saint  Marke  the  first  Bishop ;  and  because  Ecclesiasticall 
writers  affirme  that  he  preached  ubique  fere  terrarum, 
almost  all  the  world  over  (so  p  Nicephorus)  breviter  in 
totius  Asias  &  Europae  oris,  omnibusque  adeo  qui  in 
dispersione  erant  Judaeis  &  Graecis  &c.  '^  Metaphrastes 
affirmeth  that  after  the  Church  of  Rome  and  many 
others  set  in  order,  Saint  Peter  went  to  Carthage  in 
Africa.  ""  Onuphrius  acknowledging  his  Roman  See,  yet 
will  have  him  a  Non  resident  (if  not  an  Apostle  rather) 
not  to  abide  there,  but  findes  him  in  that  five  and 
twenty  yeeres  space  at  Jerusalem,  after  that  at  Antioch, 
seven  yeers  together,  whence  he  came  to  Rome  and 
reformed  that  Church,  constituted  Linus  and  Cletus 
his  "^  Suffragans  or  Coadjutors ;  and  travelling  thence 
thorow  the  most  part  of  Europe,  at  his  returne  to 
Rome,  was  there  crucified. 

Thus  in  a  larger  sense  of  the  word  Bishop,  might 
Peter  bee  stiled  Bishop  of  Rome,  as  having  care  to 
oversee  that  as  a  principall  Church,  not  neglecting 
meane  while  his  Apostleship,  to  which  properly  belonged 
the  care  of  all  Churches.  And  hence  is  that  diff^erent 
reckoning  of  the  Roman  Bishops,  '  Hierom  reckoning 
Peter  the  first,  Linus  second,  Cletus  the  third,  Clemens 
the  fourth.  But  Irenaeus"  nameth  Linus  the  first 
Bishop,  Cletus  the  second,  &:c.  The  like  diff*erence  is 
in  the  See  of  Antioche  twixt  Hierom  and  *  Eusebius, 
the  one  beginning  with  Euodius,  the  other  with  Peter, 
which  sheweth  their  opinion  that  Peter  preached  in  both 
places  as  an  Apostle,  not  as  Bishop  in  proper  sense. 
So  Irenasus,  ^  the  two  Apostles  (Peter  and  Paul)  having 
founded  the  Roman  Church,  committed  the  Bishoply 
charge  thereof  to  Linus:  and  Rufinus%  that  Linus 
and  Cletus  were  Bishops  while  Peter  lived,  that  they 
might  have  the  care  of  the  Bishoply  charge  (Episcopatus 
curam)  and  he  might  doe  Apostolatus  Officium,  the 
dutie  of  the  Apostleship  :  &  ^  Epiphanius,  in  Roma 
fuerunt    primi    Petrus    &    Paulus    Apostoli    iidem     ac 



Episcopi,  deinde  Linus,  &c.     Peter  and  Paul  were  both 

Apostles  and  Bishops  in  Rome  ;  and  after  other  wordes 

of  doubt    touching    Clemens    his    being    Bishop    in    the 

times    of  Linus    and    Cletus,   all  of  them   living   in   the 

same   times   while   Peter  and   Paul   were   Bishops,   saith, 

propter   a    quod   Apostoli    saepe    ad    alias    terras   ablega- 

bantur  propter  Christi  praedicationem,  non  potuit  autem 

urbs    Romae    esse    sine    Episcopo.     That    the    Apostles 

went    often    into    other   Countries    to    preach   Christ,    in  *  So  Damasus 

which    meane    while    Rome    could    not    bee    without    a  in  Pontif. saith 

*Bishop.     For    the    Apostolicall    function    enjoyned    an  tf^'^!  Pf^^r- 

r  ^    .       t-  ,  ^     -^    ■'  AJ    dained  Linus 

universall ;    the    Episcopall,    a    particular    charge.     And  ^  Qlg^^^^  ^^^ 

as    the    greater   Office    includes   the   lesse,   as   the   Office  presentialiter 

of  the  Lord  Chancellour,  or  Lord  Cheefe  Justice,  or  any  omne  minis- 

Councellor  of  State,  containeth  the  authority  of  a  Justice  J™  '^'^^- 

of    peace    in    each    shire,    with    larger    extension     and  g^hij^^rent. 

intension  of  power,   and   a   diocesan    Bishop   the    Minis-  jnd  Gene- 

teriall  function  in  any  pastorall  charge  in    his   Diocesse,  brard.An.%\. 
which  the  Parson  or  Curate  must  yeelde  to  him  being  fth  of  Linus 

111  1  J  ..  3  y  Lletus,  eos 

present,   and    pleased    to    supply  and    execute  :    so,   ana  p^^^.^^  ^^^^._ 

more  then   so,   the  Apostolicall   comprehends   the   Epis-  episcopos  sive 
copall   commission,  as  lesse  :   and   the  Apostles  were   in  coadjutores 
this    respect    Bishops   wheresoever    they    came,    not    by  f  "^!'-  ^ 
ordmary  constitution,  but  by  a  higher  and  extraordinary  ^^^^^^^^  ^q 
function  :    to   whom   other   Bishops   are   successours   not  /,/„,„  coepis- 
in    the    Apostleship    strictly    taken,    but    as    Bishop    to  copus  sub. 
Apostles,    as    Justices    of  peace    in    their   limits    to    the  PetroApostolo 
1  .1  r^  •     •  ' ^\  J-  r     Ti-  <-   extenora 

higher    Commissions    either    ordinary    as    ot     Itinerant  ^^^^^-^  ^^ 

Justices,  or  extraordinarie  by  speciall  commission  on  -,o.  Cletus 
speciall  occasions  constituted,  in  part,  not  in  all  their  coepiscopus 
authoritie.  successit  after 

We   shall   launch   into   a  Whirle-poole   if  we  proceede  ^^^.j^7  o«/  of 
to   declare   Peters   Successors   (as   some   call   the  Bishops  p^pg  '^^^^  ^^^ 
of  Rome)  the   Fathers    themselves    disagreeing    in    their  Post  Petrum, 
Catalogues.     So  farre  off  were  they  from  making  Papall  imkum  Petro, 
succession    an    essentiall   either   Note   of  the   Church,  or  ^^^"Qll^^^g_ 
ground  and  rule  of  Faith.     But  for  their  preaching  the  „,^„^f„  ^y^^-^ 
Gospell  thorow  the  World,  all  Bishops  are  all  Apostles  eccles. 
I  145  ^ 


[I.  i.  53-] 

successours,  these  in  their  limited,  those  in  an  universall 
Commission  ;  which  either  they  performed,  or  not :  if 
they  did  not,  it  was  disobedience,  as  in  Sauls  expedition 
against  Amalek :  if  they  could  not,  it  was  impotence, 
and  the  command  of  preaching  to  all  Nations,  impleadeth 
defect  in  the  Commander,  who  is  the  wisdome  of  God, 
and  the  power  of  God.  His  wisdome  appeared  also 
together  with  his  power  in  giving  them  tongues,  and 
not  onely  healthfuU  constitution  of  body,  but  miraculous 
transportation  and  power,  Natures  defects  not  hindring 
the  effects  of  Grace,  as  appeareth  in  the  story  of  Philip 
and  the  Eunuch,  Acts  8.  of  Pauls  surviving  a  stoning, 
John  the  scalding  in  Oyle,  and  others  other  difficulties, 
mentioned  in  part,  both  in  Divine  and  Ecclesiasticall 
History.  Neither  have  Miracles  and  tongues  necessary 
to  such  a  conversion,  ever  since  happened,  nor  have 
we  promise  that  they  ever  shall.  Nor  was  it  ever 
meeter  that  the  New  King  should  be  proclaimed, 
then  when  having  led  captivitie  captive,  he  ascended 
on  high,  and  tooke  possession  of  his  supercaelestiall 
throne  :  the  Apostles  herein  doing  that,  for  the 
heavenly  Salomon  with  spirituall  magnificence,  which 
Nathan,  Zadock  and  others  had  done  for  the  typicall 
Salomon,  by  Davids  appointment.  The  universall 
Ceremonies  being  the  same  in  the  whole  Church,  and 
such  as  no  generall  Councell  could  determine,  argue  the 
unitie  of  the  spirit  in  the  Apostolicall  preaching,  Thus 
as  we  have  partly  shewed  in  all,  and  particularly  shewed 
in  Peter  for  his   part,   we  will  declare  of  the   rest. 

§.  nn. 

Of  Saint   Andrew,  John,  the   two  Jacobi,  Philip, 
and  Simon  Zelotes. 

*  Dorat. 


^  Ap,  Huron. 

Catol  scrip. 


Ndrew  the  brother  of  Saint    Peter,  as  ^Dorotheus 
and   Sophronius   ^testifie    preached    to    the    Scy- 
thians,   Sogdians,    and    Sacae,   and    to    the    inner 
or  Savage  Ethiopians ;  was   buried  at   Patrae   in  Achaia, 



being  crucified  by  TEgCcLS  Governour  of  the  Edesens. 
Nicephorus  "writeth  that  he  travelled  into  Cappadocia,  "Nk.  hist.Ec. 
Galatia,  and  Bithynia,  and  thence  to  the  Countrey  of  ^*  ^-  ^'  39- 
the  Anthropophagi,  or  Man-eaters,  and  to  the  Wilder- 
nesses of  the  Scythians,  to  both  the  Euxine  Seas,  and 
to  the  Southerne  and  Northerne  Coasts,  as  also  to  By- 
zantium now  called  Constantinople,  where  hee  ordained 
Stachys  Bishop :  after  which,  hee  went  thorow  Thrace, 
Macedonia,  Thessalia,  and  Achaia.  That  hee  was  sent 
to  the  Scythians,  Baronius  prooveth  out  of  Origen,  '^and  ^Orig.inGe. 

Eusebius ;    and    out    of    Nazianzene  *"    his    descent    into  ^i^- 

r^        •  J    T7    •  Euseb.  hist.  I. 

(jrascia  and  iLpirus.  ^  ^ 

"  Greg.  Naz. 

SAint  John   his  banishment  into  Pathmos,  and  Epistles  Orat.  in 

to  the  seven  Churches  of  Asia  (which  TertuUian  '^cals  ^f'"^"- 

Joannis  alumnas  Ecclesias)  are  extant  in  his  owne  Writ-  cont^Man 

ings.     Irenaeus    ^and    many    other    mention    his    labours  ^ 

at    Ephesus,    Prochorus,   ^(his    supposed    Disciple)    hath  ^^Prochor.  in 

written  a  Historie  of  his  Asian  Peregrination,  his  actions  f"''-  ^-  ^°'^"- 

at  Ephesus,  his  passions  at  Rome,  whither  hee  was  sent,  ^"    '  ^°^  ' 
and  in   other  places,  but  his  authoritie  is  no  better  then 

of   a    Counterfeit,  as    Baronius  'hath    also   branded   him,  'Baron,  to.  i. 
Of  this    nature  we    find    many  counterfeit    Gospels    and         ^^' 
Journals,    or    Histories    of   the    Apostles    acts,    censured 
by    the    Ancients,    the    Devill    then    labouring    to    sowe 
his    tares    in    the    Apostolicall    Historie,    which    in    after 
Ages,    Antiquitie     might     countenance     with     venerable 

authoritie.     Metaphrastes   ^  relateth    his    acts    in    Phrygia  ^  Metaph.  in 

and    Hierapolis:     That    he    preached    in    other    Regions  ^.^eptem. 

of     the     East,     Baronus    'affirmeth,     especially    to     the  ^Relat.exEp. 

Parthians,  to  whome    his    first    Epistle  was   inscribed   in  Jesuit,  an. 

ancient  Copies:  that   hee   converted   the  Bassorae,  is  still  ^555* 
holden  by  Tradition  amongst  them. 

J  Ames  the  brother  of  John  was  put  to  death  by  Herod 
to  please  the  Jewes,  ""a  wicked  Generation  not  pleas-  "^  Act.  12. 
ing    God,  and    contrary   to    all   men.     It   is   reported   of 
some,    that    before    his    death    he    travelled    as    farre    as 



Spaine,  and  there  preached  the  Gospel,  at  least  to  the 
"^  Bar.  Mart,  dispersed  Jewes,  Baronius  in  his  Martyrologe  "produceth 
Jul.  25.  ^   Booke   of  suspected   faith   attributed  to   Isidore,  testi- 

fying his  preaching  to  the  Nations  of  Spaine,  and  of 
the  Westerne  Regions ;  and  the  Breviarie  of  Toledo, 
in  which  are  these  Verses,  Regens  Joannes  dextra  solus 
Asiam,  Et  laeva  frater  positus  Hispaniam,  &c.  the  testi- 
monies also  of  Beda,  Turpinus  and  others.  All  the 
"  Churches  in  Spaine,  hee  saith,  °hold  the  same  opinion. 
an.  44.  Yet  is  he  uncertaine,  and  so  leaves  his   Reader,  because 

of   that    untimely    timelinesse    of  his    death.     It    is    not 
likely  that    the  Apostleship    and    office   of   preaching   to 
all    Nations,   and    the    name   of  the    Sonne   of  Thunder 
was    given    to    him    by    Him,    which    as    easily    infuseth 
.         the    vertue    as    imposeth    the    name,    and    foreknew    the 
tribtibusln      ^imes    and    seasons    of  his  life   and   death,  but   that   the 
dispersione        sequell  was  answerable. 

constituth.  His    hastie   death    argues    his   forward    courage,   as   of 

catalog.  j^jj^  which   stood   in   the   forefront   of  the  battle.     That 

?<?r5«.    ojo-  ^      preached  to  the  dispersed  tribes  Phath  many  authors: 
the.  bynopsts.       ,\.,,.  i^ir  t  1  o- 

Mermannii      that   his   bodie  was   brought   rrom   Jerusalem   to   bpame, 

tkeatrum,  l^c.  the   Romane   Martyrologe,   and  the   Popes  Callistus  and 

"^Euseb.  hist.    Innocentius  are  cited  bv  Baronius. 

n%  Abd.l.'d.  'T^He  other  James  called  Alphaei  and  Oblias,  and 
'  Hier.  de-  JL  Justus,  and  the  brother  of  our  Lord  (either  because 
script.  Eccles.  ^g  ^^s  the  sonne  of  Joseph  by  a  former  wife,  according 
[1.  1.  54.]  ^^  Eusebius,'!  or  because  his  Mother  was  sister  to  the 
/.  20.  c.  8  Blessed  Virgin,  as  Saint  Jerome'  rather  thinketh)  was 
'  Talmud.  a  man  famous  for  Sanctitie  and  Devotion  amongst  the 
Bab.  de  Idol.  Jewes  by  the  testimonie  of  Josephus,^  which  imputeth 
'^k^-' hi^^h"^"^  to  his  cruell  and  unjust  murther,  the  terrible  desolation 
which  soone  after  befell  that  Nation.     And  the  Talmud 

1  a.. 

*SoHieroni.    both    of  'Jerusalem     and     Babylon,    mention     him    as    a 
but  Euseb.  I.    worker  of  Miracles  in  the  Name  of  Jesus. 
2.  c.  12.  hath       Hegesippus    a    man    neere    the    Apostles    times,    saith 
TJteris'jpos-   ^^  ^^"^»  Suscepit  Ecclesiam  Hierosolymae*  post  Apostolos 
toHs.  frater    Domini    Jacobus     cognomento    Justus    Sec.     Of 



which  wordes   this   seemes   the   sense,  That   whereas   the 
Apostles  by  common  consent  in  a  just  Aristocratic  had 
governed   the   Church   of  Christ,   residing   at  Jerusalem, 
untill    the    time    of  their    dispersion    to    divers    parts   of 
the  World,  (which  as  Eusebius''  citeth  out  of  ApoUonius,  "  Euseb.  hist. 
was    the   twelfth   yeere  after   Christs   Passion)   they  then  '^•5-^-i7- 
betaking  them  to  their  severall  Provinces,  jointly  agreed 
to   leave  James   the  Just  at  Jerusalem  for  the  regiment 
of  the    Church    both    there,  and    as    from    other    places 
of  the   World   occasions   were   offered   thorow  the   Uni- 
verse.    For    as  Jerusalem   was    farre''   the    famousest    of  ""  P/hi. /.  $.  c 
the    Cities    of  the    East,   not   of  Judaea    alone,   in   other  i-^/ongedariss. 
respects,    as    Plinie    hath    honoured    it;    so    in    Religion,  "^f//^'^„^'^' 
it   was   by  better  testimonie  called  the  ^  Holy  Citie,  and  /^^^^  mo^g^ 
the   Citie   of  the  great   King,  whose   Tabernacle^  was  in  yMat.^.^$. 
Salem    and    his    dwelling    in    Sion ;    not    in    the   time   of  ^Ps.76. 
the    Law,    but   of   the   Gospel    also ;    the    Law    of  the 
Lord   went  out   of  Sion,   as  ^Esay  had   prophesied,   and  "£/.  2.  3. 
the  Word   of  the   Lord  from  Jerusalem.     This  was  the 
Staple     of     Christian     Merchandize,     Emporium''     fidei  ^Cl.Espenc. 
Christians    (saith    Espencasus)    the     Mart    and    Mother  '"  ^-  '^''«-  +• 
of  the    Christian    Faith,    which    therefore    alway    needed 
some    grave    Father    to    be   the   principall   Factor  in   her 
Holy   affaires :    Hierusalem   was    before    her   destruction, 
the  Center  of  Christianitie,  whence  all  the  lines  of  Apos- 
tolicall  Missions  were  diffused  and  thither  againe  reduced ; 
the    Ocean,    whence    all    the    Ecclesiasticke''   streames    of  "  Ec.  i.  7. 
the  Evangelicall  waters  of  life  issued,  and  whither  they 
againe     returned  ;     Once     it    was     the    Senate-house     of 
Christian   Councels   and   Counsailes   for  all   Provinces   of 
Christianitie,    the     confluence    of    others,    but    specially 
of   the    Jewish    dispersions,    which    from    all    Countries 
comming     to     the     Legal     Feasts,    might     there     freight 
themselves    home    with    Festivall    wares    of   Evangelicall 
commodities.     Necessarie    it    was    therefore    that    some 
Apostolicall   Senator  and  principall  Apostle  should  there 
reside,  with   whom    in   all   difficulties   to   consult,  not  so 
much    as    Bishop    (in    proper    sense)    of    that    Citie,    as 



of  the  Jewes,  yea   and   as   opportunitie   served,  of  other 

Nations  thorow  the  whole  World.     This  was  that  James 

which  wrote   the   Epistle   bearing  his  name,  whom  Paul 

^Gal.  I.  19.    mentioneth     to     the     Galatians'^,    and     the    Acts^    often, 

^  Jet.  15.        especially  in    the   fifteenth    Chapter,  where   you  see   him 

*  The  other  president  of  the  first  Councell  (if  not  the  only  in  strictest 
general  Loun-  ^      r^  ^^\        r      \         a  i  r  u    • 

eels  were  sense  termed  (jenerall)  or  the  Apostles,  arter  their 
rather  of  the  Provinciall  dispersions  assembled  at  Jerusalem.  For  in 
Roman,  then  his  sentence  the  Councell  concludes ;  and  if  the  Apostles 
the  untversall  /  ^  ^|^^  Fathers  concurre)  had  committed  to  him  being 
bled b\  Roman  ^"  Apostle,  the  government  of  Jerusalem,  to  whom 
Emperors  might  the  Presidentship  of  Councels  in  that  place  apper- 
o^b-  taine,  rather  then  to  this  Apostolicall  Bishop  and  Bishoply 

Apostle,  to  whom  the   Lord  first  committed   his  throne 
^Ep.har.']%.  on    earth,   as    Epiphanius^   testifieth  .?     As   a    Deputie   or 
^  As  the  Pre-  President   resides  ^  in   one   Citie,  though  his  government 
sidentofTorke  j^g  j^q^.  there  confined,  but  extends  to  the  whole  Kingdome 
Province •" the  °^    Region,   so  was    it  with    this  Apostles   Bishoprike   at 
Fice-roy  of     Jerusalem,  from  that  high  Pinacle  to  oversee  and  provide 
Goa  for  all  the  for  the   affairs  of  the  Catholike  and  Universall  Church. 
Indies^  ISc.      From     that    high    pinacle    (in    another    sense    also)    was 
he   cast   downe,  stoned,  and   at   last  with  a  Fullers  Club 
brained    by   the  Jewes,  which   were    soone    in    a    terrible 
desolation    called    to   accounts   for   this  and   other  Apos- 
tolicall and  Propheticall  bloud,  yea  of  the  high  Prophet 
and    Apostle    of    our     salvation,    which    yet    the    Jewes 
attributed   to   this   Martyrdome   of  James,  as   lately  and 
neerely  preceding.    His  Successour  was  Simeon  his  brother, 
in  that  See  of  Jerusalem,  not  Simon  called  the  Cananite, 
^ Bar.p.Tfiz,.  one  of  the  twelve,  as  Baronius*"  hath  also  observed. 
to.  I 

SAint    Philip    is    recorded    to    have    preached    in    Asia 
Superior,    and    (as    the    Romane     Martyrologe    saith) 
J^'-  '•  almost  all   Scythia.     Baronius''  supposeth  the  testimonie 

Mart\r.  ^^  Isidore,  and  the  Toletan  Breviarie,  that  Philip  converted 

the  Galls,  is  falsly  written  for  Galatians,  which  yet,  if 
^Nieeph.1.2.  Nicephorus  Relations' be  true,  needs  no  such  correction. 
8  T\o     ''         Simon  was    called    Cananite,  as    Nicephorus    saith,  for 



his  birth  at  Cana,  whose  marriage  was  there  celebrated 
when  Christ  turned  water  into  Wine,  and  for  the  fervour 
of  his  Zeale,  hee  was  sirnamed  Zelotes.  His  preaching 
peregrinations  he  relateth  thorow  Egypt,  Cyrene,  Africa, 
Mauritania,  and  all  Libya  even  to  the  Westerne  Ocean, 
yea,  to  our  Britaine  Hands.  Hee  preached  last  in 
Phrygia,  and  at  Hierapolis  was  crucified. 

§.    V.  [I.  i.  55-] 

Of  Saint  Thomas,  Bartholomew,  Matthew,  Jude, 
Matthias  :  and  of  counterfeit  Writings  in  the 
Apostles  names. 

Aint    Thomas    called   Didymus,    preached    to    the 
Parthians,  as'^Origen,  and    after    him   "Eusebius  "" 
have   written:    Gregorie    Nazianzene  °  addeth  the  Get/./.  ■}.  iffc. 

Indians:  Chrysostome  ^saith,  he  whited  the  blacke  Ethio-  "^''^^'^-  '•  3- 
plans,  Theodoref^reciteth  the  Parthians,  Persians,  Medes,  o'^y^^.  kom. 
Brachmans,   Indians   and    the   adjoyning    Nations :  Nice-  ad  Arian. 
phorus' hath   the  same,  and  addes  the  Hand  Taprobane,  '''' Chrys.kom. 
which  is  now  called  (in  the  opinion  of  the  most)  Samotra :   <^-^l' f^'j 
in  Hieroms  Catalogue  is  added  out   of  Sophronius,  the  (p^„^  /'  q 
Germanes  (of  India)  Hircans  and  Bactrians,  and  his  death  ■"A'/V.  /.  2.  c. 
at  Calamina.     On  the  Coast  of  Choromandel,  where  the  4°- 
River  Ganges  is  swallowed  of  the  Sea  called  the  Gulfe 
of  Bengala,  are  divers  Christians  from   old  times  called 
S.  Thomas  Christians.     Some  of  the  Jesuits  have  added 
China    also    to    the    labors    of    S.    Thomas.       Of    these 
Christians,  both  in  Narsinga,  and  Cranganor  on  that  Sea 
where   Indus  falleth,   and  in   divers   parts   of  the  Indies 
you    may  read    in  ^Osorius'Maffaeus    and   others.      His  ^Osor.dereb. 
Feast   day  is   celebrated   at   Malipur,   (so    they    now  call  vZ,  jr^',- 
the  Citie  where   he  lyes   buried)   not   by   the  Christians  i„j 
alone,  but  the  Ethnikes  also  of  those  parts.     The  Eunuch 
of  Candace""  converted   by  Saint   Philip,  is  amongst  the  "AclS. 
Ethiopians    in    Prester    Johns    Countries    honoured    for 
Plantation  of  the  Gospel   in  those  parts  of  Africa;   but  ^ Dor,  Synops. 
by  Dorotheus  "^  said  to  have  preached  in  all  the  Erythrean  injine. 




Coast,  and  the  Hand  Taprobana,  before  ascribed  to  Saint 
Thomas,  and  in  Arabia  Foelix. 

Chrp.  horn.    O Aint   Bartholomew  (saith   Chrysostome  y)    passed   into 

de  12.  Apost.   O  Armenia  Major,  and  instructed  the  Lycaones;  Sophro- 

f"^^''''  nius'  addes  the  Albanians,  and  the  Indians  termed  For- 

Hier'on  de       tunate ;  Origen   saith   the   hither    India ;  ^Socrates,    India 

script.  Ec.        next  to  Ethiopia,   Eusebius  ^  testifieth,  that  Pantaenus  a 

^^oc.l.  I.e.    Stoike  Philosopher  and   Rector  of  the   Schoole  or  Uni- 

^5;  versitie    at    Alexandria,    was    ordained    Preacher    of    the 

Q    •  •  5-  •    Qospel    to    the    Easterne    Nations,    and    pierced    to   the 

Regions  of  the  Indians.     For   there   were   at    that  time 

"In  the  time    many  "=  zealous  imitators  of  the  Apostles:    of  whom  was 

<^f  "^^rehus      ^i^-g  Pantaenus,  which  preached  to  the  Indians,  amongst 

^^^  whom   he   is   reported  to  have  found  the   Gospel   of  S. 

Matthew,  in  the  hands  of  some  Christians,  which"  had 

received  the  faith  by  S.  Bartholomew,  and  left  them  the 

said  Gospel  in   Hebrew,  reserved   till  that  time.     Nice- 

^Nic.l.z.c.    phorus'*  adjoyneth  S.  Bartholomew,  to    S.  Philip  in   his 

39-  Plantations   of  the   Gospel   in   Syria   and  Asia    Superior, 

and    after    at    Hierapolis,    where    he   was    crucified    with 

Philip,  but  delivered,  and  yet  againe  at  Urbanopolis  in 

Cilicia,  died  that  ignominious  death  and  glorious  Martyr- 

^Hier.ubi       dome.     This  ^   Hebrew  Gospel  of  Saint  Matthew,  Saint 

^^P-  Hierome,  both  saw  and  copied  out.     It  was  reserved  in 

the  Library  of  Caesarea. 

SAint   Matthew  travelled   into   Ethiopia,    that   namely 
which  adhereth  to   India,  as  Socrates  ^  writeth.     Nice- 
g"^;.  phorus^  addeth  the  Anthropophagi,  and  tels  I  know  not 

what  Legends,  rejected  also  by  Baronius.  For  such  was 
the  indulgent  providence  of  God,  not  to  burthen  the  faith 
of  the  Church  with  voluminous  Histories  of  Apostolicall 
Acts  thorow  the  whole  World,  which  scarsly  (as  Saint 
Johnzi.  John  hath  of  our  Lord)  the  ^ whole  World  could  have 
contained.  Unto  the  faith  of  all,  not  to  the  curiositie 
of  some,  was  written  enough  by  those  holy  Penmen,  the 
Secretaries  of  the   Holy  Ghost  in   holy   Scripture.      But 




the  Devill  impiously  provident,  hence  tooke  occasion  to  Counterfeits 

burthen  the   Church  with   so   many  unworthy   Legends,  •^^'^^^^^  "^^ 

both  presently  after   their  times   forged  in   their  names, 

and    since   by    Upstarts    devised    and    obtruded    on    the 

Credulous  world,  as  Lives,  (lies)  of  the  Saints,  Histories, 

yea,     Misse-stories,    Hisse-stories,    by    the    old     Serpent 

hissed  and   buzzed   amongst   superstitious  men  (missing 

worthily  the  right,  and  deceived  with  lyes,  because  they 

had    not    received    the    love    of    the    truth;    to    make 

way     to    the     succeeding    mysterie    of     Iniquitie;     out 

of  which  Babylonian  Mint,  wee  have  lately  that  babbling 

and  fabling  Abdias,  by  Lazius  his  Midwifery  borne  after 

so   many  Ages,   an  Abortive  indeed,  or   Changeling,  as 

the    wiser'    of  themselves   confesse.     Hee    can   tell    you  'Baron.  Isc 

insteed  of  Saint  Matthewes  life,  many  Ethiopian  Fables, 

and  intertayne  you  in  a  (Fooles)  Paradise  situate  above 

the  highest  Mountains,  with  such  delicacies,  as  shew  that 

Adams  children  are  still  in  love  with  the  forbidden  fruit, 

and  will  lose,  or  at  least  adventure  the  true  Paradise  to 

find   a    false.      Inopes   nos  copia   fecit.     Their  abundant 

labours  and  travels  which  Came,  Saw,  Overcame,  each  so 

large  portions  of  the  World,  left  them  no  leisure  to  write 

Annales  (whence  some  have  found  leisure  to  write  Aniles, 

olde  wives  Tales)  and  makes  the  conversion  of  the  World 

an  object  of  our  faith,  rather  in  beleeving  the  prediction 

and  testimony  thereof  in  the  Scripture,  then  of  humane 

credit,  where  the  Apostles  and  Martyrs  of  their  golden 

Actions  and  Passions,  have  found  such  Leaden  ^  Legends  ^  V'wes  and 

and   woodden  workmen.   Makers    or  Poets,  rather  then   ^f^."-^ ""'; 
Tx-'  1-11  1  1  Tj^      platne  no  lesse 

Historians  :  which  here  once  spoken  may  bee  applied  to  fj^^.^gj 

the  rest,  of  whose  great  workes  so  little  is  recorded.  d.  Harding, 

Saint  Augustine'  complaines  of  such  Apocrypha  Scrip-  I3c. 

tures  amongst  the  Manichees,  a  nescio  quibus  sutoribus  ^^^'J^^' 

fabularum    sub   Apostolorum   nomine   Scriptas :    and    re-  ^^^^^.^    'j°J^  'j 

fuseth  the  like  testimonies  of  John  and  Andrew  produced  j,  <-.  yg. 

by  the  Marcionites.     S.  Hierom  "  nameth  five  Apocrypha  [I.  i.  56.] 

Bookes  falsly  attributed  to  Peter ;  his  Acts,  his   Gospel,  '" ^^^"'-  ^^ 

his  Praedication,    his  Apocalipse,   his  Judgement.      Some  ^"^^' 



"C/m.  Alex,  also  mention"  Itinerarium  Petri,  which  perhaps  is  the  same 
^trom.  I.  6.  ^^\[\i  Clements  Recognitions,  another  counterfeit.  In 
Pauls  name  was  published  a  Gospel,  Apocalypse,  his 
Revelations,  his  Ascent  to  Heaven  (which  the  Gnostiks 
"Epiph.hcer.  used,  as  saith  Epiphanius°)  his  Acts,  &  third  Epistles  to 
^^  •  the  Corinthians,  and  to  the  Thessalonians,  and  one  to  the 

Baron  an  4.4.    Laodiceans.     John  is  made  a  Father  of  other  Revelations, 
to.  I,  and  of  the  Virgins  Departure.     Saint  Andrewes  Gospel, 

Saint  Thomas   his   Gospel   and   Apocalypse.     Saint   Bar- 
tholomews   Gospel,    Saint    Matthews    Booke    of    Christs 
Infancy,    received    by    the  Valentinians,    are    condemned 
^  Gel.  in         by  pQelasius.     Neither   did  Matthias,  Philip,  and  Thad- 
decret.  de  lib.  Jgeus  want  their  Gospels,  hereticall  births  injuriously  laid 
^°'^'  at  their  doores :  nor  Barnabas  also,  nor  Marke,  no   nor 

Judas,  the  Traitor,  which  the  Caians  acknowledged,  as 
Theodoret  and  Epiphanius  have  written,  lettice  sutable 
to  such  polluted  lips.  Wee  might  adde  the  Acts  (so 
inscribed)  of  Andrew,  of  Thomas,  of  Philip,  of  Paul 
and  Thecla  Johns  Circuit.  Yea  the  Colledge  Apostolicall 
was  made  to  father  like  Bastards,  as  the  Doctrine  of  the 
Apostles,  the  Lots  of  the  Apostles,  the  Praise  of  the 
Apostles,  besides  other  Acts  of  the  Aposdes,  and  the 
manglings  of  the  truly  Apostolicall  Pages  by  Addition,  or 
Subtraction.  What  shall  I  say }  Our  Blessed  Lord  escaped 
not  hereticall  Impostures  in  his  Name,  as  the  Booke  De 
magia  ad  Petrum  &  Paulum.  And  I  thinke  him  rather 
prodigall  then  liberall,  or  just  of  his  faith  which  subscribes 
"^Euseh.  I.  I.  to  that  story '^  of  Abagarus.  But  it  were  endlesse  no 
^-  ^3-  lesse  then   needlesse,  to  intangle  our   selves   in  this  dia- 

bolicall  Maze  and  hereticall  labyrinth  of  sacred  forgeries, 
in  that  and  after  Ages,  the  Envious  mans  super  semina- 
tions to  bewitch  unstable  soules,  not  contented  with  Gods 
dimensum  and  provident  allowance.     If  therefore  of  Saint 
Matth.  13.      Matthewes  ^Ethiopian  peregrinations,  if  of  Saint  Matthias 
in  -/Ethiopia  also  (for  a  great  part  of  Asia,  and  the  greatest 
Sophron.  if^      of  Africa  were  stiled  by  that  name)  if  of  Judas  Thaddeus 
f.  4.0  ^^^  preaching  in  Mesopotamia,  Arabia,  Idumaea,  and  the 

Regions  adjacent,  we  have  so  little  recorded,  it  is  no  great 



marvell.  It  may  be  sufficient  to  understanding  Readers, 
that  wee  have  out  of  the  best  Authors  extant,  named  the 
most  Countries  of  the  then  knowne  world.  And  if  every 
Region  and  People  bee  not  mentioned,  impute  it  to  the 
want  of  History  of  their  several!  Acts,  who  sought  rather 
to  write  Christs  Passions  in  the  hearts,  then  their  owne 
Actions  in  the  bookes,  of  Men ;  to  produce  deeds  not 
wordes,  and  monuments  of  Divine,  not  their  owne  glory. 
Few  places  can  be  named  in  Asia  or  Africa,  which  wee 
have  not  mentioned  in  their  peregination  and  preaching  : 
and  faire  probabilitie  is  for  those  not  mentioned  by  con- 
sequence of  reason,  which  at  lest  can  prove  nothing  to 
the  contrary ;  and  more  then  probability  is  the  Divine 
testimony  before  observed. 

§•  VI. 

Of  Saint   Paul :   of  Apostolicall  Assistants :  some 

doubts  discussed. 

S  for  Saint    Paul,  the  Doctor  of  the   Gentiles,  he 
flew   like   a   swift   Fowle    over    the    World :   wee 
have    his    owne    testimony    of   his   Preaching    in 
Arabia,  his  returne  to  Damascus,  and  journey  after ""  three  ""Gal.  i. 
yeers  to  Jerusalem,  thence  to  the  Regions  of  Syria  and 
Cilicia;  yea  that  hee  (not  sprinkled,  but)  filled  Jerusalem 
to  Illyricum  with  the  Gospel ;  of  his  preaching   in  Italy 
and  Rome,  of  his  purpose  for  Spaine,  which  some^  say  ^' Mermannii 
hee  fulfilled  afterwards,  adding  thereto  Portugall,  France,   Theat.  Con- 
Britaine,  the  Orchades,  the  Hands  and  Regions  adjoyning  ^'^''^'  S^"^' 
to  the  Sea,  and  his  returne  by  Germany  into  Italy,*"  where  ^Bed.^Aug. 
hee   suffered  Martyrdome,  being  by  Nero  beheaded.     I  Sa-ip(.Ntceph. 
force  no  mans  credit,   as  neither  to  that    of  Joseph    of   '    '   ' 
Arimathea  his  preaching  to  the  Britons,  nor  Saint  Denis 
his  Conversion  of  the  Galles,  at  least  in  all  things  written 
of  them.     But   for  the   Acts  of  Paul,  as  the  Apostle  of 
the  Gentiles,  the  Scripture  is  more  ample  then  of  any  the 
rest,  the  greater  parts  of  Saint  Lukes  History,  being  of 
Pauls  Acts. 



What  should  wee  adde  the  labours  of  Evangelists, 
Assistants,  and  Co-workemen  with  the  Apostles  in  those 
first  Plantations,  sent  by  them  in  several  missions  to 
^Vid.dehis  divers  places?  Such  were  Barnabas'^  Silas,  Philip  the 
SynoL^^Mer-  -^^^^O"'  Silvaiius,  Timothee,  Titus,  and  others:  some  of 
man.  Baron,  which  were  after  Bishops  (as  is  anciently  beleeved)  of 
yc.  particular   Churches.      Epaenetus   Saint    Sauls    disciple    is 

said  to  have  beene  Bishop  of  Carthage.  Andronicus 
another  of  them  in  Pannonia,  now  called  Hungary, 
Amplyas  at  Odyssa,  Urbanus  in  Macedonia,  Jason  at 
Tarsus,  Trophimus  at  Aries,  Crescens  at  Vienna,  Aristo- 
bulus  in  Britaine,  Asyncritus  in  Hyrcania,  Hermes  in 
Dalmatia,  and  others  in  other  places ;  a  Catalogue  of 
whom  in  Mermannius  his  Theatre  you  may  see  at  leasure. 
Saint  Marke  disciple  of  Saint  Peter  having  preached  to 
Libya,  Marmarica,  Ammonica,  Pentapolis,  and  Egypt 
ordained  Bishops  in  the  new  planted  Churches,  Eutro- 
pius  another  of  Saint  Peters  disciples,  is  said  to  have 
preached  in  France:  Mansuetus  another  of  them,  to 
some  parts  of  Germany,  as  Symon  of  Cyrene,  to  other 
parts.  But  it  were  too  tedious,  to  bring  hither  all  that 
Authors  have  written  of  the  seventy  disciples,  and  other 
Apostolicall  Assistants,  who  spent  and  were  spent,  con- 
sumed and  consummated  their  course  in  and  for  the 
[1. 1.  57.]  But  here  some  may  say,  that  wee  have  not  named  all 

Countries  of  the  World,  and  of  those  named  there  is  in 
Authors  much  varietie  of  report,  in  judicious  Readers 
much  scruple  to  credit.  I  answere  that  it  were  a  farre 
harder  taske  to  prove  that  any  Countrey,  not  here  men- 
tioned, was  neglected  in  this  Ministry.  Neither  did  the 
Geography  of  those  times  extend  their  survey  much 
further,  then  that  wee  have  here  in  their  Journalls 
expressed :  although  it  much  extended  it  selfe  beyond  the 
truth.  Besides,  who  can  wonder  that  the  Apostles  found 
not  Pen-men,  to  record  their  Evangelicall  conquests 
thorow  the  World,  seeking  to  establish  a  Kingdome 
Spirituall  and  Internall,  contemning  the  worlds  glory,  and 



of  vaine-glorious  worldlings  contemned,  when  the  great 
Conquerours,  which  sought  to  subdue  the  World  by  force, 
and  plant  Empires  by  Armes,  have  left  so  obscure  notice 
of  their  exploits,  though  dedicated  to  humane  applause 
and  admiration  ?  Of  the  ^Egyptian  Conqueror  Sesostris, 
Lucan  sings,  Venit  ad  occasum  mundique  extrema  Sosostris, 
Et  Pharios  currus  regum  servicibus  egit  !  Of  Nabucho- 
donosor  the  Scripture  witnesseth,  that  his  greatnesse  *  ^ Dan.  ^.  22. 
reached  to  Heaven,  and  his  Dominion  to  the  end  of 
the  Earth ;  Yet  have  they  neither  Journalls  nor  Annalls 
of  their  great  Acts  left  to  posterity,  not  so  much  as  the 
names  of  their  subdued  Provinces,  not  so  much  as  wee 
have  here  produced  of  the  Apostles.  Nay,  what  is  left  to 
memory  of  the  long-lived  Assyrian  Monarchy,  but 
shadowes,  glimpses,  fables  ?  Who  hath  left  in  Register 
the  names  of  the  one  hundred  twenty  seven  ^  Provinces,  ^ Ester  8.  9. 
subject  to  the  Persian  Monarchy  from  India  to  Ethiopia  ? 
Nay,  how  little  and  how  uncertaine  is  remaining  of  the 
Greeke  Alexander  his  Expedition,  although  then  under- 
taken, when  Greece  had  arrived  at  the  height  of  humane 
learning,  and  by  him  that  was  himselfe  a  famous 
Scholler  of  the  most  famous  of  Philosophers  ?  Did 
not  hee  deplore^  his  owne  unhappinesse  in  this  kind,  ^ 
treading  on  the  Tombe  of  Achilles  ?  And  had  not  ^''^^^  P'^^^- 
Curtius  and  Arrianus  long  long  after  his  death,  written 
of  him  (I  question  not  the  certainty)  how  little 
should  wee  have  of  Great  Alexander  ?  Great  in  his 
Acts  and  Arts,  greater  in  his  Attempts,  greatest  in 
the  unbounded  Ambition  of  Greatest  Renoume  to 
latest  posterity ;  yet  how  much  more  is  left  of  the 
Acts  of  Humble  Apostles,  then  of  Ambitious  Alex- 
ander? And  now  his  Conquests  are  obliterated  and  [I.  i.  58.] 
forgotten,  how  are  theirs  written  not  in  Bookes  and 
Lines,  but  in  the  minds  and  lives  of  Men,  so  great  a 
part  of  the  World  still  remaining  the  Volume  of  their 
Expeditions  in  their  Christian  profession  ? 

And   how  much   more  did  so,   till  the  unbeleefe  and 
unthankfulnesse  of  wicked  men,  provoked  Divine  Justice 



to  remove  his  golden  Candlestick  from  so  many  Nations 
thorow  the  World,  which  for  contempt  of  Christian 
Truth,  were  againe  abandoned  to  Ethnicke  supersti- 
tions ?  Thus  had  God  dealt  with  the  Jewes  before ; 
thus  after  with  the  Christians  in  Africa  almost  gener- 
ally in  a  great  part  of  Europe,  and  in  a  great  great 
part  of  Asia  by  Mahumetan  madnesse,  in  which 
what  that  Arabian  Canker-worme  had  left,  the  Tar- 
tarian Caterpiller  did  almost  utterly  devoure.  Thus 
in  Marco  Polo,  in  Rubruquius,  in  Odoricus  and 
Mandivile,  yee  may  read  of  Christian  Nations  dispersed 
quite  thorow  Asia  1200.  yeeres  and  more  after  Christ, 
overwhelmed  with  that  Tartarian  deluge,  where  the  Name 
of  Christians  in  the  remotest  parts  is  extinct,  till  Navigation 
in  the  last  Age  revived  it.  And  had  not  Navigation  and 
Peregrination  opened  a  window,  no  Geographer  had  let  us 
know  the  names  of  Nations,  which  Christians  of  the 
West  found,  professing  the  same  Christ  in  the  unknowne 
Regions  of  the  East,  at  once  scene  to  bee,  and  to  be 
Christian.  Yea,  how  little  of  the  remote  North  and 
East  of  Europe  and  Asia,  or  of  the  South  of  Africa,  was 
knowne  to  Plinie,  Ptolomey,  and  other  ancient  Geogra- 
phers, where  their  Christian  light  hath  shined  to  us  with 
the  first  notice  of  themselves .'' 

I  inferre  not,  that  the  Gospells   lightning  kindled   an 
Evangelicall  flame,  and  obtained  Episcopall  entertainment 
in    every   place  where   the  Apostles  preached  :   nor   that 
every  Lord,  Tribe,  and  Family  heard  this  Divine  Mes- 
sage ;  nor  that  each  Country  was  filled  with  the  Gospel, 
or  any  with  an  universall  profession  in  the  first  Planta- 
The  reason  of  tions,    or    in    their    times.      The    name    Paganus    which 
the  name         signifiing  a  Pesant  or  Rustike,  for  this  cause  was  altered 
Pagan  or         |-q  ^  Panime  or  Ethnike,  because  Religion  could  not,  but 
aymm.  j^  ^^^^^  ^^  i\mQ  diffuse  her  bright  beames  and  lines  of 

light,    from   her    Episcopall    City    Centre    (that  also  not 
wholly  Christian)   to    those    ruder   parts   of  her  remoter 
Rom.  10.  18.  circumference.     This  I  say,  that  their  sound  went  into  all 
the  Earth,  and  their  words  unto  the  Ends  of  the  World, 



in  some  Countries  and  Nations  more  fully,  in  some 
more  obscurely,  in  all  by  fame  at  lest,  if  not  by  the 
Apostles  presence,  as  the  Spirit  permitted  utterance,  that 
some  of  all  might   be  converted. 

§.  VII. 

Of  America,  whether  it  were  then  peopled. 

Nd  if  any  more    scrupulous  doubt   of  the    New 
World,  and  of  many  places  where  no  foot  print  of 
Christianity  is  extant,  I   answere,*  (besides  what  *S///.r.i.§.8. 
before  in  our  Ophirian  Tractate  is  spoken)  not  onely  that 
time  eates  up  her  owne  Children,  and  that  none  can  prove 
that  Christ  hath  not  beene  there  preached  in  former  times, 
because    these    are    thereof  ignorant;    (for    a   deluge    of 
opposing  persecutions,  another  of  ecclipsing  superstitions 
and  heresies,  a  third  of  warre  and  invasions,  extinguishing 
both  the   Religion    and    People  also   hath   succeeded,  in 
some  the  most  renowmed  Churches  of  the  World :  and 
what  then   may  time  have  done   in   unknowne  places  ?) 
But  who  can  tell  that  America,  and  many  parts  of  Asia, 
Afrike  and   Europe   were  then  peopled  with  Men,   the 
Subjects  capable  of  this  Preaching.?     Nay,   may  wee  not 
in  probabilitie  think  the  contrary?  how  great  a  part  of  the 
World  is  yet  without  habitation  ?  how  great  a  part  of  the 
World  is  yet  unknowne }     All  the  South  Continent  is  in 
manner  such,  and  yet  in  reason*   conjectured  to  bee  very  *See  Bmr- 
large,  and  as  it  were  another  New  World ;  Also  Fernand  ^""^^  Book  of 
de  Quiros  saith  hee  hath  discovered  eight  hundred  leagues  ^^^^'  ^ 
of  shoare.     Neither  is  it  probable  but  that  so  temperate  ^^^i  „^^  / 
parts  are  inhabited  (which  in  part,  so  farre  as  is  knowne   i.  c.  i8. 
on  the  Shoares  and  adjacent  Hands,  is   apparant)   nor  is 
their  likelihood  of  Christianity,  where  the  Nations  every 
way  adjoyning  are  Ethnike,  that  I  say  not  Savage  on  the 
parts    of  Asia    and  America :    and   both   these  and  they 
seeme  latelier  peopled  then  the  Apostles  dayes.     In  the 
new  Straits  beyond  the   Magellane,  the  stupidity  of  the 
Fowles  argued  they  knew  not  the   face   of  Men,   which 



they  not  at  all  dreaded.  And  many  many  Hands  not  yet 
inhabited,  this  ensuing  Discourse  will  manifest.  Yea  in 
large  Tracts  of  the  Continent  of  Groenland,  &  other  parts 
unto  New-found-land,  it  is  found  that  eyther  there  are  no 
people,  or  they  but  for  some  time  in  the  Summer,  and  for 
some  purpose,  as  of  hunting  or  fishing,  not  certaine  and 
setled  dwellers :  a  name  scarcely  fitting  to  the  people  in 
Virginia  and  Florida.  Even  in  our  old  World  it  self, 
how  new  are  the  eldest  Monuments  &  Antiquities,  in  al 
the  North,  Norway,  Sweden,  Finland,  Lapland,  the 
Samoyeds,  Tartars,  yea  the  Northermost  Russes,  Lithu- 
ranians,  Livonians,  Poles ;  how  new  their  Arts,  their  Acts, 
their  Lawes,  Government,  Civility  and  Fame .''  Which 
therefore  must  needs  as  the  World  increased,  bee 
evacuated  from  Countries  neerer  the  Sunne,  by  necessitie 
inforced  to  harder  Climates.  Of  Island  our  story  will 
shew,  it  was  but  yesterday  inhabited. 
See  my  Pi/g.  The  Scythians  and  Sarmatians  of  the  ancient  are  more 
/.  4.  c.  10.  Southerly  ;  and  well  may  we  reject  the  fables  of  Hyper- 
boreans, and  I  knowe  not  what  devised  Northerne  Peoples 
[I.  i.  59.]  and  Monsters,  the  Creatures  and  Colonies  of  idle  busie 
braines.  These  Northerne  people,  scarsely  worthie  the 
name  of  a  People,  did  God  use  when  the  sinnes  of 
the  Roman  Empire  were  full,  to  punish  their  pride  by 
so  base  instruments,  in  Gottish,  Vandall,  Hunnish,  Saxon, 
Franke,  and  other  names,  in  judgement  remembring 
mercy  to  the  chastised  Children,  and  to  the  chastising 
Rod,  not  therefore  cast  into  the  fire,  except  to  refine 
them,  but  by  conquering  Christian  Nations,  themselves 
disposed  by  divine  hand  to  become  a  Christian  Con- 
quest, and  to  submit  themselves  to  that  God,  to  that 
Religion,  whose  looser  Professors  they  overcame  with 
an  overwhelming  inundation.  How  unsearchable  are 
thy  wayes,  O  God,  and  thy  judgements  passing  know- 
ledge, which  of  Stones  raisest  children  to  Abraham,  and 
bringest  Lions  into  the  Sheep-fold  in  hope  of  prey 
and  spoyle,  where  thy  discipline  transformes  them  into 
Lambes  .''  and   persecuting   Saul   turnes  a  Prophet .'' 


rrcvr-.i i. 

Pont  US    EuxiNus^'fi 

>iL  mill 

'5ifA.//- £i--„;  _ **»V^      j3.->.,  ;i,'5;  .li'nVM. 


l?icili«^/  Marc   Ionium  jiv     >ij 



a  i-marK.t^S~^.--^  Lx  l>;d  ex  r.  ^a,  r- 





The    remotest     Northerne    and     Southerne    parts   o{  *  As  Canaan 
America  are  yet  thinly  inhabited,*  and  in  great  part  not  ^^^^^^^i^^^^' 
at    all,    as    before    is    observed,   whereas    Mexicana,    and  „othingso 
Peruviana    were    abundantly    peopled    at    the    Spaniards  populous  as  in 
first  arrivall,  with  the  Hands  adjacent.     Two  great  Em-  Joshuas. 
pires  were  there  erected,  one*  in  Mexico,  the  other  of  *  Jcosta 
the  Ingas  in  Cusco ;  but  neither  of  them  ancient.     Nor  ^^^°"/  '^^ 
let    any    impute    this    to    their    illiterate    barbarousnesse.  ^^^^1^^^ J^'gj 
For  they  had  meanes  to  preserve  memorie  of  their  acts  f^^i^  owne 
by    computation    no    lesse    certaine    then    ours,    though  histories,  about 
more  troublesome :  and  thereby  is  the  Mexican  Epocha,  ^«-  9oo-  ^J^' 
or  first  beginning,  then  beginning  to  bee  a  People,  the  //^'^"^"^^^^..^ 
Devill   imitating   the  Israelites   in  their   Exodus   towards  /„  Qj^^^o  and 
the    Countries  which    they   after    possessed,   apparant    to  of  the  stocke  oj 
have    beene   above    seven   hundred    yeeres    after    Christ :  ^^^  Ingas,  be- 
as   that   of  the   Ingas   some    hundreds    later.     For  it    is  fjJlfter''' 
most  likely  that  America  was  first  peopled  from  the  North  ^  j^   ,joo 
of  Asia  and  Europe  in  her  neerer  and  Northerne  parts,  which  were 
whence  by  secret  instinct,  and  hopefull  allurements  they  before  most 
were  inticed  to  remove  neerer  the  Sunne,  and  from  the  ^^'^^&^- 
Mexican  to   passe   to   the  Peruvian  Continent.     Neither 
can  probable   reason  be   given  of  peopling   America   but 
from  thence,  as  by  the  Discourses  of  Acosta  and  Master 
Brerewood  appeareth  :    neither  did  those  Northerne  parts 
receive  Inhabitants  till  the  Regions  of  the  World  neerer 
Noas  Arke,   and   of  more   commodious   habitation   were 
first    peopled,  whence    the    East    and    South    parts   were 
soone    after    Noas     time    replenished :     the    colder    and 
worse    successively,    and    the     extreme    North    by    later 
compulsion     and     necessitie,    the    better    being    peopled 
before  :   and  there  exceeding  their  just  proportion,   they 
emptied  themselves  partly  by  returning  into  the  South 
by  Conquests  to  over-runne  civiller  Nations,  and  partly 
were    forced    to    seeke    further,  as  vicinitie  of  Seas  and 
Lands    aflFoorded,   till    America    was    also    peopled.     For 
(besides    that    those  Northerne    parts  were   as   fertile    in 
the  wombe,  as  barren    in    the    soyle,   numerous    beyond 
due    food)    those    rough,    cold    mountainous    habitations 
I  i6i  L 


yeelded  like  constitution  of  body  and  unquietnesse  of 
mind  strong  and  able  to  indure,  bold  and  forward  to 
adventure  greatest  difficulties,  still  pressing  (where  worse 
then  the  present  could  hardly  befall)  and  following  their 
hopes  till  neerer  propinquitie  to  the  Sunne,  Climates 
more  temperate,  richer  Soyle,  consent  of  Elements 
and  Aliments  bred  content  to  their  mindes  and  more 
prosperous  concent  of  Fortunes,  which  softned  their 
rigid  dispositions,  and  by  degrees  disposed  them  to 
thinke  on  mechanicall  and  politike  Arts,  further  to 
humanize  their  society,  and  to  polish  their  cohabitation 
with  Politic,  This  we  see  soone  done  in  Egypt,  and 
Babylonia  presently  after  the  Floud :  but  how  long 
before  the  Persians  were  civilized  ?  how  long  after  be- 
fore the  Macedonians,  or  Romans  ?  yea,  how  long  before 
there  were  Romans  ? 

Nature  infused  the  first  cares  of  necessary  being,  which 

being    by  the  fertile    habitation    and    industrious    culture 

richly  supplied,    in    the    settled    standing    the    Milke   of 

humane  wits  yeelded   the  flower  or  creame  of  Arts  for 

flourish  and    beautie,  which  unsettled    and    discontented 

estates  weary  of  the  present,  and  pressing  still  forwards 

cannot  produce ;  neither  can  a  rolling  stone  gather  mosse. 

And    thus  we   finde    the    Germans  now  a  civill    Nation, 

which    many    ages    after    Christ    were    barbarous.     Yea, 

where  more  feritie  and  savage    rudenesse    then  this  our 

Britaine  yeelded  not  long  before  the  birth  of  our  Saviour, 

for  their  painting,  nakednesse,  and  other  rude  demeanours 

worse    then    the  Virginians    now,    and    like    some    more 

barbarous    Americans  ?     What    hath    America    savouring 

of  Antiquitie  ?    what   besides  the  former,  not   savouring 

^"^/j^/si   °^  ^^^  Cradle,  and  later  transmigration  ? 

/.  I.  c.  z.     '       Those  memorials  which  they  have  of  the  Floud  might 

Feg.  torn.  2.     passe  with    them    by  Tradition    even   from  the  Arke    it 

/ii>.  7.  c.  13.    selfe  thorow  all  their  removes  and  transmigrations.     And 

y^^.?-  H54-      no  lesse  might  be  said  of  that  Ticsiviracocha  mentioned 

Nav.  in  Bra.  ^Y  Acosta,  (whom  Vega  observeth  to  have  many  things 

c.  1 6.  not  so  truly)  like  to  Our  Men,  and   preached  amongst 



them  many  good  lessons  with  httle  effect,  and  after 
many  miracles  amongst  them  was  slaine ;  whose  picture 
some  of  the  Spaniards  had  scene,  resembling  those  ot 
our  Saints.  Vega  tells  another  and  more  likely  storie 
of  Viracochas  apparition  in  that  habite,  which  no  doubt 
was  the  Devill.  The  like  is  recorded  by  Lerius,  of 
a  tradition  amongst  the  Brasilians,  that  innumerable 
Moones  before,  there  came  a  Mair  or  Stranger,  clothed 
after  the  Christian  manner,  and  bearded,  which  preached 
unto  them  the  knowledge  of  God,  but  none  would 
beleeve  him :  after  whom  another  came  which  delivered 
them  a  Sword,  since  which  time  they  had  used  to  slay 
and  eate  one  another.  These  things,  as  they  may  be 
true,  so  may  they  be  the  New  actions  of  the  old  Serpent 
ambitious  of  Deitie,  or  may  by  Tradition  flit  with  them 
thorow  all  their  habitations ;  or  if  any  shall  thinke  it 
there  happened  (which  I  cannot  beleeve)  yet  are  they  [I.  i.  60.] 
rather  to  interpret  it  of  the  Apostles  (&  so  further 
confirmeth  our  opinion)  then  of  any  other,  seeing  no 
such  men  could  there  have  accesse,  and  their  speach  be 
understood,  but  by  miraculous  dispensation.  As  for  the 
Rocke  in  Brasill  called  Etooca  (where,  as  Master  Knivet  Kn'wets  Jour- 
affirmeth,  Saint  Thomas  preached)  converted  out  of  '^''^^• 
Wood  into  Stone,  the  Fishes  being  his  auditors,  who 
seeth  not  a  Frierly  supersemination  in  the  report .''  wee 
reade  in  Theophrastus  or  Aristotle,  or  whosoever  else 
be  Authour  of  that  Booke  De  Mirabilibus  Auscultat, 
of  a  fertile  desart  Hand  found  by  the  Carthaginians, 
abounding  with  Woods  and  Rivers  navigable,  and  other 
bounties  of  Nature,  distant  many  dayes  sailing  from  the 
African  Continent :  some  of  the  Carthaginians  intended 
there  to  inhabite,  but  were  repelled,  and  all  men  pro- 
hibited on  paine  of  death,  lest  the  Soveraigne  power 
and  weale  publike  of  Carthage  might  thence  be  endam- 
maged.  This  is  by  some  interpreted  of  the  West-Indies, 
or  some  Hands  thereof;  which  if  it  be  so,  confirmes  our 
opinion  that  those  parts  were  not  then  inhabited.  Nor  P-  Pilg.  I.  8. 
did  any  civilitie  appeare  in  America  to  argue  civill  Pro-  ^-  ^• 



genitors,  but  that  which  was  ot  later  memorie.  Plato's 
Atlantis  wee  have  elsewhere  shewed  to  be  allegoricall, 
at  least  no  historicall  truth :  nor  any  likelihood  in  other 
ancient  Navigations  mentioned  in  Plutarch,  Diodorus  and 
others  to  point  at  these  parts. 

If  the  multitudes  of  people  found  there  by  the  first 
Spaniards  seeme  to  pleade  for  a  longer  habitation  then 
that  we  allow;  let  it  be  observed  that  a  thousand  and 
foure  hundred  yeeres  (for  the  first  Discoverie  was  1492. 
after  Christ)  might  well  fill  a  world  with  people,  especially 
considering  their  Polygamie,  or  many  Women,  their 
simple  Diet,  and  that  which  attended  the  same,  health- 
full  Constitution  and  long  Life  (in  some  places  admirable) 
their  easie  course  of  life  contented  with  a  little,  not 
fearing  to  exceed  their  meanes  and  maintenance  by 
numerous  issue ;  where  Nature  yeelded  home-spunne 
or  rather  womb-spunne  attire,  and  the  Mother  Earth 
with  little  importunitie  or  labour  yeelded  food  sufficient ; 
where  Plagues,  Morraines,  Famine,  were  scarse  heard 
of;  where  Covetousnesse  the  root  of  all  evill  had  so 
little  worke  ;  Ambition  scarsely  knew  to  diversifie  titles 
of  honor;  and  warre  (the  inchanted  circle  of  death, 
compendium  of  misery.  Epitome  of  mischiefe,  a  Hell 
upon  Earth)  had  not  Iron,  Steele,  Lead,  not  Engines, 
Stratagems,  Ordnance,  not  any  humane  Arts  of  in- 
humanitie  to  fill  those  parts  of  the  World  with  empti- 
nesse,  and  there  to  erect  Theaters  of  Desolation  and 
Destruction.  Nor  did  Nature  yeeld  many  devouring 
Beasts,  but  reserved  all  her  savagenesse  to  the  Men. 

To  let   passe  the  peopling  of  the  World    before  and 

after  the  Floud,  in  no  great  time,  we  see  that  in  Egypt 

in  the  midst  of  heavy  burthens,  inhumane  butcherie,  and 

intolerable  tyrannie,  the  Israelites  were  multiplied,  in  the 

='G^«.46. 27.  space    of  two    hundred    and    ten   yeeres,   from   seventy^ 

^ Ex.  11.17-  persons  to  above    two    milUons,  as    may  be  ghessed,   in 

''Num.  1.46.  ^{^^^    ^j^gj.g    ^gj-e    600000.^    men,    besides    children,    and 

^m'm^ie-i    besides    the    females    also    as    appeareth    in    the    '^second 

6^"'"'     '^  '  numbring    by    Moses,    and    *^  in    the    third    by    him    and 



Eleazar,  when  all  those  but  Caleb  and  Joshua  were 
dead.  Allowing  therefore  the  male  children  not  much 
lesse,  as  that  third  numbring  evinceth,  and  the  females 
in  probabihtie  as  many  as  the  males  (the  rather  for  that 
Pharaohs  cruell  Edict  touched  not  them)  you  cannot 
but  find  above  2000000.  Now  this  their  encrease  w^as 
by  naturall  meanes  though  by  singular  providence,  and 
therefore  might  as  well  happen  in  America,  those 
impediments  removed,  and  many  other  furtherances 
annexed,  in  libertie,  plenty,  and  largenesse  of  Territorie, 
all  elements  conspiring  to  multiplication.  Neither  can 
any  thing  but  Divine  providence  (which  none  can  denie 
in  America,  and  had  many  more  easie  and  visible  meanes, 
fewer  lets  then  in  Egypt)  be  alledged  for  the  one  more 
then  the  other.  This  I  may  say,  that  if  any  list  to 
examine  the  proportion,  and  suppose  like  providence, 
in  that  time  of  1400.  yeeres  may  follow  a  more  numerous 
inundation  of  people,  then  ever  America  (perhaps  the 
whole  World)  may  probably  be  supposed  at  once  to 
have  numbred,  although  large  deductions  be  allowed  both 
for  ordinary  mortality  and  some  more  dismal  accidents. 
Neither  is  it  likely  that  the  first  plantations  were  so 
few  (if  voluntarily  seeking,  &  not  by  accident  forced 
to  those  habitations)  as  70.  persons  twice  told :  nor 
that  America  at  once  or  from  one  place  received  her 
first  Colonies,  as  by  the  divers  languages,  statures,  habits 
of  men  may  appeare,  although  time,  custome,  accident, 
be  allowed  no  litle  power  in  these  things.  This  we  see 
amongst  our  selves,  where  one  Dutch  or  Teutonike^  ^ 
hath  yeelded  not  onely  a  distinction  of  higher  and  lower,  Europ^eor. 
but  the  English,  Danish,  Sweden,  Norwegian,  Islandish,  ^l^^-  -^"f; 
Nordalbing,  Frisian  (besides  the  subdiversified  dialects  j^^,'f//  Qq^_ 
which  each  of  these  multiplieth)  Languages,  Peoples,  mog.part.  2. 
Rites,  so  much  differing,  and  the  elder  both  tongues  /.  \.  c.  8. 
and  customes  (as  in  our  Saxon)  by  Variation  and  suc- 
cession after  a  few  Centuries  in  manner  extinguished. 
So  vaine  a  thing  is  Man.  Let  me  conclude  this  dis- 
course   of    multiplication    in    America,    by    an    American 



*  A  casta.  I.  i . 
cap.  2  1.  y  /. 
4-  ^-  34- 

c.  I,  A  few 
Herses  also  and 
mares  left  by 
the  River  of 
Plate  so  en- 
creased,  that 
since  they  have 
slaine  them 
only  for  their 
tailes,  to  sell  to 
the  Negros. 
Of  Conies 
strange  en- 
crease,  see  I. 
2.  c.   I.  §.  2. 
[I.  i.  6i.] 

example  of  cattell  transported  out  of  Europe  thither, 
especially  Kine,  which  as  they  beare  no  more  at  a  burthen 
then  a  woman,  nor  oftner,  so  are  they  shorter-lived 
usually  by  two  third  parts :  yet  have  they  so  increased 
there,  that  *  one  man  the  Bishop  of  Venezuela  had  above 
16000.  yea  they  have  growne  wilde,  their  numbers  ex- 
ceeding the  care  of  owners,  and  every  man  at  pleasure 
killing  them  for  their  hides.  And  one  man,  the  ^Deane 
of  Conception,  had  of  one  Kow  living  26.  yeeres,  in  her 
life  time  the  increase  of  800.     Sic  canibus  catulos  similes 

These  Indians  which  respected  in  generation  little 

else  but  sensuality,  and  in  manner  of  life  resembled  brute 
beasts  rather  then  civill  (that  I  say  not  Christian)  Men, 
enjoying  like  priviledges  of  Nature  in  other  things,  might 
in  this  also. 

i   VIII. 

The  glorie  of  Apostolicall  Conquests:  the  hopes 
of  enlarging  the  Church  in  this  last  Age,  by 
knowledge  of  Arts  and  Languages  through  the 
benefit  of  Printing  and  Navigation. 

Et  me  conclude  this  Discourse  of  Apostolicall 
Peregrinations  with  consideration,  with  collau- 
dation,  with  admiration  even  to  extasie  and 
astonishment,  of  Their  (shall  I  say  or  Gods.?)  Exploits, 
and  renowmed  Acts.  Little  are  the  Acts  of  Great 
Alexander,  Pompeius  Magnus,  Fabius  Maximus,  and 
other  Greats  and  Grandes  of  the  World,  who  by 
Armes  and  Arts  military,  by  Fire,  Sword,  Famine, 
Massacres  forced  the  bodies  (the  least  part)  of  Men  to 
a  compulsive  subjection,  shaken  off  with  the  first  oppor- 
tunitie.  But  how  shall  I  adorne  your  noble  Conquests, 
Yee  Divine  Apostolicall  Worthies.?  who  walking  in  the 
flesh,  not  warring  after  the  flesh,  without,  yea,  against 
the  force  of  carnall  weapons,  pulled  downe  strong  holds, 
cast  downe  imaginations,  and  every  high  thing  that 
exalted    it    selfe    against    the    knowledge    of    God,    and 



brought  into  captivitle  every  thought  to  the  obedience 
of  Christ?  Herein  they  used  not  assistance  of  other  z.Chotwo. 
Nations  by  confederation,  nor  mustered  multitudes  in  3>  4>  5 
pressed  and  trained  bands  of  their  owne ;  nor  received 
supportation  by  Subsidies,  nor  made  invasion  by  force, 
nor  obtained  an  unwilling  conquest  of  Bodies  (the  shell 
without  the  kernel)  nor  entertayned  close  intelligence, 
nor  wrought  by  close  Treasons,  nor  divided  to  them 
selves  the  spoiles ;  nor  erected  Forts,  established  Garri- 
sons, imposed  taxations,  transplanted  inhabitants,  de- 
pressed Nobles,  shared  new  Provinces  into  Timars, 
tithed  Children,  planted  Colonies ;  nor  had  their  counsels 
of  Warre  at  home,  or  warlike  customes  abroad,  Engines, 
Stratagems,  Combats,  Sieges,  Skirmishes,  pitched  Fields, 
Ships,  Horses,  Chariots,  Tents,  Trumpets,  Munition,  nor 
that  worst  Baggage  of  Armies,  Crying,  Spoyling,  Sacking, 
Wounding,  Mayming,  Killing  with  Multiformities  of 
Cruelties,  as  if  the  nethermost  Hels  had  mustered  and 
evaporated  the  most  and  worst  of  Her  Fumes  and 
Furies  into  Our  world,  which  might  therefore  take, 
that  they  might  destroy,  the  shapes  of  Men,  by  humane 
inhumanitie.  But  a  few  poore  Fishermen,  and  Tent- 
makers  overthrow  the  Worlds  Wisemen,  in  the  most 
flourishing  times  of  worldly  learning,  subdue  the  Scepters 
of  greatest  Kings  and  Monarchs,  ruine  the  gates  of  Hell, 
&  undermine  the  deepnesse  of  Satan,  supplant  the  pro- 
foundest,  suttlest,  mightiest  of  Satanicall  combinations  Ap.  2. 
with  the  whole  World  of  Men  against  a  handfull ;  and 
maugre  their  united  Forces,  preaching  a  Crucified  God, 
and  teaching  the  Crosse  as  the  first  Principle  of  Christian 
Learning,  to  overcome  the  edge  of  the  Sword  with  suffer- 
ing it,  to  stop  the  mouthes  of  Lions  with  their  flesh, 
to  quench  the  violence  of  fire  with  their  bloud ;  to  for- 
sake all  Goods,  good  Name,  Wife,  Life,  Childe,  to  deny 
themselves,  to  plucke  out  their  right  eyes,  to  cut  off  their 
right  hands,  to  pray  for  their  persecutors,  to  recompence 
hatred  with  love,  and  overcome  evill  with  goodnesse, 
looking  for  no  other  reward  then  what  the  World  can 



neither  looke  on,  nor  for ;  they  invade  with  innocence, 
and  with  Saving  overcome,  the  World ;  and  whiles  it  most 
resisteth,  persecuteth,  overcommeth,  incline  it  to  willing- 
nesse,  calmenesse,  subjection ;  write  their  conquests  not  in 
the  bloud  of  the  Conquered  but  of  the  Conquerors; 
erect  Trophees,  not  in  Obeliskes,  Pyramides,  Arches,  by 
others  industry,  but  in  their  owne  Funerals,  Crucifyings, 
Stonings,  Martyrdomes ;  solemnize  Triumphs  not  with 
their  owne  Armies,  not  with  captived  troupes,  attend- 
ing in  greatest  pompe  the  sublime  Triumphall  Chariot, 
but  by  being  led  forth  with  out-cries,  shoutes,  clamours, 
to  the  basest  and  most  ignominious  deaths.  Those  of 
whom  the  World  was  not  worthy,  reputed  unworthy  of 
the  World ;  have  the  Panegyrikes  of  their  prayses,  written 
not  by  the  pens  of  Parasites  or  Poets,  nor  in  the  lines, 
(as  is  said)  but  in  the  lives  of  men  ;  the  Christian  World 
(as  before  is  observed)  remayning  not  written,  but  reall 

2,  Co;-.  6.  lo.  Annalls   of  the   Apostles   Acts,   who   being   poore    made 
many    rich,    and    having    nothing    possessed    all    things. 

^Tkeod.Orat.  The  Solaecismes  ^  of  Fishermen  dissolved  the  Syllo- 
gismes  of  Philosophers,  and  where  but  a  few  of  any 
Nation  could  be  wonne,  to  professe  themselves  the 
Disciples  of  any  Philosophicall  Sect,  though  graced  and 
admired  by  the  World,  yet  the  World  becomes  Christian 
in  despite  of  the  Worlds  disgraces  and  persecutions : 
nor  could  the  immane-cruelties  ot  some,  or  superfine 
subtleties  of  other,  subvert,  nay  they  converted  men  to 
the  Gospel ;  the  seed,  the  fatning  of  the  Church  was 
the  Bloud  of  her  slaine  Martyrs ;  all  ages,  sexes,  sorts 
of  men,  even  women,  even  children,  even  women- 
children,  out-braving  the  greatest,  the  fiercest,  the 
wisest  of  Satanicall  instruments,  by  suffering,  conquer- 
ing, and  at  once  overcomming  the  Devill,  the  World, 
Themselves.  Even  so  O  Father,  because  it  pleased 

And  be  not  angry  Reader,  if  the  passed  present  unto 
my  contemplation  future  things ;  and  if  the  considera- 
tion   of    divine     assistance     in     Tongues,     Revelations, 



Miracles,    immediately    conferred    for    the    first    Planta- 
tion   of   Christianitie,   occasion    my   thoughts  to  a   more 
serious  survay  of  future   hopes  in  the   propagation   and 
reformation  thereof     In  the  first  foundation  of  IMosaicall  ^■*'-  3i-  ^-  6. 
Rites,   God    raysed    Bezaleel,   and    Aholiab    with    others,  ■      ^ 5- 3°- 
by  divine  instinct   inabled   to  curious   workmanship,  fit- 
ting   that    Oeconomie    of    the    Tabernacle,    whiles    that 
Jewish    Church    was   as   it    were   rocked    in   the    Cradle, 
and    God    vouchsafed    to    dwell    amongst    those    Tent- 
dwellers    in    a   Tent.     But    after   that   State   was   setled,  [I-  ^-  ^^•] 
and  the  Church  flourished  in  the  Reigne  of  David  and 
Salomon.     God  did  not  againe  infuse  Sciences  by  Miracle, 
or    by  miraculous   disposition    (as   before   the   Egyptians 
were   spoyled)   provided   materials  to   that   Worke ;    but 
furnished    Salomons    wisdome,    with    helpe    of    the    two 
Hirams,   the    one   a   cunning  workman   in   Gold,  Silver,  2.  Ciron.  2. 
Brasse,    Iron,   Stone,    Timber,   to   grave   any    manner   of  H- 
graving,  and  to  find   out    every  device,   the  sonne  of  a 
Tyrian,  by  an  Israelitish  woman ;  the  other  his  Master, 
the   King  of  Tirus,  a   man    furnished   with   a   Navy   of 
ships    and    store  of   Mariners,    by    whose    meanes    the 
Temple  and  Court  might  be  provided  of  necessaries  from 
remotest  Ophir,  aswell  as  the  neerer  Lebanon.     I  implore 
not,  I   importune   not  any   unwilling  assent  or   follower 
of  my   apprehension   and    application    hereof  to   what    I 
now  propound  in   like   differing   states  of  the   Christian 
Church,     Omnia  contingebant  illis  in  figura.     This  was   i.Cor,  lo.ii. 
likewise  founded,  and  as  it  were  a  Tabernacle  built  for  IZl"! at^"^"' 
Christ  by  the  Apostles,  men  wholy  enabled  by  immediate  ^isc^vov 
graces  and  gifts  of  the  Spirit  to  so  divine  a  Worke.     A  ^''"'"'"• 
Tabernacle    I    call    the    Church,   not   only   as    being    yet 
militant,   and   therefore   abiding    in    Tents,   but   in   com- 
parison and  respectively  to  that  externall  spendour  which 
followed  long  after  the  Apostles  times,  when  Kings  be- 
came   her   Nursing    Fathers   and    Queenes   her    Nursing 
Mothers,  subjected  their  Crowne  to  the  Crosse,  shining 
in   the  highest  top   thereof     Albeit   therefore  in   puritie 
of  doctrine  and  manners  the  Apostolicall  times  had  their 



spirituall  preeminence  (as  the  Tabernacle  also  exceeded 
the  Temple  in  the  ordinary  Cloud,  Pillar  of  fire,  Manna, 
Miracles,  syncerest  worship  by  Moses,  and  the  like.)  Yet 
when  the  World  became  Christian,  and  the  Crosse  became 
the  Imperiall  Banner  the  Church,  before  persecuted,  now 
revived  under  Constantine,  Jovianus,  Theodosius,  and 
other  Religious  Monarchs,  and  Kings,  seemed  to  renew 
the  Golden  revolutions  and  setled  returnes  of  Christian 
Davids  and  Salomons ;  and  they  which  before  had  not 
a  Smith  in  Israel,  scarsly  a  Bishop  or  Temple  to  be 
scene,  had  Temples,  Schooles,  Bishops,  Councels,  whence 
Religion  was  propagated  and  established  in  the  severall 
Realmes  and  Nations  of  Christianity ;  not  now  by 
Miracles  as  before  by  the  Apostles,  but  by  the  Ministery 
of  Bishops  and  Priests  of  ordinary  caUing  and  gifts ; 
and  hee  himselfe  was  now  the  greatest  Miracle  that 
beleeved  not,  the  whole  World  beleeving  and  wonder- 
ing at  infidelitie  as  a  Monster. 

And  as  the  Temple  and  state  or  Religion  declining 
was  repaired  and  reformed  by  godly  Kings,  as  Joash, 
Hezekiah,  Josiah ;  and  Zealous  Priests  such  as  Jehoiada ; 
after  the  ruines  thereof  was  rebuilded  by  Princes  and 
Priests,  Zorobabel  and  Joshua,  Nehemiah  and  Ezra :  so 
hath  God  stirred  up  good  Kings  &  Pastors  in  the 
declining  age  of  the  Church,  as  Charles  the  Great,  King 
Alfred  and  many  others  in  Histories  mentioned ;  & 
after  the  deportation  thereof  into  Mysticall  Babylon, 
when  shee  seemed  in  her  truest  members  fled  out  of 
the  Worlds  easier  view  into  the  Wildernesse,  hath  God 
raysed  up  the  Kings  of  England,  Sweden,  Denmarke, 
and  other  Christian  Princes,  States,  and  Potentates  with 
Religious  Bishops  and  Ministers  to  repaire  the  desolations 
of  Sion,  and  restore  Jerusalem  with  the  Temple,  if  not 
to  her  first  splendour,  yet  from  her  late  Captivity,  where 
Psal.  37.  4.  she  had  smal  pleasure  to  sing  the  Lords  song  in  a  strange 
land,  &  babble  her  holies  in  the  unknown  Language  ot 
Babylon.  As  therefore  the  first  Plantation  of  the  Taber- 
nacle was  by  miracle  and  immediate  instinct ;  the  erection 



of  the  Temple,  and  succeeding  reparations  were  by  the 
art  and  humane  industry  of  such  Heroike  spirits  as  God 
raysed  up  and  sanctified  in  every  age :  so  the  Christian 
Church  planted  by  Apostles,  hath  beene  since  watered 
by  faithfull  Pastors,  exalted  by  pious  Emperours,  de- 
pressed by  Heretikes  and  Persecutors,  captived  by  Popes, 
and  in  her  diversified  changes  and  chances,  rather  ex- 
pecteth  extraordinary  blessing  upon  the  ordinary  helpes, 
functions,  and  graces,  then  meanes  meerly  extraordinary 
and  miraculous.  Amongst  all  which  helpes  by  humane 
industry,  none  (in  my  mind)  have  further  prevailed  then 
those  two,  the  Arts  of  Arts,  Printing  and  Navigation, 
both  in  manner  given  at  once  to  the  World  by  divine 
goodnesse,  this  for  supply  of  matter,  that  other  of 
forme,  to  this  Spirituall  Reedification  of  Gods  Sanctuary. 
And  as  Hirams  Art  improoving  natural  wit  by  diligent 
industry,  succeeded  the  infused  Sciences  of  Bezaleel  and 
Aholiab ;  so  to  that  Apostolicall  gift  of  Tongues,  in  the 
foundation  of  the  Church  hath  succeeded  for  reformation 
thereof,  the  principall  Tongues  and  Languages  of  Nations 
Ebrew,  Greeke,  Latina,  Syriake,  Arabike,  and  the  rest, 
partly  refined,  partly  renewed  by  humane  Industrie, 
through  the  benefit  of  Printing,  For  how  were  the 
learned  and  remoter  Tongues  buried  and  unknowne  in 
these  parts,  till  that  Art  brought  in  plentie,  facilitie  and 
cheapnesse  of  Bookes,  whereby  Languages  became  the 
Keyes,  Bookes  the  Treasuries  and  Storehouses  of  Science ; 
whiles  by  those  men  found  access  into  these ;  and  Print- 
ing yeelded  admittance  to  both  in  plentie  and  varietie  ? 
And  thus  was  unvailed  that  mystery  of  Iniquity  in  the 
age  before  us,  which  had  captived  so  many  Ages  in 
worse  then  Egyptian  darknesse.  This  mystery  at  first 
arose  in  a  myst  from  the  bottomlesse  pit,  in  a  time  of 
barbarous  ignorance,  occasioned  by  irruption  of  Barbarians 
into  all  parts  of  Christendome,  successively  like  wild 
Bores  out  of  the  Forrest,  rooting  up  Gods  Vineyard, 
and  preparing  a  way  to  the  Romish  Foxes  to  spoile 
the    Vines,   to   corrupt    and    devoure   the   fruits   thereof, 



The  Goths,  Vandals,  Hunnes,  Herules,  Lombards,  Sara- 
cens, in  Spaine,  Afrike  and  Italy ;  the  Frankes,  and  after 
them  the  Saracens,  Danes,  and  Normans  in  France,  and 
the  places  adjoyning ;  the  Picts,  Saxons  and  Angles, 
and  after  them  the  Danes,  in  these  parts;  the  Avares, 
Saracens,  Tartars,  Turkes  in  the  East  and  South ;  with 
other  deluges  of  Ethnikes  hating  learning,  burning 
[1.  i.  63.]  Libraries,  killing  learned  men,  in  these  and  other  parts 
seconded  with  factions,  treasons,  and  civill  uncivill  com- 
bustions of  Christians  amongst  themselves,  made  easie 
way  first,  and  strong  confirmation  after  to  the  Papacy 
apprehending  all  opportunities  to  advance  it  selfe,  first 
in  spirituall  things,  after  also  in  temporall. 

But  what  illiterate  ignorance  little  discerned,  not  much 
withstood,  renewed  literature  hath  exposed  to  the  view 
of  all,  and  by  revived  Arts  hath  discerned  the  Arts  or 
that  painted  Jezabel,  whose  fouler  wrinkles,  her  Jeza- 
belicall,  Jesuiticall  Parasites  still  labour  with  renewed 
and  refined  Arts  also  to  playster  and  fill  up  a  fresh  ; 
but  hereby  whet  the  industry  of  others  to  improove 
their  Arts  and  industry  on  the  otherside,  in  more 
eagre  search  and  diligent  inquisition  to  take  those  wise 
in  their  craftinesse,  and  to  let  men  see  that  the  materials 
of  this  later  Babylon  in  the  West  are  turfes  of  earth, 
which  humane  wits  have  baked  into  brickes,  and  with 
slime  of  Policy,  have  raysed  to  so  superadmirable  a  frame 
and  structure. 

And   lest  so    great   a   blessing    procured    by   Printing, 
should  rest  and  rust  amongst  our  selves  in  this  Westerne 
corner  of  the  World,  God  hath  added  that  other  Art  of 
Ofihh  im-      Navigation,  as  that  other  Hirams  assistance  to  Salomon, 
provement  of    and  of  Nehemiah  to  Ezra,  the  Prince  and  Priest,  learning 
Nazngation       ^^-^^  power  combined.     This  Art  was  before  obscure  and 
Chapter  "^      rude,  but   by   the   industry   of  the    Portugals    lifted    up 
to  higher  attempts,  with  care  of  their  Kings  (employing 
Astronomic  to  her  better  furniture)  enabled  to  new  Dis- 
coveries in  Africa,  and  after  that  in  all  the  East,  whose 
example    the    Spaniard    following    happily    encountred    a 



New  World,  and  first  of  all  men  unlosed  the  Virgin 
Zone  of  the  Earth,  encompassing  the  whole  Compasse 
of  this  vast  Globe.  And  thus  hath  God  given  oppor- 
tunitie  by  Navigation  into  all  parts,  that  in  the  Sun-set 
and  Evening  of  the  World,  the  Sunne  of  righteousnesse 
might  arise  out  of  our  West  to  illuminate  the  East, 
and  fill  both  Hemispheres  with  his  brightnes  :  that  what 
the  Apostles,  by  extraordinary  dispensation  sent,  by 
extraordinary  providence  protected  &  conducted  into  all 
parts,  by  extraordinary  gift  of  Tongues  were  able  to 
preach  to  all  sorts  of  men  ;  this  latter  Age  following 
those  glorious  Fathers  and  Founders  (though  farre  off, 
non  passibus  aequis)  might  attempt  and  in  some  sort 
attaine  by  helpes  of  these  two  Artes,  Printing  and  Navi- 
gation, that  Christ  may  bee  salvation"  to  the  ends  of  <=/>/,  2. y  22. 
the  Earth,  and  all  Nations  may  serve  him ;  that  according 
to  the  Scripture  innumerable  numbers  of  all  Nations  and  Luke  2. 
Kindreds,  and  peoples,  and  Tongues,  may  be  clothed  ^f'°'^'  "•  9- 
with  the  white  robes  of  the  Lambe.  I  am  no  Prophet, 
nor  Sonne  of  a  Prophet,  instructed  in  future  revelations, 
but  one  with  all  others  praying,  thy  Kingdome  come ; 
neither  dare  I  take  upon  me  the  revelation  of  the 
Revelation  in  that  Prophecie  of  the  holy  Jerusalem 
descending  out  of  Heaven  from  God,  newly  measured 
with  a  golden  Reed,  to  apply  it  to  the  reformation  of 
the  Church  in  the  last  times ;  which  howsoever  some 
have  interpreted  only  of  her  glorious  and  celestiall  estate, 
others  have  included  the  terrestriall  also,  after  the  calling 
of  the  Jewes  (which  Saint  Paul  cals  life  trom  the  dead, 
as  if  it  were  the  Resurrection  of  the  World,  and  conse- 
quently in  spirituall  respects,  a  new  Heaven  and  new 
Earth)  alleadging  many  Arguments,  seeming  altogether 
to  this  purpose  not  improbable.  And  least  of  all,  will 
I,  lesse  then  the  least  of  all,  take  upon  me  the  reducing 
of  the  Jewes  into  I  know  not  what  externall  pompe 
and  policie,  and  exalt  them  in  splendour  above  all  other 
Nations  and  Monarchs  (the  very  stumblmg  stone  of 
their  downfall ;  this  dreame  of  a  glorious  Messias,  pro- 



Forbis  Brigki- 
man, Bernard, 
tsfc.  if!  Jpoc. 
Rom.  II.  15. 
^Psal.  19. 
Rom.  10. 
So. vid.Prosp. 
de  lib.  orbit. 
Syb.  Or.  I.  3. 

Bellar.  Les- 
sius,  l3c. 
Fid.  J  cost,  de 
Proc.  Ind.  sal. 
I.  4.  c.  2.  y 
de  temp,  novis. 
I.  i.f.  17.  18. 
Collect  on 
Good  Friday. 
Except  in  the 
quondam  Ro- 
man Empire 
tfS  the  Coun- 
tries next 
adjoyning,  viz 
the  Swedens, 
Poles,  ISorzve- 
gians,  Dunes, 
Russes,  and 
other  Nor  th- 
eme people 
most  of  them 
lately  added  to 
the  Church; 
y  the  Abas- 
sines  on  the 
South  Ij^  some 
handfuls  on  the 
East ;   Chris- 
tianity hath 
rather  bin 
dispersed  in 
Nations  then 
publikely  and 
generally  pro- 
fessed.    God 

voicing  them  to  crucifie  the  Lord  of  glory,  whose 
Kingdome  is  not  of  this  World,  though  prefigured  by- 
types,  and  painted  in  shadowes  of  Secular  glorie)  T 
meddle  not  with  Secular  States,  but  pray  for  the  con- 
version and  spirituall  regeneration  of  all  men.  And 
Nature  it  selfe  preacheth  thus  daily :  if  the  Sunne  daily, 
shal  not  the  Sunne  of  righteousnesse  once,  enlighten  all 
the  World  ?  It  is  the  Holy  Ghosts  resemblance.  If 
the  Fathers'^  of  old  did  expect  a  further  conversion  of 
Nations  by  the  Gospel  ;  if  the  Sybilline  Oracles  promise 
as  much  ;  if  the  Papists  make  this  a  demonstration 
that  Antichrist  is  not  yet  come,  because  the  Gospel  is 
not  yet  preached  to  all  men,  which  they  hope  hereafter 
shall  bee  effected  ;  if  the  Prophecies  of  the  glorious 
state  of  the  Church  mentioned  in  Esay  and  Zacharie, 
shadowed  in  Ezekiels  Temple,  and  destruction  of  Gog 
and  Magog,  renued  in  the  Revelation,  seeme  not  yet 
to  have  taken  their  full  effect,  but  to  promise  some 
better  future  estate,  as  even  those  many  Ancients  also 
conceited,  whose  full  sayle  and  forward  gale  carried 
them  beyond  the  Truth  into  the  Millenary  Errour  : 
if  our  Church  prayeth  for  all  Jewes,  Turkes,  and 
Infidels,  that  they  may  be  one  sheep-fold  under  one 
Pastor :  then  I  may  also  with  the  Streame  bee  carried 
into  expectation  of  that  dilating  the  Churches  Pale,  and 
a  more  Catholike  enlarging  of  her  bounds,  specially  in 
those  parts  of  the  World,  where  though  we  grant  the 
Gospel  preached  by  the  Apostles,  yet  little  fruit  in 
comparison  followed  in  many  Countries ;  nor  any  generall 
conversion  of  Nations,  except  of  the  Romane  Empire 
with  the  adjoyning  Regions,  and  some  few,  scarce  a 
few  Provinces  annexed,  hath  hitherto  happened.  And 
how  litde  to  the  rest  of  the  World  is  all  that  which  is 
called  Christendome,  or  that  also  which  in  any  setled 
flourishing  estate  of  a  Church  hath  ever  yet  beene  Chris- 
tian }  Pardon  therefore  this  Charitie  extended  to  all  men, 
to  pray  and  hope  for  the  remotest  of  Nations  no  more 
remote  from  Christ  in  Nature  or  promise,  then  our  selves. 



And  (to  returne  to  our  Navigation)  the  present  Navi-  S'[^^^^p^^' 
gations,  Missions,  Preachings,   of  Jesuites  and  Friers  in  f "^^^/.  ;{^^ -^ 
the  Heathen    Nations  of  the    World,  seeme  to   present  ^„  j^d^i^  ^j 
unto  my  minde  that  state  of  the  dispersed  Jewes  before  mj  Charitie 
Christs   comming   in  the  flesh.     He  came   to  his  owne,  then  of  my 
and  his  owne  received  him  not,  which  yet  by  their  Scrip-  ^^f]j^„J^f^^^ 
tures.  Synagogues,  Rites,  in  their  many  many  dispersions,  [-j  j  5^  j 
had    unwitting    prepared   a  way  unto    him    amongst  the 
Gentiles.     Let  none  contemne  this  figure  of  the  Jewish  "^  The  greatest 
Church    (which    yeelds'^   in    most    objections    of  Popery  ^"'^f^^/^^^^^ 
touching  Visibility,   Succession,   Antiquity,  Universality,  "paphtUrlwn 
Consent,  Pontificall  Priviledges,  and  most  of  their  vulgar  from  the 
and  popular  flourishes,  reall  and  experimentall  resolutions,  autharity,  l3c. 
bv  paraleline  the  Tew  and  Romanist ;  this  bein^  inferiour  of  the  Church, 

.•'r  D  •'.  .  \-ri  -1  f^^'9  be  with 

m   evidence,    superiour   m   arrogance)   it    herein   also   "^^  fairer  shew  l^ 
see  them  like  ;  and  those  later  Pharises,  compassing  Sea  surer  ground 
and  Land  to  make  Proselites,  by  preaching  some  Christian  applyed  to  the 
verities     amongst     their     Traditionary     chaffe,    become  •{f!""'^     ,.  , 
Apparitors   and   Harbengers    of  a    future    purity,   which  ^J"J^^f^J^^^ 
yet  themselves  crucifie  as  Hereticall.     Spaine  hath  as  is 
said,  in   Navigation   best    deserved   (in   leading   the   way 
to  others,  some  of  which  have^  since  in  the  Art  equalled,  "English  and 
in  attempts  perhaps  exceeded  her)  and  by  divine  Provi-  -Oa/^/J. 
dence  hath  beene  bountifully  rewarded  in  the  East  and 
West,  both  overshadowed  under  her  wings:  is  also  one 
of  the   ten  homes   (as    the   current   of   our   Interpreters  Jpoci-j.iT,, 
agree)   which    together  with  the   beast   receive  power  as   '^• 
Kings,   out   of  the   ruines   of  the   Romane   Empire  ;    of 
which  it  is  prophesied  that  the  ten  homes  shall  hate  the  z.Reg.().zz. 
Whore,    and    shall    make    her    desolate    and    naked    and 
shall  eate  her  flesh  and  burne  her  with  fire.     For  God 
hath   put  into  their  hearts  to  fulfill  his  will,  &c.     God 
put    into   their   hearts   to   be    thus   truly    Catholike,  and 
able    to    discerne   the   whoredoms   and   many  witchcrafts 
of  their  mother  Jezabel,  the   mother   of  fornications   of  jpoc.  17.  5. 
the    Earth ;    enable   them    to   see   that   Catholike-Roman  Exploits  of 
is  the   Language  of  Babel,  where  men  but  babble,  and  ^P"^^"^- 
the  word  (like  Esau  and  Jacob  striving  in   the   wombe) 



supplants  the  next  preceding  ;  that  the  now-Roman  is 
but  new-Roman,  and  therefore  Catholike  no  more  in 
time  then  place,  no  more  in  sound  apprehension  of  truth, 
then  in  round  comprehension  of  the  Universe.  And  that 
God  which  hath  given  them  to  chase  the  relikes  of  the 
Moores  out  of  Europe,  to  chastise  them  in  Afrik  & 
Asia,  to  find  that  New  World  of  America,  with  her  two 
armes  of  Navigation  from  Lisbone  and  Sivill  yeerely,  to 
embrace  the  whole  Globe,  and  to  have  greater  opor- 
tunities  for  so  Catholike  a  worke  then  yet  is  granted  to 
any  other  Nation  ;  put  into  their  hearts  with  other 
Princes  and  Christian  Nations  to  fulfill  this  his  will 
against  that  Whore  ;  which  the  Prophesie  enforceth  to 
beleeve  shall  bee  done,  and  their  King  in  our  Fathers 
dayes  gave  instance  how  easie.  I  ring  not,  sound  not 
an  alarme,  nor  strike  up  a  march  for  warre,  I  determine 
not  the  particular  way  or  instruments  of  that  desolation. 
Jpoc.  17.  6.  I  delight  not  in  imprecations,  nor  to  that  Whore  drunken 
with  the  bloud  of  Saints  and  IVIartyrs  wish  any  bloudy 
Apoc.\%.e.  reward  of  my  selfe :  but  God  himselfe  hath  foretold 
Vid.  Prafat.  devouring  her  flesh  and  burning  her,  and  enjoyned  also, 

S/'  ^'^'  ^"  ^^^  ^"P  ^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^^  ^^^  ^°  ^^^  double. 
Which  howsoever  it  shall  bee  effected,  I  doe  not  pre- 
scribe, nor  doe  I  single  out  that  Nation  to  this  purpose, 
but  joyne  them  with  others  in  my  Prayers  for  the 
execution  of  that  Prophecie,  both  to  goe  out  of  Babylon, 
and  to  goe  against  it  in  just  reformation,  that  it  may  bee 
no  more  found  at  all ;  at  least  by  making  her  naked  of 
that  protection  which  thence  she  receiveth,  and  redemand- 
ing  their  owne,  may  detayne  the  over-flowings  of 
Euphrates  that  the  way  of  the  Kings  of  the  East  may 
bee  prepared  to  exterminate  Babylon  out  of  the  World. 
And  is  it  not  better  thus  to  pray  for  them  that  they  may 
have  an  honorable  part  in  that  Prophesie,  that  Babylon 
may  further  fall  by  their  falling  from  them,  then  that 
they  should  fall  with  her  }  or  to  reckon  up  the  bloudy 
effects  of  their  Inquisition  in  Europe,  and  their  in- 
humanity  in  America,   and    number    them   amongst    the 


ln,ljg.iu  unnwrjl:  ^nyl-i.;:  Clrt'^hmt 'ljn.'rjiit     .    ■  x  \-v^''^.j»-  /"^  w-.,^ 

•If./;  Dt.tbchim  t4j(nr,_nift'  .jitiliufi.iim  in  bcu,  ^        ^     \^         .v'^'s.       >>.       '       ^  Ji-   \'''*«w^ 

.''!2'''!ii!f!i;p^'!: ^^..i''_'^,  V^'^^^  f^?-^.  KuiViAX^  \  \^^^       '"^^'"'--^^ 

C  H  R I  S  T I  AN  I 

— ' — '  n\T!\    (Ch-[j}\.m\Jmm\cm,nia.jf\Ti.,!.u 

iitjui    J'jy.-f.iI'i/M 
7.vr/vr.\Tffl    ,     ffvn.i 

mmmi  uhijui  nr: -I  ^  \'V''  . 

'  F,i' iw^i::  Ihniiinri       "H"'  ■  ''if  ««""•■  >.,.•,.,•,,.,.•    ' 
-^  1  Jn.vrjvr.vTffl    ,     f(' 



Kings    of    the    Earth,    who    shall    bewayle    and    lament 
Romes  ruines  ;  or  to  those  Ship-masters,  Ship-companies, 
Saylers  and  Traders  by  Sea,  and  Merchants  of  the  Earth 
weeping  for  her  desolations  ?     Once,  I  say  not  that  they 
of  all  men  have  the  most  eminent  oportunity  to  subvert 
Babylon  by  their  Italian  neighbourhood  and  Territories  ; 
I  pray  that  they  endevour  to  convert  the  Easterne  and 
Westerne    Indians  making  that  best  use  of  their  Navi- 
gations,  giving  them    Gold    refined    and    truly   spirituall 
for  their  temporall.     And  though  they  now  of  all  Nations 
seeme    most    enamoured    of  that   Roman    (therein    truly 
Catholike,  that  is,  common)  Harlot,  yet  Hee  which  hath  Prov.  21.  i. 
the   heart  of  Kings  in  his  hand  as  the  rivers  of  water,  -£'z-  29-  i9- 
can  turne  it,  when  and  whithersoever  he  will :   can  effect 
this  also  by  others,  without,  yea  against  them  :  can  reward 
(as   sometime  hee    did    Nebuchadnezzar    for    his   service 
done  at  Tyrus,  with  the   land  of  Egypt  for   the   wages  E%.  27.  y 
of  his  Armie,  and  the  Israelites  at  their  departure  with  ^A  12 
Egyptian    spoiles)  can  reward  I  say  both  those  which  at 
his  command  go  out  of,  or  when  his   Providence   shall 
dispose,   against    this    Babylon   (which    for    captiving  the 
people  of  God  is  called  Egypt,  for  filthinesse  Sodom,  & 
for  the  Staple  of  Spiritual  Merchandise,  is  also  resembled 
to  Tyrus)  with  the  spoyles  of  the  Spirituall  Egyptians, 
with    the    Turks    destruction    (which    litterally    possesse 
Egypt)  with  the  riches  of  the  Gentiles  brought   to   the 
Church,    besides    their    own    and    the    Churches    liberty. 
And  as  Jerusalem   (to    return   to    our    similitude)    being 
demolished  by  the   Romans,   the   Church    became    truely 
Catholike,  not  looking  any  more  to  walls  of  a  Temple, 
to  carnall  Sacrifices,  to  the  petty  pinfold  of  one  Nation, 
to  one  City,  as  the  Mart  &  Mother  of  Christian  Religion  *^'^'^'j;^- 
and  discipline  (how  much  had  the  Apostles  to  doe  whiles  1/ Uapog 
Jerusalem  stood,  to  withhold*  Christians  from  Judaizing?)   Apoc.2o.%.\^ 
so  is  it  to  bee   hoped   and    prayed,   that    this    Mysticall  ^p-  9-  ^"^• 
Babylon,  which   now    by    usurpation    challengeth    to  bee    ^      ■',^J', 

ivyi-  1     ^/r      1  r      1         /-I  i  •    ■  i  Ep.  ad  Gal. 

Mistresse  and  Mother  or    the    Church,   arrivmg   at  that  ^-T^  p^^y 
prophecied     irrecoverable     downefall,     Catholike-Roman   Heb.  iff. 
I  177  M 


(universall-particular)  may  no  more  bee  heard,  but  true 
[I.  i.  65.]  Catholicisme  recovering  her  venerable  and  primary  Anti- 
quitie,  may  v^^ithout  distracted  faction,  in  free  and  unani- 
mous consent,  extend  her  Demesnes  of  Universalitie 
as  farre  as  the  Earth  hath  Men,  and  the  light  of  her 
truth  may  shine  together  with  the  Sun-beames,  round 
about  the  habitable  World :  that  as  Salomon  by  Hirams 
Mariners  fetched  materials,  Gold,  Gemmes,  Almuggim 
Trees,  to  the  Temples  structure,  v^^hich  by  the  others 
Hirams  Art  were  brought  and  wrought  into  due  forme ; 
so  the  Heavenly  Salomon,  the  Lord  Jesus,  may  by  this 
his  gift  of  Navigation  supply  those  remote  Fields, 
white  unto  the  Harvest,  with  plentie  of  labourers,  to 
bring  into  the  Societie  of  the  True  Church  those  rude 
Ethnikes,  of  them  to  frame  Pillars  in  the  house  of 
God,  vessels  of  sanctimony  in  the  sanctuary  finer  then 
Prov.  8.  the  Gold  of  Ophir,  enlightened  with  spirituall  wisdome 
and  understanding  of  Holy  things,  richer  then  Rubies, 
and  the  most  incomparable  Jewels :  that  these  may  by 
the  art  of  Hiram,  the  Son  of  an  Isralitish  woman  by  a 
Tyrian  Father,  that  is  by  the  Ministery  of  Pastors  and 
Doctors,  learned  in  divine  and  humane  Literature  be 
instructed,  baptised,  edified  and  disciplined ;  that  in  the 
places  where  yet  is  no  Christian,  nay  no  Humane  or 
Hos.  I.  10.  Civill  people,  it  may  be  said  unto  them,  yee  are  the 
Sonnes  of  the  living  God ;  that  there  may  be  one 
Pastor  and  one  sheepfold,  one  Salvation,  Redeemer,  and 
Advocate,  to  Jew  and  Gentile,  Jesus  Christ  the  light  ot 
the  Gentiles  and  the  glory  of  his  people  Israel :  whom 
my  Discourse  having  now  obtained  to  embrace,  shall 
here  confine  it  selfe  with  a  Nunc  Dimittis,  and  end 
with  Amen,  to  that  Amen,  in  whom  all  the  promises 
of  God  are  yea  and  Amen.  Even  so.  Amen  Lord 



Chap.   III.  [I.  I  66.] 

Of  divers  other  principall  Voyages,  and  Pere- 
grinations mentioned  in  holy  Scripture.  Of 
the  travels  and  dispersions  of  the  Jewes ;  and 
of  Nationall  transmigrations. 

Aving  premised  the  two  former  Tractates, 
as  the  two  Eyes  of  Peregrinations  most 
faire  Face,  I  shall  bee  as  briefe  in  the 
following,  as  I  have  in  them  beene 
tedious  and  discursive.  The  first  voy- 
age of  Mankind  was  out  of  Paradise  Paradise. 
into    the    cursed     parts    of    the    Earth, 

thence   with  sweat  and   labour  to  get  his  living.     Caines 
restlesse  wandrings,  and  yet  still  dwelling  in  the  land  of 
Nod,  that   is   of  agitation  and  vexation,  never  being  still 
(there   is   no    peace   saith    my  God,  to   the  wicked)  and 
Henochs   contrary  walking  with  God,  I   need   not  men-  Esdras.  57. 
tion.     And  I  have  already  mentioned  the  first  Ship  and  3i- 
voyage  by  water,  Noahs  Arke,  and  the   first  early  Pere- 
grination after  to    the    Plaine    of   Shinar,    where    Babels  Babel. 
building    was    with     mutuall    babbling    or   confusion    of 
Languages    confounded ;     which    gave    occasions    to    the 
dispersion  of   Mankind  over   the   Earth,   that  is,   to   the 
planting  and    peopling  of  the   World,  of  which   I    have 
given  account  somewhat  largely  before,  in  the  first  Booke 
of  my  Pilgrimage.     Abram  is   called   out  of  Ur  of  the  Abram  and 
Chaldees,  and  travels  with  Lot   to  Haran  first,  and  after  Lot. 
into    Canaan :     thence    Famine    forced    him   into    Egipt ; 
after  hee  sets  forth  for  the  recovery  of  Lot  in  a  Martiall 
Expedition    against    foure    Kings,    returning    by  Melchi- 
sedek    King    of    Salem.       Abraham    after    many    tent-  Abraham  and 
wandrings    comes   to    Gerar,   and   after   Isaacs   birth   and  ^■''^<''='- 
blessed  hopes  conceived  of  him,  is  sent  on  the  most  diffi- 
cult journey  to  Moriah  :  at  Hebron   he  burieth  his  Wife 
and  fellow  Traveller  :  sends  his  servant  to  Mesopotamia 
for    Rebekah :   and  having   sent   his  multiplied   issue    by 



Keturah  unto  the  East  Countrey  (as  before  Ishmael)  hee 
ended  his  earthly  Pilgrimage.  Isaac  inherites  the  pro- 
mises, and  yet  travelleth  of  them  by  travelling,  not 
founding  Cities  but  dwelling  in  Tabernacles,  as  did  Jacob 
also,  before  and  after  his  long  service  in  Padan  Aram, 
till  at  last  hee  descended  into  Egipt,  whither  God  had 
Jacob  &  sent  Joseph  in  a  former  Peregrination.  These  both  dyed 
Jo<e/>A.  in   Faith,  and  gave  charge,  the  one  for  his  dead  body, 

the    other    for    his   bones  to  travell  to  Canaan  the  type 
of  their  hopes. 
Moses  &  Out   of  ^gipt  God  called  his  Sonne,  now  multiplied 

j4^rott.  into  an  armie  as  is  before  observed :   which   yet  are  not 

presently  in   Canaan   after  the   passage  of  the   Red   Sea, 
Israr/s  Pere-    but  are  Pilgrims  fortie  yeeres  in  the  Wildernesse.     Wee 
grination  iti      ^Iso  after  wee  have  escaped  the  bondage  of  hellish  Pharao, 
VJitkfoiThi  ^"^    ^^^"^    ^^^    vanquished    in    the    Red   Sea   of  Christ 
Map.^^^  blood,  whereinto  wee  are  baptised,  must  live  the  life  of 
Faith,    passing    thorow   the    wildernesse    of   this    World, 
having  no  more  sustenance  to  our  soules  from  our  meere 
Naturall    powers,    then    there    their    Plowing    and   Hus- 
bandrie    yeelded    their    bodies :     but    as    their    food    and 
rayment,  were  the  effects  of  Gods  grace,  and  not  humane 
Tit.  3.  5.        labour;  so  not  by  the  workes  of  righteousnesse,   which 
wee  have  done,  but  according  to  his  mercy  hee  saveth  us : 
Exoti.  13.        and  by  his  Word  and  Spirit  as  a  Pillar  of  cloud  by  Day, 
and  of  fire  by  Night  travelleth  with   us,  till  Joshua,  the 
true   Jesus   (for  Moses  brings  not  into  Canaan,  nor  can 
the   Law  justifie)   set  us   in  possession   of  the    heavenly 
Canaan,  where  Jericho  is  battered  not  by  warhke  Engines, 
but  by  the  power  of  faith  in  the  Word  and  Covenant  of 
God;  and   the   Houses   which   our   workes  builded    not, 
and   Vineyards  which    our    merits    planted    not,  even    the 
Thrones  which  Angels  lost,  are  made  ours  for  ever  by  free 
Grace   and  meere   Mercy.     This  is  that  rest,  into  which 
none  but  Travellers  can  enter,  and  that  by  crowding  so 
Mntth.  7.        hard  into   that   narrow  gate,  that  they  must   leave  them- 
*Matt.  16.     selves*   behind;   nor   take  possession  of,  but   by  losse  of 
24.  life  it  selfe,  passing  that  Jordan  which   floweth  the  way 



of  all    flesh    into    the    Dead    Sea,    before    they  can    live 
with  God. 

Nor    need   men    thinke    much   to   travell,   where   God 
himselfe   was   a  Mysticall    Traveller    in    the    Tabernacle, 
till  Salomon    built  him  an    House  adorned    by  Ophirian 
Navigations.     Saul    before    this    had    travelled    to    seeke  SW.  DavU. 
lost    Asses,    and    stumbled    on    an    earthly    Kingdome : 
David   by  keeping  of   Sheepe   and    following    the  Ewes 
with    young    was    initiated,    and    after    by    many    many 
travels  trained  to  the  Mysteries  of  Royaltie,  which  with 
diversified    travels    he    exercised    all    his    dayes.      Jero-  Jeroboam. 
boams     travels     to     ^gipt     taught    him    those    calvish 
devotions,  which  made  Israeli  travell  into  many  Assyrian 
Plantations;     and    Judah    also    was    carried    captive    to  Capthnde. 
Babilon,  restored  by  a  travell   from   thence  to   Jerusalem 
under   Zorobabel,   Ezra,   and   Nehemiah ;    a   mysterie    of 
that  mystie  deportation  of  the  Christian  Church,  by  ignor- 
ance   and    superstition,   and    her    reformation    by    Godly 
Princes   and   Pastors.      Hirams   Mission,  the   Queene  of 
Shebas    Visitation,    Jonahs    Journey    to    Ninive,   intimate 
the  calUng  of  the   Gentiles,  whose   First-fruits  were  the 
Wise-men  of  the   East,  which   came   so   farre   a   voyage  Matth.  2. 
to  salute  the  New-borne  King  of  the  Jewes.  J  oh.  i. 

The  Devill  also   is  a   Traveller,  and  continually  com- 
passeth  the  Earth  to  and  fro,  and  goeth  about  as  a  roaring   i.  Pet.  5, 
Lyon  seeking  whom  to  devoure ;  travelling  of  mischiefe, 
and   conceiving    lies.     Such    were    the    Assyrian,    Syrian, 
Persian,    Babilonian,    Egyptian,    &   other    travels  of   the 
Churches  Enemies ;  theirs  also  which  in  blind  zeale  com- 
passed  Sea  and  Land  to  make  Pharisaical  Proselites.     In 
Mordecais    time,   you    see   in   the   Booke  of  Esther   the  [I.  i.  (il^, 
Jewish     dispersions   thorow   all    the     one     hundred    and  ^^^-  "■^^■ 
twenty    seven    Persian    Provinces,    even    from    India    to 
Ethiopia,  long  after  the  returne  under  Zorobabel,  which 
multiplied  no  doubt  in  Ages  following  accordingly. 

But  why  looke  I  for   Travellers    and    Voyages  there,  Deut.  16. 
where  the  Church  was  tied  to  one  place,  to  travell  thither 
three  times  a  yeere,  and  therefore  ordinarily  not  to  bee 


farre  from  thence  ?  The  Babylonian  and  Alexandrian  I 
dispersions,  after  the  Captivity  we  have  already  men-  I 
tioned  ;  whereby  the  World  was  strewed  with  Jewes  , 
(not  to  mention  the  Israelites)  as  Apparitors  to  the  Mes-  | 
sias,  and  preparers  thereof  to  Christianitie  in  the  Apostles 
preaching.  Then  indeed  the  Jewes  were  Travellers  ^ 
from  all  parts  to  Jerusalem,  &  as  men  were  more  reli-  \ 
Act.  2.  5, 9,  giously  affected,  There  dwelled  at  Jerusalem  Jewes,  | 
lo,  II.  devout  men  out    of  every  Nation  under  Heaven,  which     '] 

being  of  Jewish  Parentage,  were  by  the  place  of  their  \ 
birth,  Parthians,  Medes,  and  Elamites,  Mesopotamians, 
Cappadocians,  of  Pontus  and  Asia,  Phrygia  and  Pam- 
philia,  Egypt,  and  of  the  parts  of  Libya  about  Cyrene, 
Strangers  of  Rome,  Jewes  and  Proselytes,  Cretes  and 
Matt.  27.  This  was  after  that  imprecation  of  theirs.   His  bloud 

bee  on  us  and  on  our  children  :    so  did   God  seeke  to 
overcome  their  evill  with  his  goodnesse :   but  when  they 
Act. -J.  IS  I-}),  which  had  before  persecuted  the  servants,  and   crucified 
the  Lord  of  glory  himselfe,  now  resisted  the  holy  Ghost, 
being    uncircumcised    in    hearts    and    eares,  and  judged 
themselves  unworthy  of  eternall  life;    God   let   out    his 
Vineyard  to  other  Husbandmen,  and  the  fall  of  the  Jewes 
Deut.  28.        became  the  riches  of  the  World.     Then  came  the  wrath 
of  God  on  them  to  the  utmost,  and  they  became  a  tra- 
velling Nation  indeed,  travelling  now   above   1500.  yeeres 
from   being  a    Nation  ;    and    Moses    his    prophecie    was 
verified  in   their  scattering  from   one  end  of  the  World 
Jos.  de  Bel.     to  the  other.      Eleven  hundred  thousand  are  said  to  have 
Jud.l.-j.c.z\.  perished  in   Jerusalem  alone  (where  Christ  had  been  cru- 
cified) besides  all  other  slaughters  in  all  other   parts  of 
Judaea,   in   that  fatall  warre   under  Vespasian  and  Titus  : 
97000.  were    sold    to    be    distracted    slaves    thorow    the 
Gal.  Arcan.     world,   Galatinus  saith   200000.    thirty   of  them   for  one 
/.  4.  21.  piece  of  Silver,   which   had   given    thirty  pieces   for    him 

which  came  to  make  them  free.  Yet  had  not  the  Land 
spued  out  all  her  Lihabitants,  but  grew  so  queasie  and 
full  of  qualmes,  that  the  remainders  in  Adrians  time  enter- 



tained  Bencochab  for  their  Messias,   who    with    200000. 
Jewes  in   his  Army,  is  said  to  have  rebelled  and  bred  such 
combustions,   that   this  Sonne  of  the  Starre  (so  his  name 
soundeth)  was  after  called  Barchosba,  the  Sonne  of  Lying. 
It  were  prodigious*,  not  hyperboHcall  alone,  to  tell  what  *  See  my  Pil- 
the   Jewes    tell  of   their    following    slaughters  :  700000.  grimage  I.  2. 
slaine  in   Egypt,   and  in    Judaea,   so  many  as  passeth  all  '^*  '°' 
modesty  to  relate  after  them.      Dion  Nicgeus  tells  of  fifty  Dion  Adrian. 
Castles  and  nine  hundred  and  eighty  of  their  best  Townes 
rased,  580000.  slaine,  besides  innumerable  multitudes  which 
perished  by   famine,  fire,  diseases,  and  other  Baggage  of 
Invading  Campes. 

i^lius  Adrianus  banished  the  Jewes  from  Cyprus  and 
Judasa,  erected  a  new  City  instead  of  Jerusalem,  called  of 
his  owne  name  iElia,  and  set  Images  of  Swine  over  the 
Gates  as  Porters  to  keepe  out  the  Jewes,  yea  prohibited  by 
Edict  the  Jewes  to  looke  toward  it  from  any  high  place. 
Trajan  before  was  instigated  by  their  rebellion,  to  destroy  Jewes  destruc- 
many  thousands  of  them   in   Egypt,  Cyrene  and   Meso-  ^'^'"• 
potamia.     And  ever  since,  those  which  are  contrary  to  all 
men,   have   found  all  men  contrary  to  them  ;  and  have 
lived  (if  such  slavery  and   basenesse  be  a  life)  like  Cain, 
wandring    over    the    World,    branded    wth    Shame    and  Jetves  dispcr- 
Scorne.     Spaine,  England,  France,  Germany,  Poland,  Italy,  "°"- 
Turkie,   all  the   Indies  as  farre  as  China   have  had  them 
Inhabitants  ;  have  had  indeed,  for  many  have  given  them 
terrible  expulsions,  the  rest  using  cruell  and  unkind  hos- 
pitalitie,    so    that    they    are    strangers   where   they  dwell, 
and  Travellers  where  they  reside,  still  continuing  in  the 
throwes   of  travell   both   of  misery   and   mischiefe.     But 
I   have  handled  this  matter  more  fully  in  my  Pilgrimage,  See  my  Pil.  L 
and  both  Benjamin  Tudelensis  a  Travelling  Jew,  and  other  2.  r.  21. 
Travellers    in    the    following    Relations,    will    give    you 
strange     travells    of    theirs    thorow    Asia,   Africa,     and 
Europe  ;    in  all   their  dispersions    to    this    day    retaining 
their    bloud,    name,    rites,   as  disposed  by  a  higher  and 
most  merciful!  providence,  which  in   his  time   will  shew 
mercy  on  them,  to  see   him   by  the  eye   of  Faith,   whom 



by  the  hand  of  Cruelty  they  had  crucified,  and  all  Israel 
Rom.  II.  26.  shall  be  saved,  and  returne  to  the  Church  by  a  more 
generall  Conversion  then  hath  yet  beene  seene ;  and 
Rom.  II.  15.  as  their  rejection  hath  proved  the  reconciling  of  the 
World,  so  the  receiving  of  them  shall  be  life  from  the 

All  times  are  in  Gods  hand,  but  hee  which  hath  promised 
is  able  to  performe  :  and  perhaps  if  Rome  the  Spiritual! 
Babylon  bee  captived  and  ruined,  which  hath  obtruded 
so  long  on  them  the  monsters  of  Image  worship,  Tran- 
substantiation,  worshipping  of  so  many  Saints,  with  other 
seemings  of  refined  Ethnicisme,  and  imposeth  on  Con- 
verts the  losse  of  all  their  substance  ;  the  way  shall  bee 
made  more  plaine  for  them  :  which  wee  hope  is  growing 
to  some  ripenesse  in  this  Age,  when  about  so  many  yeeres 
have  passed  since  the  calling  of  the  Gentiles,  as  from 
Jacobs  Family  in  Egypt,  growing  to  the  face  and  pro- 
portion of  a  People  and  Nation,  unto  their  destruction  : 
and  full  out  as  many  as  were  from  Josephs  death  in 
Egypt,  to  the  destruction  of  the  Temple  under  Titus, 
and  more  then  from  Moses  his  Exodus,  to  that  other 
Exodus  and  extermination  under  Adrian.  We  are  no 
Prophets,  and  must  learne  by  event  the  certainty  of  Gods 
(before  secret)  counsells.  In  meane  while  let  us  pray. 
Hallowed  be  thy  Name,  thy  Kingdome  come,  that  this 
Gal.  4.  19.  travelling  Nation  may  one  day  travell  in  birth  of  Christ 
Luc.  15.  17.  till  he  be  formed  in  them,  and  with  the  prodigall  Sonne, 
18.  may  travell  from  their  wandrings,  and  at  once  returne  to 

[I.  i.  68.]  their  Father  and  to  themselves,  that  we  may  all  meet 
in  the  unity  of  Faith,  and  Gods  will  may  bee  done  in 
Earth,  as  it  is  done  in  Heaven,  there  being  but  one 
Shepheard  and  one  Sheepefold,  Amen.  As  the  Jewish 
Nation  hath  been  litterally  Travellers,  so  the  Christian 
Church  is  alway  travelling  spiritually  to  her  home,  and 
from  her  selfe  ;  and  the  Jewish  deportation  to  Babylon, 
was  a  figure  of  the  Antichristian  Captivity  in  Romish  and 
*To.  I. /.  8.  Popish  superstition,  of  which  wee  have  taken  occasion 
c-  6.  to  speake  more  fully  elsewhere*. 



As  at  first  the  World  was  peopled  by  peregrination 
successively  from  Noahs  Arke,  and  Babels  Tower :  so  in 
the  worldly  vicissitude  of  all  things,  a  world  of  peregrina- 
tions have  happened  in  the  World,  and  that  of  worlds 
of  men  together,  in  Nationall  invasions,  plantings,  sup- 
plantings,  Colonies  and  new  alterations  of  the  face  of 
the  world  in  each  part  thereof  Thus  the  Israelites  D^"^-  2-  9' 
supplanted  the  Canaanites  &  dwelt  in  their  rooms  ;  as  did  ^^'  ^°' 
the  Moabites  to  the  giantly  Emims,  the  Edomites  to 
the  Horims,  the  Ammonites  to  the  Zamzummims,  and 
other  Nations  to  others.  To  recite  these  were  to  recite 
all  Stories  in  manner  of  the  World  :  Lazius  de  Migra- 
tionibus  Gentium,  and  others  have  in  part  undertaken  it. 
For  even  in  Palestina  alone  how  many  successions  have 
beene,  of  Canaanites,  Israelites,  Assyrians  (after  called 
Samaritans)  and  Jewes  together .''  Of  those  which  the 
Romans  placed  or  permitted,  of  Saracens,  of  Frankes,  or 
Westerne  Christians  in  so  many  millions  as  two  hundred 
yeers  space  sent  out  of  Christendome  thither;  of  Dru- 
sians,  Syrians,  &  a  very  Babylon  of  Nations  (none  and 
all)  ever  since }  This  Britaine  of  ours,  besides  those 
which  first  gave  it  name  (whose  remainders  still  enjoy 
Wales)  hath  admitted  Romane  sprinklings  and  Colonies, 
and  after  that  a  generall  deluge  of  Saxons,  Juttes,  and 
Angles ;  tempests  and  stormes  out  of  Denmarke  and 
Norway,  and  lastly  the  Norman  mixture  and  combination. 
Neither  is  there  any  Region  of  ancient  Note,  which  hath 
not  sustained  chance  and  change  in  this  kind.  But  wee 
mind  not  such  neere  peregrinations,  as  these  usually  were, 
but  longer  Voyages  and  remoter  Travells.  And  such  also 
we  have  already  mentioned  in  Sesostris  the  Egyptian,  in  Varro  dhtln- 
the  Phoenicians,  in  the  Assyrians,  under  Semiramis  to  guhhed  Rek- 
India,  besides  Eudoxus  and  other  privater  persons  ;  and  {'""^  of  tunes 
such  are  the  Fables  or  outworne  Stories  of  Ethnike  ^^J^^^^kZ 
Antiquity,  touching  the  Atlantines,  Osiris,  Bacchus,  Her-  v,ttopikov: 
cules,  Perseus,  Daedalus;    and  those  which  retaine  some   ,'^:,/^  "' 

11  11  1  r     1  A  ^""^f  Obscure, 

more  truth,   though  obscure  enough,  or  the   Argonauts,  ^^^  Histori- 
Ulysses,   Menelaus,  iEnasas,  Hanno,  Himilco,  lambolus,  call. 



and  others  ;  some  of  which  shall  follow  in  the  following 
Relations.  That  of  Alexander  is  more  renowmed,  and 
first  opened  the  East  to  the  West,  and  to  Europe  gave 
the  Eyes  of  Geography  and  History,  to  take  view  of 
India  and  the  Regions  adjacent.  And  here  is  the  first 
solid  foot-print  of  History  in  this  kind,  though  heere  also 
Travellers  have  beene  as  farre  from  the  truth,  as  from 
their  homes,  and  have  too  often  travelled  of  Vanitie  and 

Chap.  nil. 

Fabulous  Antiquities  of  the  Peregrinations  and 
Navigations  of  Bacchus,  Osiris,  Hercules,  the 
Argonauts,  Cadmus,  the  Grecian  Navie  to 
Troy,   Menelaus,   Ulysses,  iEneas,  and   others. 

T  is  not  the  fable  or  falshood  which  wee 
seeke  in  fabulous  Antiquities,  but  that 
truth  which  lieth  buried  under  poeticall 
rubbish.  For  nothing  but  nothing  can 
rise  of  nothing.  Some  truth  therefore 
gave  occasion  to  those  fables,  as  Thamars 
and  Dinahs  beautie  occasioned  their 
ravishment ;  the  Devill  (a  Lier  from  the  beginning) 
lusting  to  defloure  that  beautie,  and  then  like  Ammon 
adding  a  second  force,  in  hatred  turning  her  as  much 
as  he  may  out  of  the  World.  Hence  the  fables  of  Poets, 
Idolatries  of  Ethnikes,  dotages  of  Rabbins,  phrensies 
of  Heretikes,  phancies  and  Ly-legends  of  Papists  :  to 
all  which,  when  Histories  cannot  make  them  good. 
Mysteries  are  sought  to  cover  their  badnesse,  and 
bald  nakednesse ;  and  were  they  never  so  bad  before 
(like  the  shearing  of  a  Friar,  or  vailing  of  a  Novice 
Nunne)  suddenly  they  are  heereby  become  errant  honest 
persons,  nay  venerable  and  religious.  And  thus  hath  that 
Impostor,  not  only  insinuated  and  procured  admission 
and  credit  to  lies,  but  thence  hath  raised  the  very  Faith 
Jo/m  4.   of  Infidels,   which    worship    they   know   not   what ;    and 



obtruded  I  know  not  what  Pias  fraudes,  and  religious  Lies, 
forsooth,  upon  unchristian  and  Anti-christian  Christians  ; 
to  whom  because  they  received  not  the  love  of  the  truth  2-  Thess.  z. 
to  be  saved,  God  hath  sent  the  efficacy  of  error,  that  they 
might  beleeve  a  lie.  This  is  the  Devils  triumph,  and 
Mans  madnesse ;  out  of  which  confusion,  if  wee  can- 
not try  out  the  pure  truth,  yet  those  Divine  Relations 
and  Revelations  premised,  will  appeare  more  lovely  and 
admirable  from  these  Ethnike  Fables. 

I  may  here  mention   Saturnes   Travells    into    Latium, 
being  ejected  Heaven  :   Joves  fabled  five  encompassings 
of  the  World  ;  Apollos  daily  circuit ;   Mercuries  frequent 
Messages  to  all  parts,  who  was  also  the  Travellers  God, 
and  had  his  Statues  in  High-wayes  ;  Junos  jealous  wand- 
rings  ;    Bacchus    and    Hercules    were    renowmed    by  the  Travells  of 
Poets    for    their    Peregrinations,    perhaps  (as    before    is  •^'^"'''"• 
observed)   no   other  but  Salomon  and  Hirams  Ophirian 
Voyage.      Bacchus  (they  tell)  was  the  sonne  of  Jupiter  [I.  i.  69.] 
and  Proserpina,  who  being  torne  in  pieces  by  the  Titans, 
Jupiter  gave  his  heart  to  Semele  to  drinke,  and  thereby 
conceived  of  this  other  Bacchus  ;  whereupon  jealous  Juno  H^gm.  Fab. 
transformed    into    the    shape    of    Beroe    Semeles    nurse,   1,^7; 
perswaded  her  to  desire  Jupiters  company  in  Majesticall     "''/'•'" 
appearance,    as    hee    accompanied    Juno,   which    was    her 
destruction  ;  the   babe   taken   out  and  sewed   in   Jupiters 
thigh,  and    after   put    to   Nysus   to    nurse,  whereupon   he 
was  named  Dyonisius.     I   should  distract  you  to  tell  the 
disagreeing  tales  of  Poets  touching  his  birth  and  life  (for 
lies   never   agree)  as  also  his  Miracles,  which  ever  make 
up   the  greatest  part  of  a  Legend.     Tigres,  Ounces  and 
Panthers,  with  Pans,  Nymphs,   Sileni,  Cobals,  and  Satyrs 
were  his  companions  and  attendants.     Hee   was   drawne 
in  a  Chariot  by  Tigres,  and  held  a  Thyrsus  in  his  hand 
for  a   Scepter  (which   was  a   Speare  or  Javelin,   adorned 
with  the    Leaves  of  Vines   and   Ivie)   and  marched   thus 
madly  both   to  India   in   the  East,  and  to  Spaine  in   the 
West,  which  of  Pan  was  called  Pania,  whence  Spania  and 
Hispania  have  beene  derived.     A  learned  Spaniard  saith, 



that   in    the    eight   hundred  and  tenth  yeere,  before   the 

Oros.l.i.c.c).  building  of  Rome,    Bacchus   invaded   India,   moistned  it 

with    bloud,    filled    it    with    slaughters,  polluted    it    with 

lusts,  which   before  had  beene  subject  to    none,  and  lived 

content  and  quiet  in  it  selfe.     Some  apply  that  of  Noah 

to  him,  and   make   him    the  Inventor  of  Wine,   Hony, 

and   Sacrifices :     say    also    that    hee    reigned    at    Nysa    a 

Citie  in   Arabia ;  some  adde   other  Kingdomes,  and  that 

hee    had    Mercurius    Trismegistus    his    Counsellor ;    and 

leaving    Hercules  his  ^Egyptian    Lieutenant,   Antaeus    in 

Lybia,  Busiris  in  Phoenicia,  conquered  all  the  East,  built 

Nysa,  and  erected  Pillars  in  the  Easterne  Ocean,  as  did 

Hercules  on  the  Westerne.     His  story  is  also  confounded 

with    that    of  Osiris,    this    being    the    name    which     the 

Her.  Euterpe.  Egyptians    gave    him,    as     Herodotus     affirmeth.       And 

Diod.Sk.l.i.  Diodorus  relateth    his  Epitaph  in  hierogliphicall  Letters 

'  ^'        in   these   words,  I   am   Osyris  the   King,   which    travelled 

thorow  aU  the  world  to  the  Indian  Deserts.     Ovid  also 

singeth ; 

Te  memorant  Gange,  totoque  Oriente  subactis 

Primitias  magno  seposuisse  Jovi. 
Cinnama  tu  primus  captivaque  thura  dedisti 
Deque  triumphato  viscera  tosta  bove. 
S(j-ab.  I.  I.  His  journey  they  describe  first  thorow  Ethiopia,  and 

Eurip.  &e.  j.]^gj^  Arabia,  and  so  to  Persia,  Media,  Bactria,  and 
India :  after  his  returne,  to  Hellespont,  Lidia,  Phrygia, 
Thrace,  Greece,  and  whither  travelling  witts  please. 
Wee  shall  lose  our  selves  to  follow  him  further ;  as  they 
doe  which  with  worst  prophanesse  celebrate  his  drunken 
Holies  daily. 
Theseus  iff  Theseus    and    Hercules    lived    in    one   time,  of  which 

Hercules.  Theseus  is  famous  for  his  Acts  in  Crete,  Thebes, 
Thessaly,  with  the  Amazons,  and  his  descent  into  Hell, 
with  other  his  Voyages  and  Navigations  :  But  farre 
farre  more  famous  is  Hercules  for  his  Travells,  and  for 
his  twelve  Labours,  his  Peregrination  being  another 
Labor  added  to  each  of  them.  The  Nemaean  Lion, 
Lernaean  Hydra,  Phrygian  Bore,  Arcadian  Hart,  Augean 


Stable,  Cretan  Bull,  Thracian  Diomede,  with  his  man- 
eating  Horses,  Celtike,  Alexia,  Alpine  passage,  Italian 
Tenths,  Stymphalide  Birds,  Amazonian  Belt,  Atlantike 
Dragon,  Balearian  Geryon,  Lybyan  Antaeus,  Egyptian 
Busiris,  Lydian  service  to  Omphale,  Thessalian  Centaure, 
and  Tartarean  Cerberus,  proclaime  his  travells  over  and 
under  the  World ;  as  his  Pillars ;  to  the  end  of  the 
World,  and  his  helping  Atlas,  that  the  World  travelled 
on  him,  Neither  travelled  hee  by  Land  alone,  but  by 
water  also  hee  navigated  with  those  famous  Argonauts,  The  Argo- 
which  make  us  another  Voyage  to  find  them,  nauts. 

Hyginus  hath  registred  their  names :  Jason  a  Thes-  Hygin.  Fab. 
salian,  Orpheus  a  Thracian,  Asterion  of  Peline,  Poly- 
phemus of  Larissa,  Iphictus,  Admetus,  Eurytus  &  Echion, 
Ethalides,  Coeneus,  Mopsus  the  Soothsayer,  Pirithous, 
Menaetius,  Eurydamas,  Amponitus,  Eribotes,  Ameleon, 
Eurytion,  Ixition,  Oileus,  Clytius  and  Iphitus,  Peleus 
and  Telamon,  Butes,  Phaleros,  Tiphys  the  Master  of  the 
Ship,  Argus  the  Ship-maker,  Philiasus,  Hercules  and 
Hylas  his  companion,  Nauplius,  Idmon,  Castor  and 
Pollux,  Lynceus  (which  could  see  things  hidden  under- 
ground, and  in  the  darke)  and  Idas,  Periclymenus, 
Amphidamus  and  Cepheus,  Ancaeus,  Lycurgi,  Augaeus, 
Asterion  and  Amphion,  Euphemus  (which  could  runne 
dry-foot  on  the  water)  Ancasus  Neptuni,  Erginus, 
Meleager,  Laocoon,  Iphictus  Thestii,  Iphitus  Naubo  Zetes 
and  Calais  (sonnes  of  Aquilo  with  winged  heads  and 
feet,  which  chased  away  the  Harpyes)  Focus  and  Priasus, 
Eurymedon,  Palaemonius,  Actor,  Thersanon,  Hippal- 
cinnos,  Asclepius,  Atriach,  Mileus,  lolaus,  Deucalion, 
Philoctetes,  Ceneus  sonne  of  Coronis,  Acastus,  volun- 
tary companion  to  Jason.  These  with  their  Countries 
and  Parentage  Hygynus  hath  recorded.  Their  Voyage 
was  to  Colchos,  but  many  of  them  came  not  thither. 
Hylas  was  stollne  by  the  Nymphs  in  Massia,  whom 
Hercules  and  Polyphemus  seeking,  were  left  behind. 
Tiphys  died  by  the  way,  &  Ancaeus  son  of  Neptune 
succeeded  in   his   Masters  place.     Idmon  was  slain   by   a 



Bore;  Butes  threw  himselte  Into  the  Sea,  allured  by 
the  Syrens  Musick,  In  their  return  also  Euribates  was 
slain  in  Libya,  Mopsus  died  in  Africa  of  a  Serpents 

Now  for   the  Voyage  of  the  Argonauts,  they  say  that 
Pelias    Jasons    Uncle    was    commanded    by    Oracle    to 
sacrifice  to  Neptune,  to  which  if  any  came  with  one  shooe 
on,   the  other  off,   then   his  death  should  not    bee   farre 
off.     Jason  came   thither,  and  wading  thorow  the  River 
Euhenus,  left  one   of  his   shooes  in  the  mire,  which  he 
stayed  not  to  take  out,  for  feare  of  comming  late  to  the 
Holies.     Pelias  seeing  this,  asked  Jason  what  hee  would 
doe,   if  hee  had   a   prophecie   that   any  man   should  kill 
him.     I  would  send  him,  said  hee,  To  fetch  the  Golden 
Fleece.     This   was   the   Fleece  of  the  Ram  (which  some 
say  was  the  name  of  a  Ship  having  a  Ram  on  the  Beake, 
[I.  i.  70.]       that  had  carried  Phryxus  to   Colchos,  who  sacrificed  the 
Ram  to  Jupiter,  and  hanged  up  the  Fleece  in  the  Grove 
of  Mars)   and   thus  Pelias  out  of  his  owne  mouth  sen- 
tenced  him.     Argus   made   the   Ship   which   of  him  was 
called  Argos,   which  they  say  was  the  first  ship   of  long 
fashion.     These  first  came  to  Lemnos,  where  they  were  so 
kindely  entertained,  that  Jason  by  Hypsipila  the  Queene 
had  two  sons,  and  staied  till  Hercules  chode  them  away. 
*,^^°i]  f^^^"  Next  they  came  to  Cyzicus,  *in  Propontis,  which  liberally 
deliverance  of  ^^^sted  them ;  and  being  gone  thence,  by  foule  weather 
Hesione from    they  were   put   backe  in   the   night,  where  Cyzicus   mis- 
theWhale,the  taking  them   for  enemies    was    slaine    in    fight.     Thence 
hllmgofKing  ^^^  sailed  to   Bebrycia,   where  Amycus  the   King   chal- 
iakil^ofTrov  l^^g^d    them    to    a    single    encounter    at    whorlebats,    in 
in  their  return  which   PoUux  slew   him.     Lycus   a  neighbour  King  was 
for  breaking      glad  hereof  and  gave  the  Argonauts  entertainment,  where 
his  promise  of  jphis  or  Tiphis  died,  and  Idmon  was  slaine. 
cuks^^l  \  ^^'       Phineus  the  Son  of  Agenor  a  Thrasian  was  blinded  by 
Harpyes.         Jupiter  for  revealing   the  gods  secrets,  and  the   Harpyes 
set  to  take  the  meate  from  his  mouth.     The  Argonauts 
consulting  with   him  of  their  future   successe,  must  first 
free  him  of  this  punishment,  which  Zetes  and  Calais  did, 



chasing  them  to  the  Strophades.     Phineus  shewed  them 
how  to  passe  the  Symplegades,  following  the  way  which 
a  Dove  sent  forth  of  the  Ship,  shewed  them.     Thence 
they  came  to  the  He  Dia  where  the  Birds  Stymphalides 
shot  quils  which  killed  men,  whom  by  Phineus  his  pre- 
cepts they  feared  away  with  sounds  (such  as  the  Curetes 
make)  and  used  thereto  shields  also  and  speares.     Thus 
being  entred  the  Euxine  Sea  to  Dia,  they  found  poore, 
naked,  shipwracked,  the  Sons  of  Phrixus,  Argus,  Phron- 
tides,    Melas  and    Cylindrius,    which    travelling    to    their 
Grandfather  Athamas  there  encountered  that  misfortune. 
Jason  entertained  them,  and  they  brought  him  to  Colchos 
by  the  River  Thermodoon  ;  and  comming  neere  Colchos 
caused  the  ship  to  be  hidden,  and  came  to  their  Mother, 
Chalciope    sister    of    Medea*,     to    whom    they    related   *Diod.maketh 
Jasons  kindenesse,  and  the  cause  of  his  comming.     She  ^f^^*^  ^"^ 
brings   Medea  to   Jason,  who  as  soone  as  she  saw  him,  ^^„„^^^,.j  J 
knew  that  it  was  the  same  whom  in  her  dreame  she  had  Hecate.  I.  \. 
scene  and  loved,  and  promiseth  him  all  furtherance. 

iEeta  had  learned  by  Oracle  that  hee  should  so  long 
reigne    as    the   Fleece    which    Phrixus    had    consecrated, 
remained  in   Mars  his  Temple.     He  therefore  imposeth 
on    Jason  to   yoak   the  bras-footed  firebreathing  buls   to 
the   plow,    and    to    sow    the    Dragons    teeth    out    of   the 
Helmet,  whence  armed  men  should  suddenly  be  produced 
and  kill  each  other.     This  he  did  by  Medeas  helpe,  and 
likewise  cast  the  Dragon  into  a  sleepe  which  guarded  the 
Fleece,  and  so  tooke  it  away,     i^eta  hearing  that  Jason 
and  his  Daughter  Medea  were  gone,  sent  his  son  Absyrtus 
in  a  ship  with  souldiers  after  him,  who  pursued  him  to  ^Tmceus 
Istria^  in  the  Adriaticke  Sea,  where  Alcinous  compounded  saith  that  they 
their  quarrel  so  little  to  Absyrtus  his  liking,  that  follow-  '^"Jf^'^"^'^ 
ing  him  to  Minervas  He,  Jason  slew  him,  and  his  followers  crossed  over 
builded  there  a  Citie  called  of  his  name  Absoris.     Some  land  to  the 
tell  of  the   Syrtes  which    the  Argonauts   passing   carried  Ocean,  and 
their   ship    on    their    shoulders    twelve    dales.     But    the  ^f^f^b'^^'h 

.     .       ^  .  -11  1-  11  \  r  I-      Lades  into  the 

varieties    are    inextricable    and    innumerable.      Arter    his  ^fy^its. 
returne,    by    Medeas    helpe   he    made   away    his    Unckle  Ody.  n. 



■^  Sirab.  I.  I . 
speaking  of 
the  Poets 
salth  in  qui- 
busdam  cum 
historia  con- 
s en  tit, qua"  dam 
etiam  assingit, 
15  communem 
15  fuum. 
Cum  historia 
nominat  iff 
Jasonem  tif 
J}  go  i5c. 
against  Troy. 

Pelias  (to  whom  she  had  promised  to  restore  his  youth) 
and  gave  his  Kingdome  to  Acastus  his  sonne,  which  had 
accompanied  him  to  Colchos.  The  exile  of  Medea  and 
the  rest  of  the  tale  you  may  have  amongst  the  Poets. 
I  am  more  then  wearie  with  relating  so  much.  This 
voyage  was  so  admired  of  Antiquitie  that  this  Argo 
which  Homer  calleth  iraa-iixeXova-a,  was  not  onely  praised 
to  the  stars  by  the  Poets,  but  placed  amongst  the  stars  by 
their  Minerva,  and  the  constellation  famous  to  these 
times.  The  Argonauts  after  this  instituted  the  Olympian 
games.  The  Poets  are  full  of  such  Chymasras,  mixed 
lye-truths,  ^not  sparing  any  of  their  Gods  or  Heroes. 
Jupiter  having  stolne  Europa  transformed  into  a  Bull, 
or  as  some  say  in  a  ship  of  that  name,  or  having  a  bull 
in  the  Beke,  Cadmus  and  Thasus  her  brethren  were  sent 
by  Agenor  their  father  to  seeke  her.  The  Phenician 
Navie  is  divided  betwixt  them.  Thasus  having  long 
sought  in  vaine,  returned  not,  but  in  the  ^^gaean  Sea 
built  a  Citie  of  his  name.  Cadmus  built  Thebes,  and 
after  that !  But  what  and  why  doe  I  while  you  in  these 
uncertainties }  Yet  have  I  touched  a  little  of  his  storie 
who  is  famed  the  first  inventer  of  the  Grsecian  Letters, 
and  of  Historic.  But  we  will  turne  your  eyes  to  the 
most  fabled  of  all  Poeticall  fables,  and  in  a  peece  of  an 
houre  with  a  swift  pen  will  dispatch  ten  yeeres  worke 
with   looo.  ships. 

The  Princes  in  the  Trojan  siege  and  their  ships  are 
these  :  Agamemnon  brought  from  Micenae  one  hundred 
ships:  Menelaus  his  brother  from  thence  also  60.  Phaenix 
of  Argos  50.  Achilles  of  Scyros  60.  Automedon  his 
Chariot  driver  10.  Patroclus  of  Phthia  10.  Ajax  ot 
Salamine  12.  Teucer  his  brother  as  many,  Ulisses  of 
Ithaca  12.  Diomedes  of  Argos  30.  Stenelus  of  Argos  25. 
Ajax  the  Locrian  20.  Nestor  the  Pylian  90.  Thrasymedes 
his  brother  1 5.  Antilochus  sonne  of  Nestor  20.  Eurypylus 
of  Orchomene  40.  Macaon  of  Attica  20.  Podalyrius  his 
brother  9.  Tlepolemusof  Mycenae  9.  Idomeneus  of  Crete 
40.     Meriones  from  thence  as  many,  Eumelus  of  Perr- 



•'■^^kKh'-  pjf.!^'::!^:^  c-;f^'is:~^       L 

Tl  Al^  -f£NL'M 

f^  [oniiim  Mai  c     "i^"    ^' '",  '.^  -  "^ 



hebia  8.  Philoctetes  of  Melibaea  7.  Peneleus  of  Bceotia 
12.  Pithus  a  Baeotian  also  as  many,  and  his  brother 
Chronius  9.  Arcestlaus  10.  Prothasnor  8.  ladmenus  of 
Argos  30.  Ascalaphus  30.  Schedius  30,  and  Epistrophus 
his  brother  10.  Elephenor,  Calchodontis  and  Imenaretes 
(all  likewise  of  Argos)  30.  The  sonne  of  Menaeus  from 
Athens  50.  Agapenor  from  Arcada  60.  Amphimachus 
of  Elea  10.  Eurychus  of  Argos  15.  Amarunceus  of 
Mycenae  19.  Polysenes  from  jEtolia  40,  Meges  the 
Dulichian  60.  Thoas  15.  Podarces  his  brother  10. 
Prothous  the  Magnesian  40.  Cycnus  the  Argive  12. 
Nireus  from  thence  16.  Antiphus  the  Thessalian  20. 
Polyboetes  the  Argive  20.  Leophites  of  Sicyon  19.  You 
see  the  particulars  amount  farre  above  the  thousand 
usually  named.  The  Voyage  was  too  short,  and  the 
Siege  too  long  for  this  place. 

Menelaus  having  recovered  his  eye-sore  faire  Helena,  [I.  i.  71.] 
is  said  to  have  beene  eight  yeeres  wandering  the  world,   Travels  of 
and    Ulysses    longer.      Menelaus    his    errour    was    about      ^"^^"^^ 
Cyprus,      Phaenicia,      ^gypt,     and      the      neighbouring 
Ethiopians  and  Arabians  (so  Strabo  expoundeth  Homers  Strab.  I.  i. 
Erembos  in  his  first  Booke,  and  in  his  sixteenth,  yet  there 
addes   also   the  Troglodites)    he    produceth   some    which 
place  the  Sidonians  in  the  Persian  Gulfe,  I  know  not  how 
justly.     Homers    Verses,    where    Menelaus    relateth    his 
travels  to  Telemachus  are :  ^^"^-  ^• 

l^vTTpov,  ^oivLKrjvre,  Kai  AiyuTrriov?,  e7raXr)6ei9 

AiOiOTra^  9'  iKOfxtiv,  koi  'ZiSonoug  Koi  'E|0e///3oi'?,  Ka<  Ai^vtjv. 

Cypres,  Phasnicia,  JEgypt  having  past, 

Th'  Ethiops,  Sidons,  'Erembs,  I  went  at  last.    And  Libya — 

Aristonicus  the  Grammarian,  and  after  him  Eustathius,  Traveh  oj 
interpret  it  of  sailing  round  about  Africa,  as  is  said  of  'Ulysses. 
Eudoxus  and  others  before  (TrepnrXevcrag  tov  QKeavov  Sia  rovg 
TaSeipcou  /ue^iot  rrjg  IvSiKrj^)  a  thing  to  mee  altogether  un- 
probable,  and  easier  to  be  sailed  by  the  Poet  or  his 
Commenters  in  an  Inkie  Sea  with  a  quill  Mast,  then  by 
the  ruder  Sea-men  of  those  times.  Menelaus  his  errours 
I  193  N 


we  see  continued  more  then  eight  yeares,  yea  are  not 
yet  ended,  but  breede  new  travels  in  Grammarians  braines. 
Tantae  molis  erat  infame  reducere  scortum. 

Ulysses  returning  from  Troy,  came  to  the  Ciconae, 
the  Lotophagi,  and  after  that  to  Polyphemus  the  Giant, 
with  one  eye  in  his  forehead,  thence  to  ^olus,  to  the 
Lestrygonae,  to  -^naria  infamous  by  Circes  charmes,  to 
Avernus,  to  the  Syrenes,  to  Scylla,  Sicilia,  Charybdis,  to 
iEaea,  to  the  Phaeaces,  and  at  last  to  Ithaca.  The  like 
fables  Grammer-schoole  boyes  can  tell  you  of  iEnaeas  out 
of  Virgil,  and  other  Poets.  I  am  weary  of  travelling 
in  such  a  loose  sandy  soile,  where  so  few  footeprints 
and  paths  of  truth  are  to  be  found.  And  for  iEnaeas 
his  travels,  I  will  present  you  them  in  another  fashion 
as  Hondius  hath  in  his  Map  described  them. 

I    might    adde    D^dalus    his    flight   from   Athens,    his 

sleight  for  Pasiphae  in  Crete,  his  acts  in  Sicilia,  his  arts 

every  where   in   his   travels.     As  for  his,  and  his  sonne 

[I.  i.  72.]       Icarus  his  flying,  the  truth  is  found  in  taking  away  the 

first   letter,   except  you  flye  to  Mysteries.     And  this    is 

the   salve   too  ordinary  in  all  the  Poets  fables,  Perseus, 

the  Atlantines,  and  others,  which  I  forbeare  to  relate. 

See  of  d  these       Other    fabulous    Relations    of    Travellers    we    have, 

hi  Photius  his  meerely   fained,    as    that    of   Heliodorus    his    iEthiopike 

Heliof''^'      History,  Achilles  Tatius,  lamblichus,  all  in  Love-stories ; 

Jchi/Ies  are     Lucius  Patrensis  his  Metamorphoses  (whence  Lucian  had 

extant.  his  Lucius,  and   thence  Apuleius    his   Asinus)   Antonius 

Diogenes  his  Thule,  and  other  like,  they  are  not  fabulous 

Histories  but  Parables,  Mysticall  Fables    and  Poems   in 

Historicall  forme,  as  Utopia  and   Arcadia;    that  I  adde 

not  more  then  a  good  many  others  amongst  us  of  worse 

note,    which    idle    wits    have    made    both    Mothers    and 

Daughters    of   Idlenesse,    or   fruitlesse    foolish    businesse 

without  braine  or  heart. 

I  have  more  mind  to  give  you  a  History,  though  even 
here  wee  cannot  secure  Quicquid  Grascia  mendax  Audet 
in  Historia.  Some  things  are  uncertaine  in  the  best,  yet 
better  a  tattered  truth  then  nothing. 



The  Philosophers  and  Wisemen  of  Greece  were 
Travellers  for  knowledge  (of  which  some  travelled  with 
knowledge  also,  and  have  left  Geographicall  Monuments) 
Merchants  for  gaine,  and  mightie  Potentates  for  Dominion 
and  Glory.  The  Merchants  had  their  reward  in  that 
which  they  sought,  the  other  for  better  knowledge  of 
times,  deserve  more  leisurely  view. 

Chap.  V. 

A  briefe  recitall  of  the  famous  expeditions  men- 
tioned in  ancient  Histories,  of  the  Assyrians, 
^Egyptians,  Scythians,  Ethiopians,  Persians, 
and  others. 

S    these    last    have    bin    told  by  Poets   as 
fables,  that  is  truths  eeked  and  wrought 
upon   by  their  wits  for    greater    delight, 
so  the  stories  of  the  first  Assyrian  Mon- 
archic and  ^Egyptian  Dynasties  have  little 
more  solidity.     Ninus  by  the  Greeke  and  iV/»«/. 
■*  Latine  stories  is  renowned  for  his  ambi- 
tious marches,  and  travels  thorow  all  Asia  from  the  Red 
to  the  Euxine  Sea,  and  thorow  Scythia  to  the  Bactrians.  P-  Oros.  /.  i. 
Hee  conquered  (saith  Diodorus)  the  Armenians  and  their  ^.+-    . 
King  Barchanes,   Pharnus  also   King  of  Media   and    all 
Asia   from  Tanais  to  Nilus,  the    Egyptians,   Phaenicians, 
Syrians,  Cilicians,  PamphiHa,  Lycia,  Caria,  Phrygia,  Misia, 
Lydia,  Troas,  Propontis,  Bythinia,  Cappadocia,  the  Bar- 
barians   upon    Pontus,    Cadusians,    Tapyrans,     Hyrcans, 
Dranges,  Derbici,   Carmani,   Coronei,  Rhomni,   Vorcani, 
Parthians,  Persians,  Susians,  Caspians,  and  many  others. 
Ariaeus  the  Arabian  King  was  his  Collegue  in  armes  in 
these  expeditions.     After  which  he  built  Ninus  or  Ninive,  Ninive 
the  wals  one  hundred  foot  high,  broade  enough  for  three  builded. 
Carts  to  passe  together  on  the  tops,  with   1 500.  Turrets 
200.  foote  high,  the  squares  unequall  the  two  longer  1 50. 
furlongs,    the    two    shorter  90.      Hee    made    a    second 
expedition  against  the  Bactrians,  and  then  maried  Semir-  Semiramis. 



The  Scripture 
more  truly 
Babylon  to 
Ninive  to 


Jos.  Scal.Notee 
ad  Euseb. 

amis  a  Syrian,  which  he  tooke  from  her  husband  Menon, 
who  hanged  himselfe  in   foolish  griefe. 

Semiramis  succeeded,  and  exceeded  his  exploits :  She 
invaded  Ethiopia,  and  whereas  (if  you  beleeve  Ctesias) 
Ninus  had  with  him  in  his  last  expedition  against  Zoro- 
astres  the  Bactrian  1700000.  footmen  and  200000.  horse- 
men with  10600.  hooked  chariots:  She  builded  (as  they 
say)  Babylon,  with  a  stupendious  Garden  in  Chaona,  and 
Pallace  at  Ecbatana,  cut  out  highwaies  in  Persia,  passed 
thorow  Egypt  to  Libya  to  the  Oracle  of  Jupiter  Ammon, 
subjected  Ethiopia,  and  made  three  yeers  provision  to 
invade  Staurobates  King  of  India,  slew  300000.  Beeves 
of  their  Hides  to  frame  counterfeit  Elephants,  and  with 
3000000.  (it  is  Ctesias  also  which  taleth  it)  of  Footmen, 
and  500000.  Horsemen,  and  2000.  Ships,  with  Elephan- 
tine counterfeits  carried  on  Camels,  shee  made  that  Indian 
invasion,  where  Staurobates  encountered  her  with  greater 
numbers,  threatning  to  crucifie  her.  On  Indus  was  the 
Navall  fight,  wherein  the  Indians  had  the  worse,  and 
lost  1000.  Ships,  but  in  the  Field  the  Assyrian  Armie  was 
overthrowne.  Thus  they  proceed  in  the  Assyrian 
Empire  for  1300.  yeeres  together,  and  say  that  at  the 
warres  of  Troy,  Theutamo  the  twentieth  from  Ninus 
relieved  Priamus  with  20000.  Men,  and  200.  Chariots 
under  the  conduct  of  Memnon.  As  for  Sardanapalus 
the  thirtieth  and  last  of  them,  the  truth  is,  as  in  the 
former,  a  certaine  uncertainty.  Eusebius  reckoneth  the 
time  of  Semiramis  to  have  beene  the  same  with  Abraham, 
so  that  Moses,  whom  Josephus,  Clemens,  Africanus, 
Tatianus,  made  to  be  850.  yeeres  before  the  Trojan 
warre,  is  by  his  more  probable  reckoning  made  much 
later,  yet,  as  hee  saith,  ancienter  then  the  Greekish 
Antiquities,  and  their  Gods  also  :  being  borne,  as  Scaliger 
calculateth  out  of  his  Positions  394.  yeeres  before  the 
destruction  of  Troy.  Now  what  pettie  Kinges  the  World 
had  in  the  best  peopled  parts  in  Abrahams  time,  the 
fourth  Chapter  of  Genesis  sheweth,  even  of  those  Regions; 
which    some    therefore    make    but    Vice-roys    under    the 



Assyrian,  very  daringly.  Ninus  his  numbers  savour  of 
Nimrods  Babel,  which  after  Ages  could  make  swel  with 
such  vanities.  It  may  be  a  question  (I  thinke  the  nega- 
tive out  of  question)  whether  the  World  had  then  so 
many  soules  so  soone  after  the  Flood,  as  those  Indian 
and  Assyrian  Armies  are  said  to  containe. 

The  like  may  bee  said  of  Vexores  the  ^Egyptian  Kings 
Expedition,  which  conquered  to  Pontus,  and  Tanaus  the 
Scythian,  which  conquered  him  and  almost  all  Asia,  as 
some  say  before  Ninus.  Vexores  by  Genebrard  is  sup- 
posed to  bee  Osiris,  the  first  Pharao.  And  for  Sesostris 
wee  have  already  in  part  acknowledged  his  greatnesse, 
and  withall  his  latenesse  in  the  time  of  Rehoboam  the 
Sonne  of  Salomon.  He  is  said  to  have  had  in  his  Army 
600000.  Footmen,  and  24000.  Horse,  8020.  Chariots  of 
Warre,  in  the  Red  Sea  foure  hundred  Ships.  Hee  con- 
quered beyond  Ganges,  the  Medes,  the  Scythians  unto 
Tanais,  and  the  rest  of  Asia.  Into  Europe  he  passed  as 
farre  as  Thrace,  and  left  Pillars  as  Monuments  for  his 
victories,  engraven  with  the  representation  of  a  mans 
Privities,  if  they  were  valiant ;  of  a  womans,  if  effeminate. 

Not  long  after  was  that  Expedition  of  Zerah  the 
Ethiopian  with  a  million  of  men,  overthrowne  by  King 
Asa ;  as  that  of  the  Queene  of  Sheba  (some  thinke  shee 
raigned  over  Arabia  and  ^Ethiopia)  to  Salomon  a  little 
before.  Tiglath  Pileser  King  of  Assyria  tooke  Damascus, 
and  Shalmaneser  carried  away  the  tenne  Tribes  into 
Assyria  and  Media,  and  placed  Babilonians,  Cutheans 
and  others  in  their  roomes.  Senacherib  soone  after  in- 
vaded Judah,  but  Tirhakah  King  of  Ethiopia  came  out 
against  him.  This  Tirhakah  is  thought  to  bee  that 
Tearcon,  which  Strabo  mentioneth,  where  hee  denieth 
that  India  had  beene  invaded  by  any  but  Bacchus  and 
Hercules  before  Alexander,  denying  that  of  Semiramis, 
and  alleadging  Megasthenes  both  to  that  purpose,  and  that 
Sesostris  the  Egyptian,  and  Tearcon  the  Ethiopian  pierced 
into  Europe,  yea  that  Nabucodonosor,  or  Navocodrosor 
(more  celebrated  by  the  Chaldaeans  then   Hercules)  came 


Vexores  the 
[I.  i.  73-] 


Died.  sic.  I.  I . 

Zerah  the 

2.  Chron.  9. 

2. Kin.  16.6^ 

Strab.  /.  15. 
his  testimony 
of  old  Expedi- 





Dan.  2. 


Her.  I.  7. 

to  the  Straits  or  Hercules  his  Pillars ;  as  did  also  Tear- 
con :  also  that  Idanthyrsus  the  Scythian  pierced  as  farre 
as  Egypt ;  but  none  of  them  went  (saith  hee)  to  India. 
Megasthenes  acknowledgeth  that  Cyrus  came  neere  the 
Indians,  in  his  Expedition  against  the  Massagets,  but  not 
thither.  As  for  Nabucodonosors  Asian  and  Egyptian 
Expeditions,  and  his  Dominion  in  manner  over  the  World 
wee  have  divine  testimony  in  Daniells  Tree  and  Golden 
Image ;  of  Cyrus  also,  whose  Conquests  are  knowne,  and 
large  Peregrinations  from  the  West  parts  of  Asia,  where 
hee  captived  CrcESus  and  subdued  his,  with  the  adjoyning 
Dominions,  and  all  the  Regions  thence  thorow  Syria, 
Armenia,  Media,  Persia,  to  the  Massagets  and  Scythians. 
His  Sonne  Cambyses  added  ^gypt,  and  that  foolish 
Expedition  against  the  ^Ethiopians.  Darius  with  800000. 
men  invaded  the  Scythians.  Xerxes,  as  Herodotus  hath 
recorded,  invaded  Greece  with  1700000.  Footmen,  80000. 
Horsemen,  20000.  Chariot  Men,  one  thousand  two  hun- 
dred and  eight  saile  of  Ships.  Ctesias  (which  useth 
elsewhere  to  say  the  most)  hath  but  800000.  men 
besides  Chariots,  and  one  thousand  Ships.  As  for  other 
Scythian  and  Amazonian  invasions,  with  others  of  other 
Nations,  for  their  uncertaintie  I  omit  them.  The  Greeks 
also  had  their  many,  both  Expeditions  and  defensive 
Warres  against  the  Persians  before  Alexanders  time. 
Themistocles,  Xenophon,  and  many  others  of  them  are 
renowmed,  tam  marte  quam  Mercurio.  And  thus  the 
Persian  Empire  hath  brought  us  to  Alexander,  which 
succeeded  it,  of  whose  Expedition  wee  shall  anon  take 
speciall  and  more  leisurely  view. 

As  for  the  later  Empires  of  Carthage  and  Rome,  to  tell 
of  their  Travellers  and  Travells  would  prove  a  History 
of  their  States,  and  all  their  famous  Captaines,  especially 
the  Romans  when  they  began  to  spread  their  wings  farre 
from  their  Italian  nest,  and  flowed  out  of  Europaean 
Bankes  into  Africa  and  Asia.  The  Scipios  in  the  Cartha- 
ginian warres,  Lucullus  in  Africa,  and  after  in  the  Mith- 
ridatike  war  ;   Great  Pompey  in  his  Europasan,  Asian,  and 



fatall  African  Voyages   &   Expeditions;    Greater  Julius, 
whose  travels  procreated  a  Monarchy ;   Covetous  Crassus, 
Cruell  Antonius,  Flourishing  Augustus,   Seely  Claudius, 
Triumphant   Vespasian,   Gentle  Titus,   Proud   Domitian, 
Glorious  Trajan,  Witty  Adrian,  &  in  manner  all  the  rest 
of  their  Emperors  forced,  or  forcing  on  their  Frontiers, 
&  whose  very  Imperial  progresse  in  their  own  State,  were 
great  voyages  &  peregrinations  ;   yea  their   Empires  (as 
before*   is   observed)   was   called   by  the   ambitious   title  * Su/>.c. z.^z. 
of  the  World  :    For   better   knowledge   whereof  I   have 
here  presented  the  Map   thereof.     Severe   Severus  died 
at  Yorke,  Christian  Constantine  arose  a  bright  Sunne  to 
the  World  out  of  our  North ;  Apostate  Julian  travelled 
also  and  brought  forth   an  incarnate  Devill,  which   after 
many  peregrinations   perished   in  the  East,  and  left  the 
Empire  to  Good  Jovian.     To  set  downe  the  Emperours 
travells  would  be  to  give  you  the  Imperiall  History  from 
Julius,  till  the  times  that  the  World  fell  in  travell  with 
Barbarian   travellers,   Goths,   Vandals,  Herules,  Hunnes, 
Avares,    Frankes,    Saxons,    Lumbards,    Saracens,    which 
shared   amongst   them   that  vast   Empire :    especially  the 
travell  of  the   Imperiall    Seat    from    Rome   to    Constan- 
tinople giving  the   occasion   both  to  a  mysticall  concep- 
tion of  Antichrist  (which  may  seeme  borne  long  after  by 
Phocas    midwifery,    and    growing    up    till    Gregory    the 
seventh,  when  the  Devill  was  loosed   from  the  bottom- 
lesse  pit,  and  in  Christian   names  restored  in  great  part 
the    Ethnike    Gentilisme)    and    to    those    inundations    of 
Barbarians   and    Barbarisme,   which   like   a   smoake  from 
the   bottomlesse   pit    prepared    the   Papall   way.     Pipine, 
and   especiall   Charles    the    Great    were    great    Travellers 
also,  and  unwitting  much  furthered  the  growth  of  that 
Monster,  which  after  swallowed  up  the  Imperiall  Eagle, 
and   left  but   the  feathers  and  shadow  remaining.     The 
Danes  and  Normanes  were  unwelcome  Travellers,  which 
perfected    that,  which    others   had    begun :    especiall    the 
Normanes  by  their  warres  and  greatnesse  in  Italy,  grow- 
ing out  of  the  ruines  of  the  Easterne  Empire,  and  by  that 



conspiracy  of  Urban  and  Boamund,  which  seeking  to 
fish  in  troubled  waters  devised  the  Expeditions  of  the 
[I.  i.  74.]  Franks  to  the  Hierosolymitan  warre,  which  set  the  world 
in  travell  200.  yeers  together,  the  Mahumetans  of  the 
South  and  East,  and  the  Christians  of  the  North  and 
West  making  Palestina  the  stage  of  fury  &  slaughter. 
After  these  the  Tartars  filled  the  world  with  innumerable 
armies  &  mischiefes,  especially  all  Asia  &  one  halfe  of 
Europe.  But  these  are  later  things,  and  some  of  them 
follow  in  our  Relations.  For  the  Parthians,  and  later 
Persian  Dynasty,  and  Saracenicall  travells  over,  and  both 
spirituall  and  temporall  conquests  thorow  the  world,  and 
the  Ottoman,  Sophian,  Mogoll,  and  other  branches 
from  that  root,  I  have  bin  a  large  relater  in  my  Pil- 

Chap.   VI. 

The  travells  of  the  antient   Philosophers  and 
learned  men  briefly  mentioned. 

Ow  let  us  examine  the  Voyages  of  Philo- 
sophers  and   Learned   men,   into   remote 
parts  for  Wisdome  and  Learning.     Dio- 
genes   Laertius    maketh    two    kinds    of 
Philosophy,    the    one    lonike,    the    other 
Italike :    this  began  from  Pythagoras,  the 
other  from  Thales,  both  which,  with  many 
of  their  Successors  were  great  Travellers.     As  for  Thales, 
his    Epistle   to   Pherecydes   a   Syrian    (another    travelling 
Philosopher)  is  yet  extant  in  Laertius,  in  which  he  men- 
tions his  &  Solons  travels,  in  these  words :  For  neither 
are  I   and   Solon  the  Athenian  so  foolish  and  mad,  that 
when  we  have  sailed  to  Crete  &  pierced  into  Egypt,  there 
to  conferre  with  the  Priests  and  Astronomers,  we  would 
not  with  like   care  saile  to  thee.     For  Solon  will  come 
also  if  you  thinke  good.     For  thou  being  holden  with 
liking  of  that  place  seldome  passest  into  Ionia;  neither 
art  moved  with  desire  of  Strangers :   but  as  I  hope  thou 




onely  appliest  thy  selfe  to  writing.     But  wee  which  write 
nothing,*  travell  thorow  Greece  and  Asia. 

Thus  have  you  one  testimony  of  two  Grandees,  Thales  [I-  i-  75-] 
and  Solon.  This  later,  in  his  return  from  Egypt  visited 
Cyprus,  and  after  went  to  Croesus,  who  adorning  him- 
selfe  in  greatest  glory  &  pompe,  asked  Solon  if  ever 
he  had  seene  goodlier  spectacle  ?  Yes,  said  he,  Cockes, 
Phesants,  and  Peacockes.  Croesus  being  after  by  Cyrus 
sentenced  to  the  fire,  cried,  O  Solon,  Solon,  Solon,  and 
being  demanded  the  reason,  answered,  That  Solon  had 
told  him,  that  no  man  might  be  accounted  happy  before 
his  death  :  wherein  Cyrus  reading  the  mutabilitie  of 
his  owne  fortunes,  gave  him  his  life  and  a  competent 
estate.  Thence  Solon  went  into  Cilicia,  and  built 

To  Croesus  is  an  Epistle  also  of  Anacharsis,  another 
travelling  Philosopher,  borne  in  Scythia,  and  brother 
to  the  Scythian  King,  making  some  mention  of  his 
Travells  in  these  woods  :  I,  O  King  of  Lidians,  came 
into  Greece  to  learne  their  Manners,  Studies,  and 
Instructions  ;  and  need  not  Gold,  esteeming  it  enough 
to  returne  to  the  Scythians  a  better  man,  and  more 
learned.  Yet  I  will  come  to  thee  to  Sardis,  much 
esteeming  thy  friendship  and  familiaritie.  Hee  was  Laer.  I.  z. 
Solons  guest  at  Athens,  whither  he  came  in  the  fortie 
seventh  Olympiad.  Socrates  the  first  bringer  in  of 
Ethikes  or  Morall  Philosophy,  was  a  Traveller  also, 
and  followed  the  warres  by  Land  and  Sea.  Xenophon  Xenophon. 
his  Scholler,  was  both  in  Arts,  and  Armes,  and  Travells 

*  Least   Travellers   may    be    greatest   Writers.      Even    I   which    have 

written  so  much  of  travellers  &  travells,  never  travelled  200.  miles  from 

Thaxted  in  Essex,  where  I  was  borne  :  herein  like  a  whetstone,  which 

being  blunt  causeth  sharpnesse  ;  or  a  Candlestick  holding  many  Candles, 

without  which  it  selfe  is  unseene  in  the  darke  ;  and  as  the  Compasse  is  of 

little  compasse  and  motion,  yet  teacheth  to  compasse  the  World  ;  or  as 

the  Pole-star  is  lest  moved  of  all,  &  most  of  all  moving  &  guiding  the 

Traveller.       Envy   not    a    marginall    roome    to    him,    who    hath    used 

Volumes  so   spacious  to   thee  ;    in   which,  how  little   is  the   travell   of 

the  greatest  Traveller  ;  or  how  could  a  great  Traveller  have  travelled 

of  so  much. 



famous,  and  hath  left  Monuments  thereof  written  by 
himselfe.  His  voyage  to  Delphos,  and  thence  to  Cyrus, 
and  after  his  Persian  journey  to  Agesilaus  King  of 
Sparta,  and  with  him  against  the  Thebans,  and  after 
that  to  Helis  and  Corinth,  are  recorded  by  Laertius. 
In  his  daies  Ctesias  a  Traveller  and  Historian  lived, 
which  writ  the  Persian,  Assyrian  and  Indian  Stories, 
but  often  travells  from  truth, 

Arutippus.  Aristippus  was  a  Cyrenian  by  birth,  by  studies  an 
Athenian,  as  were  many  others  of  his  Countrymen,  by 
base  flattery  a  trencher-worme  to  Dionysius  the  Sicilian 
Tyrant.  Ptolemeus  an  Ethiopian  was  his  SchoUer,  and 
Antipater  a  Cyrenean.  Epitemedes,  Paraebates,  Hegesias, 
Anniceris  were  also,  holding  voluptuous 
opinions,  as  also  Theodorus  and  another  Aristippus, 
magnifying  sensuall  pleasures.  The  Ecclesiastike  His- 
tories of  Socrates  and  Sozomen,  mention  the  travells 
of  Empedocles,  which  threw  himselfe  into  the  Sicilian 
Crateres,  and  of  Democritus  Cous  which  spent  eightie 
yeeres  in  travelling  thorow  divers  Countries.  Meropius 
also,  and   Merodorus  are    mentioned   with    others.     But 

?lato.  wee  will  come  to  men  better  knowne  :  Plato  is  famous 

Laert.  L  3.  ^t^^i^  ^^^  Philosophy  and  Travelling.  Hee  travelled  to 
Euclide  at  Megara,  to  Theodorus  the  Mathematician, 
into  Italy  to  the  Pythagoreans,  Philolaus  and  Eurytus, 

Euripides,  thence  to  Egypt  to  the  Priests  (and  with  him  Euripides 
also)  and  intended  to  visit  the  Persian  Magi,  but  was 
prohibited  by  the  Asian  warres.  Returning  to  Athens 
hee  set  up  the  Academie.  Thrice  hee  travelled  in  war- 
fare to  Tanagra,  to  Corinth,  to  Delos.  Thrice  also 
hee  sayled  into  Sicilia.  First  to  see  it,  at  which  time 
Dionysius  the  Tyrant  displeased  with  his  free  speech, 
caused  him  to  bee  sold  in  ^gina ;  but  being  freed, 
Dionysius  writ  to  him  not  to  reproach  him.  Plato 
answered,  Hee  had  not  so  much  leisure  as  to  thinke  on 
Dionysius.  He  sailed  thither  to  the  younger  Dionysius 
twice.  His  Disciples  were  Speusippus  the  Athenian, 
Xenocrates   of  Chalcedon,   Aristotle   the  Stagirite,   Dion 


of  Syracuse,  Amyctus  of  Heraclea,  Timolaus  of  Cyzicus, 

Heraclides    of  Pontus,   and    others    of  other    Countries, 

his    Schoole    yeelding    a    prettie    Geographicall    Map    of 

Countries.      Bion     was    borne    neere    Boristhanes,    but  Bion. 

added   honor   to   his   Country   by   his   studies.     He  was 

sold  for  a  Slave,  and   bought  by  an  Orator  which  made 

him    his   heire  :    he   sold   al   &   went    to   Athens.     After 

his    studies    there,    he    lived    at    Rhodes.      Lacydes    the  Lacydes. 

chiefe  of  the  New  Academie,  was  a  Cyrenaean.     Carneades  Cameades. 

was  also  of  the  same  nation.     Clitomachus  was  a  Cartha-  Clitomachus. 

ginian,    &   his   true   name   was   Asdrubal.     He   went   to 

Athens,   &   there   became   the   scholler    of  Carneades    & 

his  successor.     Menippus  was  a  Phenician   by   birth,   &  Menippm. 

lived  a  Cynik  at  Thebes. 

Aristotle  was  borne  the  first  yeere  of  the  99.  Olympiad:   Aristotle. 

at    seventeene    yeers   he    became    Platoes    Scholler,    and 

so   continued   twentie  yeeres.     After    that    hee    went    to 

Mitylene,   and  when  Alexander  was  fifteene  yeeres  old, 

to  King  Philip,  in  the  second  yeere  of  the  109.  Olympiad, 

and   having   commended    the    care    ot    young    Alexander 

to    his   Cousin    Callisthenes,   in   the   second    of  the    iii.  Calisthenes. 

returned  to  Athens,  and  taught  in  Lyceo  thirteene  yeeres, 

and   then   went   to   Chalcis   and  there  died.     Cahsthenes 

travelled  with  Alexander,  till  the  Persian   Conquest   had 

made    him    swell    beyond    the    measure    of  a    man,    and 

some  Greeke  Foolosophers  (Philosophers  I  dare   not  call 

them  ;  but  amongst  the   Muses  some  have  alway  beene 

Hedge -whores,   and   the   learning    of  some   in    all    Ages 

hath  licked  the  trenchers,    and    fly-blowed   the    sores  of 

great  men  ;  with  the    basest   of  vices.    Flattery,   kissing 

the  hinder  parts,  sucking*  the  Emerodes,  feeding  on  their  *So  the  Bar- 

excrements,    themselves    the    excrements    of   Mankind :  ^f^  °f^^^" 
,  1-111  •  J  3\      A     •  ine  tleventh. 

but    whither    hath    passion    transported    mee .-')    Agis    an  j^.j.-ian.  I.  4. 

Argive,  and  Cleo  a  Sicilian,  some  adde  Anaxarchus  also, 

Et   caetera   urbium    suarum    Purgamenta    (saith    Curtius)   Q. Curtis. /.S. 

would   needs  open   Heaven  to   Alexander,   and    preferre 

him  to  Hercules,  Bacchus,  Castor  and  Pollux  :  Alexander  P/ut.  Alex. 

stood   behind  the  hangings,   whiles  Cleo   made  a  speech 


to  persuade  the  Persian  Rites,  and  with  them  to  deifie 
and  incense  their  Kings.  Which  being  gravely  refuted 
by  Callisthenes  (for  to  him  especially  was  the  speech 
directed,  that  they  which  went  before  others  in  learning, 
should  in  this  innovation  also)  that  it  was  not  for  him 
and  Cleo  to  make  Gods,  or  for  the  Kings  honor  to  bee 
beholden  to  them  for  his  Divinitie,  which  could  not 
give  a  Kingdome  on  Earth  to  him,  and  much  lesse 
Heaven  :  Alexander  concealed  his  malice,  till  upon 
occasion  of  torturing  some,  which  had  conspired  his 
death,  he  tortured  also  even  to  death  Callisthenes, 
giving  him  that  recompence  for  saving  his  life,  when 
having  slaine  Clytus  in  a  drunken  rage,  hee  would  have 

[I.  i.  76.]  added  in  a  sullen  and  mad  penance  his  owne  death,  and 
was  by  Callisthenes  wisedome  reclaimed.  This  was  his 
preparation   to   the   Indian  Expedition. 

Many  other  learned  men  followed  Alexander,  and 
writ  his  story,  viz.  Marsyas,  Pellaeus,  Hecatasus  Abderita, 
Aristobulus,  Clitarchus,  Anaximenes,  Onesicritus,  Near- 
chus,  Ptolemasus  Lagi  after  King  of  Egypt,  Antipater 
another  of  Alexanders  Captaines,  and  an  Historian, 
Aristus,  Asclepiades  ;  Vossius  addes  Archelaus,  Strattis, 
Eumenes,  Diodorus,  whose  stories  wee  have  cited  by 
Arrianus,  Strabo,  Plutarch,  &c.  But  then  the  World 
travelled  of  Travellers  of  all  sorts,  learned  and  un- 

Laeri.  L  7.  Zeno  was  a  Cyprian,  by  birth  of  Phasnician  parentage, 
and  at  Athens  began  the  Stoike  Sect,  whither  hee  came 
with  Purple  out  of  Phenicia  to  sell,  and  suffered  ship- 
wracke    in    the    Piraeum,    upon   which    occasion    solacing 

L.  1.8.  himselfe  with  a  booke,  hee  followed  Crates.  Cleanthes 
was  his  successor,  &  after  him  Sphaerus  a  Bosphoran, 
which  travelled  also  to  Alexandria  to  Ptolemeus  Philo- 
pater.  Heraclites  the  Ephesian  was  a  travelling  Philo- 
sopher, of  whose  acquaintance  Darius  Histaspis  was 
ambitious  and  writ  to  him  about  it.  But  of  all  the 
Philosophers    none    were    more    famous,    then     the    first 

Pythagoras,  founder    of    that    name    Pythagoras,    either    in     travells 



with,  or  for  Science.  He  was  borne  at  Samos,  thence 
passed  to  Lesbos,  and  there  heard  Pherecydes  the  Syrian. 
Returning  to  Samos,  Polycrates  the  famous  Minion  of 
Fortune,  commended  him  to  Amasis  King  of  Egypt. 
Hee  learned  the  Egyptian  Mysteries  and  Language, 
and  travelled  thence  with  Epimenedes  into  Crete,  and 
after  that  into  Italy  to  Croton,  and  there  began  the 
Italike  Philosophy  before  mentioned.  But  who  can 
tell  his  travells  .?  lamblichus  his  Scholler,  saith  that  PUn.l.zo.c.x. 
Pythogoras  learned  his  Philosophy,  partly  of  the  Orphics,  ^^""^^^  f""^- 
partly  of  the  Egyptian  Priests,  partly  of  the  Chaldees 
and  Magi.  Learned  Plinie  saith  of  him,  that  to  learne 
Zoroastres  his  Magia,  Pythagoras  navigavit,  exilio  verius 
quam  peregrinatione  suscepta.  Hee  (doe  you  beleeve 
it  i*)  had  beene  iEthalides  the  sonne  of  Mercury,  and 
after  that  had  beene  Euphorbus  in  the  warres  of  Troy, 
who  being  dead,  his  soule  passed  into  Hermotinus,  and 
travelled  to  Branchidae  to  Apollos  Temple,  after  whose 
death  a  new  transmigration  befell  him  into  Pyrrbus  a 
Delian  Fisherman,  and  at  last  you  have  Pythagoras. 
It  seemeth  hee  had  beene  also  in  India,  where  the 
Brachmanes  or  Bramenes  to  this  day  observe  the  Rites 
and  Opinions  which  the  Westerne  World  ascribe  to 
Pythagoras,  as  not  eating  of  things  which  have  had  Hfe, 
transmigration  of  soules,  and  the  like.  Histaspis,  the 
Father  of  Darius  the  King,  is  reported  to  have  travelled 
into  India  and  learned  their  Magike  and  Philosophy, 
which  the  Magi  in  Persia  after  professed.  Philostratus 
hath  written  a  long  Legend  of  Apollonius  Tyanaeus  his 
Pilgrimage  to  the  Brachmanes  in  India,  to  Babylon, 
iEgypt,  and  Arabia,  to  Nysa,  to  Taxilla,  to  larchas  the 
principal!  Indian  Brachmane,  to  his  Egyptian  and 
Ethiopian  Gymnosophists,  &c.  But  incredulus  odi.  I 
reckon  him  an  Hospitall  Beggar,  with  whom  I  will  have 
nothing  to  doe.  Pyrrho  an  Athenian  Philosopher 
Scholler  of  Anaxarchus,  is  said  to  have  travelled  both 
to  the  Persian  Magi,  and  Indian  Gymnosophists,  and 
learned    of  them    that    hee    could    learne    nothing,    nay 



Strab.lib.  15. 
Curt.  10. 
Amb.  Ep.  7, 
Diod.  Sic.  I.  4. 
c,  9. 

See  Vossius  of 
Polybius,  «5^ 
Pythias.  De 
hist,  grcec. 
Herod.  I.  4. 
Scyllax  sent  by 
the  Persian  to 
discover  the 
Coast,  before 
that  famous 

learned  not  so  much,  but  doubted  of  that  also.  India  also 
yeelded  some  travelling  Philosophers  to  the  Graecians, 
of  whom  the  most  famous  is  that  Calanus  which  followed 
Alexander  to  Pasargadas,  some  say  to  Babylon,  and  there 
burned  himselfe,  an  end  sutable  to  his  severe  profession 
beyond  the  Stoikes  austeritie.  An  Epistle  of  his  is 
registred  at  large  by  Saint  Ambrose.  Archimedes  also 
travelled  into  Egypt  and  left  famous  Monuments  of 
his  Art  in  many  parts  of  the  World.  But  wee  have 
beene  too  long  in  travell  of  this  argument.  More  are 
wee  beholden  to  the  travells  of  Historians,  such  as 
Herodotus,  Megasthenes,  Diodorus  Siculus,  Strabo, 
Polybius,  and  many  others  which  travelled  into  Italy, 
Egypt,  ^Ethiopia,  Greece,  Asia,  and  divers  parts  of  the 
World,  that  they  might  give  the  World  unto  posteritie. 
Herein  also  they  deserve  mention,  which  then  were 
counted  fablers,  as  Pythias  Massiliensis,  whom  Strabo 
and  others  reject:  yet  his  reports  of  short  nights,  &c. 
are  now  knowne  truths.  Some  have  written  of  travelling 
and  sailing  by  the  Coasts,  as  Arrianus  his  Circum- 
navigation of  the  Red  or  Indian  Sea,  and  of  the  Blacke 
or  Euxine  Sea  ;  the  'irepi-nyr](Ti<;  &  TrepiifKov^  of  Marcianus 
Heracleotes,  published  in  Greeke  by  David  Hoeschelius, 
rare  Jewells  for  knowledge  of  antient  Geography,  but 
not  so  fitting  our  common  Reader,  The  like  wee  may 
say  of  Scyllax  Caryandensis,  mentioned  by  Herodotus, 
Artemidorus  the  Ephesian,  Dicearchus  Mesenius,  Isidorus, 
Conracasnus.  The  Learned  know  where  to  read  them  : 
the  Vulgar  would  not  regard  them  if  they  were  here  ; 
Time  having  devoured  the  very  names  by  them  men- 
tioned, and  not  the  Cities  and  Ports  alone.  Yet  for  a 
taste  wee  will  give  you  a  Voyage  of  two  of  the  Antients. 
And  first  that  of  Hanno. 



Chap.   VII. 

Phcenician  Voyages,  and  especially  that  of  Hanno, 
a  Carthaginian  Captaine. 

lodorus  Siculus  reporteth  of  the  Phoe- 
nicians (of  whose  Navigations  in  the 
Indian  and  African  Ocean,  and  Spanish 
Plantations*  we  have  spoken  before) 
that  sayling  to  divers  Marts,  they 
planted  many  Colonies  in  Africa,  and 
some  also  in  the  West  parts  of  Europe : 
that  they  sailed  also  out  of  the  Straits  into  the  Ocean, 
and  built  on  the  Europasan  Continent  the  Citie  Gadira 
(or  Cadiz)  and  therein  erected  a  sumptuous  Temple  to 
Hercules,  which  to  his  dayes  was  holden  in  great  repu- 
tation of  Sanctitie,  the  Rites  therein  observed  after  the 
Phcenician  manner,  wherein  many  famous  Roman  Com- 
manders after  their  great  exploits,  have  paid  to  this  God 
their  vowed  Holies.  The  Phoenicians  sailing  alongst 
the  Lybian  shore  in  the  Ocean,  were  many  dayes  car- 
ried with  tempests  unto  an  Hand  very  great  and  fertile, 
with  pleasant  Champaines  and  Mountaines,  goodly 
Woods,  Gardens,  Houses,  Fountaines,  wholsome  Ayre, 
seeming  to  be  the  dwelling  rather  of  Gods  then  Men. 
The  Tyrrheni  (which  were  strong  by  Sea)  would  have 
sent  a  Colonic  thither,  but  were  forbidden  by  the  Car- 
thaginians, which  feared  lest  their  Citizens  allured  by 
the  goodnesse  of  the  Countrey  should  betake  themselves 
thither :  and  besides,  they  would  reserve  it  for  a  place 
of  refuge,  if  any  adversitie  should  happen  to  their  Citie. 
Aristotle  also  in  his  Booke  Tre^oi  Oavfxacrlcov  aKovcr/udrcov  hath 
some  such  thing  of  Carthaginian  Merchants,  which 
sailed  from  Spaine  into  the  Westerne  Ocean  ;  but  I 
thinke  both  may  bee  applied  rather  to  some  one  of  the 
Hands  of  the  Canaries,  or  Cape  Verd,  or  Saint  Thomas, 
or  to  some  part  of  the  African  Continent,  which  they 
might  thinke  (not  sailing  further)  to  be  an  Hand,  or  to 


[I.  i.  77-] 

Sup.c.  I. §.12. 

Gadira  or 
Cadiz,  built  by 
the  Pheeni- 

Goodly  Hand. 

O  vie  do  and 
others  apply  it 
to  the  Ameri- 
can Antiles. 

Gerardi  10. 
vos.  de  histor, 
Gne.  I.  4. 


Plin.l.z.c.zy.  some  fiction,  then  to  America.  Aristotle  in  that  Treatise 
mentioneth  Hanno,  which  Vossius  thinketh  rather  to  be 
the  worke  of  the  younger  Aristotle,  called  Ponticus 
(Laertius  mentions  eight  Aristotles)  then  of  that  great 
Oracle  of  learning  and  miracle  of  Nature.  But  of 
Hannos  Periplus  (as  it  was  falsly  termed)  many  Authors 
have  made  mention.  Plinie  so  speaketh  of  it,  as  if  hee 
had  sailed  about  Africa,  in  these  words,  Et  Hanno, 
Carthaginis  potentia  florente,  circumvectus  a  Gadibus  ad 
finem  Arabiae,  navigationem  eam  prodidit  scripto  ;  sicut 
ad  extera  Europas  noscenda  missus  eodem  tempore 
Himilco.  By  which  words  it  is  apparent  that  Hanno 
and  Himilco  in  those  flourishing  times  of  Carthage, 
Himilco.  were  sent   by   publike   decree  upon  discoveries,  Himilco 

to    the   Coasts   of  France,   Britaine,   and   other  parts   of 
Europe  ;  Hanno  Southwards  to  coast  around  the  African 
shores.     The  like  testimony  he  hath  in  his  fifth  Booke, 
L.  5.  f.  I.       Fuere    &    Hannonis    Carthaginiensium    Ducis    commen- 
tarii,     Punicis    rebus    florentissimis,    explorare    ambitum 
^&'aliaquis-  Africe  jussi :     quem    secuti   plerique  e   nostris,   ad  ^  alia 
demfab.  quaedam    fabulosa,   &   urbes    multas   ab   eo    conditas    ibi 

prodidere,  quarum  nee  memoria  ulla,  nee  vestigium  extat. 
Whereby  wee  see  that   Plinie   doubted  of  the   truth   of 
Hannos  relations :    yea  it  was  a  Proverbe,  as  Athenaeus, 
which   Casaubon   in  his   Notes   upon   him,  with  Vossius 
also  have  observed  ;  Siquid  ejusmodi  Juba  refert,  gaudeat 
Lybicis   libris    Hannonis   ac   erroribus :    as  good  a  testi- 
Qa/  Bavium    monie  of  Juba  and  Hanno  for  Historians  as  Virgils   of 
non  odit,  amet  gavius  and  Maevius  for  Poets.     Yet,  as  I  will  not  alto- 
Mtevi    ^"^     gether  cleare  him,  so   I   thinke   that  ignorance   of  those 
places  in  those  times  made  him  seeme  the  more  fabulous, 
as    Marco    Polo    and    others    did    till    our   Grandfathers 
dales :    which   appeareth  in   that    they   make   that   a   cir- 
cumnavigation   about    Africk,    which    reached    not    one 
quarter  of  the  way  from  the  Pillars  of  Hercules,  to  the 
p'^'^^^'m /v'  Arabian  Gulfe.     Artemidorus  the  Ephesian  doth  mention 
sitOrb^l.  3.  ^^'  ^^^  Mela  also  with   Solinus.     Mela  came   neere   the 
c.  10.  truth,  which  saith  that  Hanno  sailed  a  great  part  of  the 



coast,  and  returned  for  want  of  provision,  not   of  Sea-  Hanno  Car- 
roome.     He,   and    Solinus   and   Plinie   have  cited   much  ^^^S^^^""^, 

,  .  cum  per 

out  of  him,  which  perhaps  might  receive  a  better  inter-   Qceani  ostia 

pretation    then    Antiquity   could    give,    as    appeareth    by  exisset,  mag- 
Ramusios  annotations  on  that   Voyage,  and  by  helpe   of  nam  partem 
a    Portugall    Pilot    expert    in    those    coasts,    comparing  ^i!^JJ^^^^'^lll^  ^^ 
Hannos    with   the   present    Navigations.     We   will   first  ^^^^.^  ]^^  ^^^,^_ 
give   you   the   Text    and    then    the     Commentarie.     But  meatu  defe- 
first   we   will   adde   out    of  Galvano   touching    Himilco,  cis$e,  ^'c 
that  hee  is  said  to  have  sailed   to   Gotland    and    Thule, 
within  24.  degrees  of  the  Pole,  where  the   day  in   June 
is   two    and   twenty   houres,  and   to   have  spent   in   that 
discovery    two    yeeres :     I    know   not  what  good   proofe 
he    hath    of   that    Relation.       Plinie    whom    he    citeth, 
saith    that    the    Northerne    Ocean    was    sailed    for    the 
most    part    by    the    procurement    of  Augustus,    to    the 
Cimbrian   Promontory,  and  the  Scythian  coast,  and  that 
from    the    East    when   Seleucus    and  Antiochus  reigned, 
the   North  Sea  above  the  Caspian  was  sailed,  and  called 
by    their   names    Seleucida   and    Antiochida,       But    that 
he  joyneth  the  Caspian  with  the  Ocean,  makes  it   lesse  Pl.l.z.c.6-j. 
credible,  being   contrary  to  later  experience.     No   better 
credit    hath     that    report    of    Nepos    touching     Indians 
which    had    for    trade    sailed    out    of   India    and    comne 
about    by    the   Northerne   Ocean,  and   by    tempest  were 
brought  into   Germany,    presented   by   the  King    of  the 
Suevians    to    Quintus    Metellus   Celer    then    proconsul! 
of   Gallia,    which    haply    were    of  some    Nation    in    the 
Baltike    Sea,    by    tempest    loosing    themselves,    and    not 
finding    any     which    could    understand    their    language, 
were    by    some    smattering   Grammarians   or  trusty    tra- 
vellers (which  by   daring  ignorance  would  adventure  on 
applause  for   skill  in   Geography)  or  else  by   the  Giver 
(which  thought  the  mention  of  the   Indian  name  would 
much  commend  his   present)   obtruded   on  the  no  lesse  [I.  i.  78.] 
ignorant  Spectators,  for  Indians:   a  thing  easily  said,  and 
not  easily  disproved,  where  none  had  seene  any  Indian. 
But  now  to  Hanno.  [The  Navigation 

I  209  o 



The  Navigation  of  Hanno  a  Carthaginian  Cap- 
taine  on  the  Coasts  of  Africa,  without 
Hercules  Fillers,  which  he  dedicated,  written 
in  the  Punick  tongue  in  the  Temple  of 
Saturne,  after  translated  into  the  Greeke,  and 
now  into  the  English,  with  briefe  annotations. 

^He  Carthaginians  determined  that  Hanno  should 
saile  without  Hercules  Pillars,  &  there  build  Cities 
of  the  Liby-phinicians.  He  set  saile  with  threescore 
Ships  of  fiftie  Oares  a  peece,  conducting  with  him  a 
great  multitude  of  men  and  women,  to  the  number  of 
thirty  thousand,  with  victuals  and  all  other  necessaries. 
We  arrived  at  the  Pillars,  and  passed  them,  and  having 
sailed  without  them  two  daies,  we  built  the  first  Citie, 
Thymiate-  calling  it  Thymiaterium.  It  had  round  about  it  very 
num.  large    Champaignes.       After   turning   toward    the   West, 

we  came  to  a  promontorie  of  Africa,  called  Soloente, 
covered  all  over  with  woods.  And  having  here  built  a 
Temple  to  Neptune,  we  sailed  halfe  a  day  towards  the 
East,  till  we  arrived  at  a  Fen,  which  is  situated  not  farre 
from  the  Sea,  very  full  of  great  and  long  Canes :  and 
there  were  in  it  feeding  Elephants,  &  many  other 
creatures.  Then  having  gone  about  a  daies  saile  beyond 
that  Fenne  we  built  Cities  on  the  Sea  Coast,  calling 
them  by  their  proper  names  Murus,  Caricus,  Gitta, 
Acra,  Melitta  and  Arambis.  Departing  from  thence  we 
came  to  the  great  River  Lixus  which  descends  from 
Africa :  By  it  there  were  certaine  men  called  Lixitae, 
feeders  of  Cattell,  tending  their  flockes ;  with  whom 
wee  continued  so  long,  that  they  became  verie  familiar. 
Moreover  up  in  the  Countrie  above  them  the  Negros 
inhabited,  who  will  not  traffique  with  any,  and  their 
Countrie  is  verie  barbarous  and  full  of  wilde  Beasts, 
and  environed  with  high  Mountaines,  from  which  as 
they  say,  issues  the  River  Lixus,  and  round  about  the 
Mountains    inhabit    men    of   divers    shapes,  which    have 


their  abiding  in  Canes;  they  runne  swifter  then  horses, 
as  the  Lixians  report :  from  thence  taking  some  Inter- 
preters, we  sailed  by  a  desart  Countrie  towards  the 
South  two  daies.  And  then  wee  vered  one  day  to- 
wards the  East,  where  in  the  bottome  of  a  Gulfe  we 
found  a  like  Hand,  that  was  five  furlongs  in  compasse, 
which  we  inhabited,  naming  it  Cerne,  and  by  the  way 
that  we  had  sailed  we  judged  that  that  Hand  was 
opposite  to  Carthage,  for  the  Navigation  from  Carthage 
to  the  Pillars,  and  from  thence  to  Cerne  seemed  equall. 
Parting  from  thence,  and  sailing  by  a  great  River 
called  Crete,  we  arrived  at  a  Lake,  which  had  in  it 
three  Hands  greater  then  Cerne.  From  whence  sailing 
the  space  of  a  day,  we  came  to  the  further  part  of  the 
Lake :  there  we  saw  very  high  Mountaines  which  over- 
looked all  the  Lake :  where  were  savage  people  cloathed 
in  beasts  skins,  who  chased  us  away  with  stones,  not 
suffering  us  to  land :  sailing  from  thence  we  came  to 
another  great  and  large  streame  full  of  Crocodiles,  and 
River-horses,  From  thence  turning  backe  againe,  wee 
returned  to  Cerne.  Sailing  then  twelve  daies  Southerly, 
not  going  farre  from  the  coast,  which  was  peopled  with 
Negros,  who  upon  sight  of  us  fled  away,  and  spake  so, 
as  the  Lixitas  that  were  with  us  understood  them  not. 
The  last  day  we  arrived  at  a  Mountaine  full  of  great 
trees,  the  wood  whereof  was  odoriferous  and  of  various 
colours.  Having  now  coasted  two  daies  by  this  Moun- 
taine, wee  found  a  deepe  and  troublesome  race  of  Sea  ; 
on  the  side  whereof  towards  the  land  was  a  plaine, 
where  by  night  we  saw  fires  kindled  on  every  side, 
distant  one  from  the  other  some  more  some  lesse. 
Having  watered  here,  we  sailed  by  the  land  five  daies, 
so  that  we  arrived  in  a  great  Bay,  which  our  Interpre- 
ters said,  was  called  Hesperus  his  home.  In  this  there 
was  a  great  Hand,  and  in  the  Hand  a  Lake,  which 
seemed  a  Sea,  and  in  this  there  was  another  Hand  ; 
where  having  landed,  by  day  we  saw  nothing  but  woods, 
but  in  the  night  many  fires  were  kindled,  and  we  heard 



Phifes  and  the  noise  and  sound  of  Gimbals  and  Drum- 
mes,  and  besides  infinite  shouts  ;  so  that  wee  were 
exceedingly  afraid,  and  our  Diviners  commanded  us  to 
abandon  the  Hand :  then  swiftly  sailing  from  thence,  we 
passed  by  a  Countrie  smelling  of  Spices :  from  which 
some  fierie  Rivers  fall  into  the  Sea,  and  the  land  is  so 
hot  that  men  are  not  able  to  goe  in  it  ;  therefore  being 
somewhat  affrighted  we  suddenly  hoised  out  our  sailes, 
and  running  along  in  the  maine  the  space  of  foure 
daies,  we  saw  by  night  the  Country  full  of  flames,  and 
in  the  middest  an  exceeding  high  fire,  greater  then  all 
the  rest,  which  seemed  to  reach  unto  the  Starres :  but 
wee  saw  this  after  in  the  day  time,  which  was  a  very 
loftie  Mountaine,  called  Oewv  oyr]ixa  that  is,  the  Chariot  of 
the  Gods.  But  having  sailed  three  daies  by  fierie  Rivers, 
we  arrived  in  a  Gulfe  called  Notuceras,  that  is,  the 
South  home :  in  the  inner  part  thereof  there  was  a 
little  Hand  like  unto  the  first,  which  had  a  Lake  in  it, 
and  in  that  there  was  another  Hand  full  of  Savage  men, 
but  the  women  were  more  ;  they  had  their  bodies  all 
over  hairie,  and  of  our  Interpreters  they  were  called 
Gorgones :  we  pursued  the  men  but  could  take  none, 
for  they  fled  into  precipices  and  defended  themselves 
with  stones  ;  but  we  tooke  three  of  the  women,  which 
did  nothing  but  bite  and  scratch  those  that  led  them,  and 
would  not  follow  them.  Therefore  they  killed  them  and 
flead  them,  and  brought  their  skins  to  Carthage:  and 
because  victuals  failed  us,  we  sailed  no  further. 

[I.  i.  79.]  TT  appeares  that  Hannos  wisdome  for  discoverie  in 
*Some  make  X  that  infancie  of  Navigation*  about  2000  yeeres  since, 
Hanno  at  least  thought   small   Vessels   fittest   by  which  he  might  keepe 

as  atincient  as  °,,  ,  i-"^i  r  ji- 

Philip  the  neere  the  shoare,  the  edgmg  whereor  caused  nim  to 
Father  of  saile  East  or  West,  as  the  Land  trended.  The  Cartha- 
Alexander :  ginians  being  of  Phoenician  originall  from  Tyrus,  and 
Vossiusthinkes  Lyt)ian  habitation  and  Empire,  called  their  Cities  Lybi- 
Captaine  pha^nician  :  of  which  Thymiaterium  seemes  to  the  Portu- 
which  was  sent  gall  Pilot  in  Ramusio,  to  be  Azamor  in  32.  and  a  halfe, 



where    runneth    a   spacious    Plaine    to     Morocco.       The  against 
Promontory  Soloente  seemeth  Cape   Cantin    in    7  2.    de-  '^i'^^^'"^^^^^ 
grees.     After   which   the   coast    runneth   in    much    East-  Tragus  {or  hh 
ward,    and    the    abundance    of   Rivers    cause    the    great  shadoto  Jus- 
Fenne  mentioned ;  beyond  which  they  built  those  Cities,  t'^ne)  I.  22. 
the   same,  or   neere   to   those  now   in  the   Kingdome   of  ^^^'y  '"^"^^^"^ 
Morocco,    Azasi,    Goz,    Aman,    Mogador,   Testhua,  &c.  pj-     /  g  ^ 
After  they  passe  the  Cape  Ger,  and  encounter  the  River   16.  saith  of 
Lixus,  where  the  Poets  fables  place  Hercules  his  Antasus  anotherHanm 
and    the    Hesperides    Gardens.       The    Pilot    thought    it  thathezoas 
the   River  of  Sus,  which  runnes   into  the  Sea   at   Messa  tamtnzL\ons 
in  29.  degr.  30.  min.     Beyond  that  begins  Mount  Atlas 
the  lesse,  which  runneth  Eastward  quite  thorow  Barbary, 
and   to  which  the   Romans   came,  the  sands   prohibiting 
their  approach   to  the  greater  Atlas.     After  this  Hanno 
commeth  to  Cape  Non,  Cape  Bojador  and  Cape  Blanke; 
and   then  turning  to  the  East,  comes  to  the   He   Argin, 
which  hee  called  Cerne :  and  thought  to  be  as  farre  from 
the  Straits  in  the  course  of  their  sailing,  as  it  was  betwixt 
those    Straits  and    Carthage.     For   as    for   the   height,   it 
is   plaine  that  they  neither  used  compasse,  nor  observed 
degrees.     And   for   Ptolemeis    degrees,   they   are    almost 
every    where  false    or    uncertaine,  rather    from   his   con- 
jecture, then  the  Mariners  calculation,  and  in  transcribing 
made   worse   in   so   many  barbarous   and   ignorant   ages : 
his  places  are  of  more  use  in  shewing  their  bearing  East 
or  West,  North   or   South,   short,   or    beyond,   or   wide, 
then  for  exact  gradations. 

The  Hands  of  Cape  Verd  in  13.  are  Hannos  Hes- 
perides (the  Canaries  or  Fortunate  Hands  he  could  not 
see,  creeping  neere  the  shore)  and  for  River  Horses 
and  Crocodiles,  they  are  no  rarities  in  Africke.  From 
Cape  Verd  the  race  of  the  Sea  might  seeme  terrible  to 
their  small  Vessels,  where  the  River  of  Saint  Mary  and 
Rio  Grande  in  15.  degrees,  hath  troubled  waters.  Such 
fires  as  hee  mentioneth  are  scene  to  this  day  of  those 
which  saile  on  the  coast  of  Senega  and  Guinea,  because 
the    Negros    eate    litde   in   the   day   time   for   heate,   but 



at  night  have  their  fires  without  doores  and  there  refresh 
themselves :  many  of  which  a  farre  off  present  such  lights 
See  Jobsons  at  Sea ;  the  merry  Negros  to  fray  away  wilde  Beasts  and 
voyage  and  ^^  expresse  their  mirth,  making  such  musicke  with 
Inf.  I  7.  '  shouts  and  cries.  Sierra  Leona  is  that  chariot  of  the 
Gods  in  8.  degrees,  the  continuall  thunders  and  light- 
nings at  some  times  of  the  yeere  presenting  such  a 
fierie  spectacle  as  Hanno  reporteth :  yet  augmented  for 
greater  wonder,  as  also  are  his  fiery  Rivers,  that  whereas 
the  world  talked  of  a  fiery  Zone,  not  habitable  through 
heate,  he  might  lye  a  little  to  save  his  credit  from 
imputation  of  a  greater  lier,  if  he  had  reported  the 
temperature  neere  the  line.  The  like  humour  of  in- 
clining to  vulgar  fancies  appeareth  in  his  tales  of  the 
Gorgones.  And  for  the  monstrous  womens  hairy  skins, 
they  might  be  of  the  Baboones  or  Pongos  of  those  parts, 
some  of  which  as  Jobson  and  Battell  our  Countrimen 
which  travelled  those  parts  will  tell  you,  are  greater 
then  women,  &  the  Pongos  nothing  in  manner  differing 
from  their  shape.  These  were,  as  is  probable  within 
foure  degrees  of  the  line.  The  Hand  is  thought  to 
be  that  of  Fernando  Poo :  but  my  learned  friend  Master 
Hoelstin  a  German,  which  is  now  preparing  a  learned 
treasury  of  Geographicall  antiquities  to  the  Presse,  sup- 
poseth  that  hee  passed  not  the  Cape  Tres  puntas  or 
that  de  Palmas. 



Chap.  VIII. 

lambulus  his  Navigation  to  Arabia,  and  Ethiopia, 
and  thence  to  a  strange  Hand,  from  whence 
hee  sailed  to  Palimbothra  in  India. 

F  Hannos  Voyage  and  Relations  seemed 
incredible,  much  more  may  that  of 
lambulus,  recorded  by  Diodorus.  In  D.  Sic.  I.  2. 
what  age  hee  lived  is  uncertaine,  and 
as  uncertaine  what  Hand  it  was  that 
hee  is  said  to  come  to,  which  may 
seeme    to    some    to    be    Zeilan    or   Java, 

I  rather  thinke  Sumatra.  That  it  is  wholly  fabulous 
I  cannot  thinke,  but  that  all  is  true  therein,  I  were 
worthy  also  to  have  my  tongue  slit,  if  I  should  affirme. 
Hee  did  mixe  fables  to  the  truth,  to  make  his  storie 
more  plausible,  and  imitating  the  Poets;  and  without 
annotations  the  truth  may  easily  be  knowne  from  the 
fables  of  Platoes  Republike  and  common  women,  and 
strange  creatures,  with  other  tales.  But,  if  you  will, 
thus  the  storie  lyeth. 

lambulus  was  learned   from   his   child-hood  and   after 
his    Fathers   death   (who   was   a   Merchant)   he   exercised 
also    Merchandizing.       Passing   through    Arabia    to    buy 
Spices,    he    was    taken    by    theeves,    with    the    associates 
of   his  journie  :    at  first  with   one  of  his   fellow   slaves, 
he   was  appointed  to  bee  a  Keeper  of  Cattle :  but  after 
that,    together    with    him    hee    was    taken    by    certaine  lambulus 
Ethiopians,  and  convayed  beyond  the  maritime  ^Ethiopia.  ^^^^^  ''^'^^'^• 
Seeing  that  they  were  strangers,  they  were  taken  for  an 
expiation    of    that    Country.     The    Ethiopians    that    in- 
habited   those    parts    had    a    custome,    which    they    had  [I.  i.  80.] 
anciently  received   from  the  Oracle  of  their  Gods,   and 
observed    it    twenty    Ages,    that    is  sixe   hundred   yeeres 
(for    an    Age    is    finished   in  thirtie   yeeres.)     They    had 
a  little  vessell  prepared  able  to  endure  the  tempests  of 
the    Sea,    which    two    men    might    easily    steere.       They 



put  into   it  six   months  victuals   for  two  men  :  bringing 

the   men  aboord,  they  commanded  them  to  direct   their 

vessell    towards   the    South    according    to    the    answere 

of  the   Oracle :    and   told   them   that   they   should   come 

to  a  goodly  Hand  and  courteous  people,  that  lived  happily. 

And  by  that   meanes,  if  they  safely  arrived  in  the  Iland 

their  Countrey  should  bee  in  peace  and   prosperity  sixe 

hundred    yeeres.       But    if,    being    terrified    through    the 

length  of  the  Sea  they  should  returne  backe,  they  should 

bring,  as  impious  and  debauched  persons,  great  miseries 

to   all   their   Nation.     They    report  that  the  ^(Ethiopians 

feasted    divers    dayes    by    the    Sea-side,    and    kept    their 

holies,    wishing    them    a    lucky    Voyage,    and    that    the 

accustomed    expiation    were    accomplished.      After    foure 

moneths    sayle    and    many    a    storme,   they   were   carried 

lamhuli        to  an   Hand  of  round  forme,   five   thousand   furlongs  in 

insula.  compasse.     When   they   drew   neere   to  the   Iland,   some 

of   the    Inhabitants    sent    forth   a    Boat    to   meete   them. 

Others    running    to    them    wondred   at  these    new   come 

strangers :      and     entertayned     them    very     kindly     and 

courteously :    imparting    to     them    such    things    as    they 


Inhabitants        The   men   of  this   Iland   are   not  like   to   ours,  either 

descrtbed.      -^^  their  bodies  or  manners,  yet  all  have  the  same  forme, 

but  they  exceed  us  foure  Cubits  in  stature.     They  wind 

^So  doe  the    their  bones  this  way  and  that  way  as  they  please,  ^like 

alios  now.  gjj^g^eg^     Their  bodies    are    stronger    and    nimbler    then 

ours.     For  if  they  have  taken  any  thing  into  their  hands, 

no  man  can  pull  it  out  of  their  fingers.     They  have  no 

haires,   except   on    their   head,   eye-browes,   eye-lids,   and 

chinne :   on   the  other  parts  of  their  bodies  they   are  so 

smooth,   that    there   doth   not   appeare   the  least    downe. 

They    are    faire,   comely,   and   have   wel    shaped    bodies, 

the  holes  of  their  eares  are  much  wider  then  ours,  also 

their    tongue    differs    from    us.     For   their  tongue    hath 

Cloven         somewhat    peculiar    by    Nature    or    Art.       Nature    hath 

Lk^-^k        given   them   a   cloven  tongue,   which   is   divided   in    the 

bleme.  bottome,    so   that  it   seemes   double   from   the    root.     So 



they  use  a  divers  speech :  and  doe  not  only  speake 
with  the  voice  of  men,  but  imitate  the  singing  of  Birds. 
But  that  which  seemes  most  notable,  they  speake  at  one 
time  perfitly  with  two  men,  both  answering  and  dis- 
coursing. For  with  one  part  of  their  tongue  they 
speake  to  one,  and  with  the  other  to  the  other.  The 
aire  is  very  cleere  all  the  yeere  long,  as  the  Poet  hath  Temperate 
written,  That  the  Peare  doth  ripen  upon  the  Peare,  and  ■^^'^• 
the  Apple  upon  the  Apple,  and  the  Grape  upon  the 
Grape,  and  the  fig  upon  the  fig.  Also  they  say  the 
day  and  night  are  alwayes  equall.  About  noone,  when 
the  Sunne  is  over  their  heads  it  maketh  no  shadow. 
They  live  according  to  their  kindreds  and  societies : 
which  yet  exceed  not  foure  hundred.  They  dwell  in 
Medowes,  the  earth  bringing  forth  plentifully  fruits 
freely  without  any  tillage.  For  the  goodnesse  of  the 
Hand  and  temperature  of  the  ayre  make  the  earth  of 
its  owne  accord  wonderfull  fertill. 

There  grow  many  Reeds,  bearing  plentifuU  fruit  like  This  Reed  is 
to    a    white    Vetch ;    when    they    have    gathered    these,  ^/«^^ j^^''/- 
they  steepe  them  in  water,  till  each  of  them  be  swolne  // /;;4"^;/'^' 
to  the  quantity  of  a  Doves  Egge.     Afterwards  of  these  wheate. 
beaten    they    make    bread,    of  a    wonderfull    sweetnesse. 
There    are    also    in    that    Hand   great   Springs  of   water, 
whereof  some  flow  forth  very  hot  for  the  use  of  Baths, 
and  curing  Diseases ;  and  some  are  cold,  very  sweet  and 
wholsome.     They  respect  all  kind  of  Learning,  especially 
Astrologie.     They  use  Letters  whereof  they  have  eight  Their  Letters. 
and  twentie,  according  to  the  value  of  signification,  yet 
but  seven  Characters :  each  whereof  is  varied  foure  wayes. 
They    live    very    long,    namely    one    hundred    and    fifty 
yeeres,   and    for    the    most    part    without    any  sicknesse. 
If  any  have  a  Fever  or  be  sicke  in  his  bodie,  they  enforce 
him    to   dye   according   to   their   Law.     They   write    not  China  forme 
by  the  side,  as  we  doe,  but  from  the  top  in  a   straight  "/^'"^^ '" 
line  to   the  bottome.     They  have   a  custome  to  live  to  '^^^  ^"^' 
a   certaine  age,   which   being    finished,   they    diversly    of 
their  owne  accord  kill  themselves.     They  have  a  double 




Fabulous  crea- 

plant :  upon  which  whosoever  lyeth  downe  is  brought 
into  a  sweet  sleepe  and  dyeth.  The  women  marry 
not,  but  are  common  to  all.  In  like  manner  the 
Males  are  brought  up,  and  common  to  all.  They 
often  take  away  the  children  from  the  Mothers,  that 
they  might  not  know  them,  whereby  it  commeth  to 
passe,  that  there  is  no  ambition  amongst  them,  or  factious 
affection,  but  they  live  peaceably  without  jarring. 

There  are  small  creatures  in  the  Hand,  whose  bloud 
is  of  an  admirable  nature  and  vertue.  Their  bodies 
are  round,  and  like  to  Tortoises,  two  streakes  crossing 
one  another  on  the  middle  of  them  :  in  the  extremity 
of  each  of  which  is  an  eare  and  an  eye :  so  that  they  see 
with  foure  eyes,  and  heare  with  so  many  eares :  they  have 
but  one  belly  wherein  they  convey  that  which  they 
eate.  They  have  many  feet  round  about,  wherewith  they 
goe  both  wayes.  The  bloud  of  this  beast  is  affirmed 
to  be  of  a  wonderfull  efficacie.  For  any  bodie  cut 
with  gashes,  while  it  breathes,  sprinkled  with  this  bloud 
presently  cleaves  together.  And  in  like  manner,  if  a  hand 
bee  cut  off,  or  any  other  member,  whiles  life  lasts,  the 
parts  will  bee  joyned  together,  if  it  bee  applied  to  the 
wound  while  it  is  fresh.  Every  Family  nourisheth 
great  Birds  of  a  divers  nature,  wherewith  they  trie 
what  their  sonnes  will  be.  For  setting  their  children 
on  these  Fowles,  if  they  be  not  affrighted  while  they 
are  carried  through  the  Aire,  they  bring  them  up,  but 
if  they  faint  through  feare  or  cowardlinesse,  they  cast 
them  downe  as  unworthy  to  live  any  longer,  and  un- 
profitable for  any  exercise. 

The  eldest  of  every  Family,  as  King  commands  the 
rest,  who  all  obey  him.  When  hee  is  one  hundred  and 
fiftie  yecres  old,  they  take  away  his  life  according  to  their 
Law :  and  the  eldest  next  him  takes  the  Principality. 
The  Sea  wherewith  the  Hand  is  environed  is  very 
tempestuous,  and  causeth  great  waves,  the  water  is  fresh. 
^ome  truths  of  The  Beare  and  many  starres  which  appeare  to  us  are  not 
the  Countrey.  scene  of  them.     There  are  seven  Hands  of  the  like  great- 


[I.i.  81.] 


nesse,  like  distance  betweene,  and  of  the  same  people 
and  Lawes.  Although  the  earth  doth  bring  forth  food 
of  its  owne  accord  abundantly  for  all,  yet  they  use  it 
moderately.  They  desire  plaine  dishes,  seeking  only 
nourishment :  they  eate  their  flesh  rosted  and  boiled : 
they  reject  the  Cookes  art,  and  all  kind  of  sawces  as 
unprofitable.  They  reverence  the  Gods,  and  that  which 
containeth  all  things,  and  the  Sunne,  and  the  other 
heavenly  Creatures.  They  take  fishes  and  Birds  of  divers 
sorts.  There  grow  of  their  owne  accord  fruitfuU  Trees, 
Olives,  and  Vines,  from  which  they  draw  great  plentie  of 
Oile  and  Wine.  The  Hand  produceth  great  Serpents, 
but  harmelesse :  whose  flesh  they  eate,  which  is  extra- 
ordinarie  sweet.  They  make  their  clothes  of  soft  and 
shining  downe,  taken  out  of  the  middest  of  Canes  :  where- 
with their  Purple  garments  died  with  Sea  Oysters  are 
made.  There  are  many  kinds  of  creatures  and  such  as 
will  hardly  be  beleeved  :  they  observe  a  certaine  order  of 
life,  and  eat  but  of  one  kind  of  meat  in  a  day ;  for 
one  day  they  eate  fish,  on  another  Birds,  and  then  beasts ; 
sometimes  they  feed  only  of  oile.  They  are  addicted  to 
divers  exercises :  some  serve,  some  fish,  others  exercise 
their  Trades,  others  are  busied  about  other  necessarie 
affaires.  Some  (except  the  old  men)  minister  in  common, 
or  serve  one  another  by  turnes.  On  their  Holies  and 
Feast  dayes  they  sing  Hymnes  in  commendation  of  their 
Gods,  and  chiefly  of  the  Sunne,  to  whom  they  dedicate 
themselves  and  their  Hand.  They  burie  their  dead  on  the 
shore,  heaping  sand  upon  the  carkasse  when  the  Sea  flowes, 
that  with  the  flowing  and  increasing  of  the  water,  the 
place  may  be  made  greater.  They  report  that  the  Reeds 
from  which  they  gather  fruit,  increase  and  decrease  accord- 
ing to  the  Moone.  The  sweet  and  wholsome  water 
retaines  the  heate  of  the  Fountaines,  unlesse  it  be  mingled 
with  cold  water  or  wine. 

lambulus  and  he  which  came  with  him   tarried  in  the  lamhulus  his 
Hand  seven  yeeres,  and  at  length  were  forced  to  depart  at  *'^f'^^"^- 
their  wils,  as  wicked   persons,    and    accustomed  to   evill 



conditions.  Therefore  preparing  their  Boat  and  victualling 
it,  they  were  compelled  to  depart.  In  foure  monethes 
they  came  to  a  King  of  India,  through  sandie  and  shallow 
places  of  the  Sea.  The  other  perished  in  a  tempest :  lam- 
bulus  was  driven  into  a  certaine  Village,  and  carried  by 
the  Inhabitants  to  the  King  into  the  Citie  Palibothra  farre 
distant  from  the  Sea.  The  King  loved  Graecians,  and 
greatly  esteemed  their  Learning;  hee  gave  him  many 
things,  and  first  sent  him  safely  into  Persia,  and  then 
into  Greece.  Afterward  lambulus  writ  these  things,  and 
many  things  concerning  India  before  unknowne  to  others. 

Chap.  IX. 

Great   Alexanders    Life,   Acts,  Peregrinations   and 
Conquests  briefly  related. 

Ing  Alexander,  as  they  report,  derived  his 
Pedigree  by  the  Father  from  Hercules, 
by  the  mother  from  ^acus ;  from  the 
one  descended  his  Father  Philip,  and  from 
the  other  his  Mother  Olympia.  Shee 
the  first  night  of  her  Nuptials  dreamed 
that  she  saw  Lightning  enter  into  her 
Wombe,  and  thence  a  great  flame  presently  kindled. 
Philip  also  not  long  after  seemed  in  his  sleepe  to  scale 
his  wives  belly,  the  Scale  engraven  with  a  Lion.  By  these 
Aristander  the  Diviner  foretold  that  shee  was  with  childe, 
because  a  Seale  useth  not  to  be  set  on  emptie  things :  also 
that  shee  should  bring  forth  a  child,  who  should  have  the 
nature  and  spirit  of  a  Lion.  But  when  a  while  after 
Philip  in  the  night  saw  through  a  cranie  of  the  doore 
a  Dragon  lying  by  her,  it  abated  his  love  to  her,  fearing 
Magicall  Charmes,  or  the  familiaritie  of  some  Deitie. 
Notwithstanding  Olympias  counselled  Alexander  that  he 
would  assume  a  minde  worthy  of  his  father.  Others  say, 
that  shee  said  Alexander  would  make  her  (by  challenging 
Hii  birth,  to  bee  Jupiters  sonne)  hatefull  to  Juno.  On  the  Ides  of 
August  she  was  delivered  of  Alexander,  who  although  he 



were  of  a  goodly  feature,  yet  he  bowed   his  necke  some- 
what to  the  left  side,  and  a  certaine  whitenesse  mixed  with 
red  beautified  his  face.     Also  such  an  odour  issued  both  Hisfragt-an- 
out  of  his  mouth,  and  members,  that  his  inner  clothes  did  "^• 
breath  forth  a  wonderfull  fragrant  savour.     Which  as  it 
perhaps  proceeded  out  of  the  temperature  of  his  hot  bodie, 
so  surely  he  was  by  his  naturall  hotnesse  given  to  Wine 
and  anger.     While  he  was  young,  he  refrained  himselfe  His  youthfull 
from  pleasures   more  then   beseemed  one  of  his   yeeres,  "'^Sf^^^'^^^^'^- 
manifesting  his  couragious  minde,  who  when   his  equals 
in  yeeres  asked,   if  he   would   willingly    contend   in    the 
Olympian  Games }  willingly,  saith  he,  if  I  were  to  contend 
with  Kings.     He  greatly  excelled  in  swiftnesse  of  foot. 
Hee    alwayes    meditated    upon    some    great    and    extra- 
ordinary thing,  that  he  might  purchase  fame.     Therefore 
the   Persian   Ambassadors   not   a  little   marvelled   at  the 
courage    of  the    young  man :    seeing   he    questioned    no 
triviall,  or   childish   thing  of  them,  but   the  situation  of  [I.  i.  82.] 
Countries  and  dangers  of  passages,  and  power  of  the  King 
of  Persia.     He  did   seeme  to  bee  angry  at  his  Fathers 
victories;  What  said  he,  will  my  Father  leave  for  me  to 
doe,  if  hee  atchieve  all  noble  exploits  } 

About  those  times,  Philip  bought  Bucephalus  for  thirtie  Bucephalus. 
three  Talents  a  very  fierce  Horse ;  stomackfull,  un- 
managed,  and  abiding  no  Rider.  Now  when  hee  would 
suffer  none  to  backe  him,  Alexander  was  angry  with 
them,  who  could  not  through  feare  or  ignorance  tame 
the  Horse,  and  offered  himselfe  to  breake  him.  To 
whom  his  Father,  if  thou  dost  not,  for  thy  boasting,  what 
punishment  wilt  thou  have }  then  he  answered,  I  will  pay 
for  the  Horse.  Philip  smiling  set  the  price :  He  seeing 
him  mooved  with  his  shadow,  turned  his  head  to  the 
Sunne ;  then  letting  goe  his  Cloke,  laying  hold  with  his 
hands  upon  his  mane,  mounted  him,  still  blowing  and 
trampling  the  sands  under  his  feet.  Letting  goe  the 
reines,  and  crying  out  aloud,  hee  spurred  him  and  made 
him  runne.  Then  holding  in  the  reines  hee  easily  turned  His  arts. 
him.     While  the  people  shouted,  his  Father  weeping  for 


joy,  kissed  him  when  he  aHghted,  saying  my  Sonne, 
Macedonia  cannot  containe  thee,  thou  must  seeke  a  King- 
dome  competent.  Afterward  Philip  noticing  the  dis- 
position of  Alexander,  that  hee  would  rather  bee  induced 
to  vertue  by  gentlenesse  then  rough  dealing  committed 
him  to  Aristotle  to  be  instructed  in  the  precepts  of  Philo- 
sophic. Wherein  and  in  Physicke  he  so  profited,  that 
sometimes  he  helped  his  sicke  friends.  He  learned 
Homers  Iliads  of  Aristotle :  calling  it  the  Souldiers  Knap- 
sacke,  laying  it  with  his  Dagger  alwayes  under  his  Pillow. 
His  first  mar-  When  he  was  seventeene  yeeres  old,  his  Father  warring 
tiall  acts.  against  the  Byzantines,  hee  swayed  the  Scepter  of  Mace- 
don.  And  when  the  Megarians  rebelled,  he  discomfited 
them  in  battle,  and  expelling  the  Barbarians,  called  their 
Citie  Alexandropolis.  Hee  first  also  broke  through 
against  the  sacred  band  of  the  Thebans.  Wherefore  the 
Macedonians  called   him  King;  and  Philip  Emperour. 

Not  long  after  Philip  being  slaine,  Alexander  beeing 
twentie  yeeres  old  beganne  to  reigne,  the  Barbarians 
revolting,  many  supposed  that  they  were  to  bee  appeased 
with  clemencie  and  mildnesse.  Then  Alexander,  we  must 
not  (saith  he)  maintayne  our  Dominions  with  gentle- 
nesse, but  force  and  magnanimitie,  lest  if  we  seeme  to 
abate  of  our  loftie  courage,  we  be  scorned  of  others: 
And  gathering  his  troupes  together,  he  repressed  the 
mutinie  of  the  Barbarians,  chased  away  the  King  of  the 
TribaUi,  overthrew  the  Thebans,  sacked  the  Citie;  and 
levelled  it  to  the  ground.  He  sold  thirtie  thousand  of 
the  Citizens:  sixe  thousand  that  remained  kild  them- 
selves. In  the  meane  while,  the  Graecians  hearing  that 
the  Persians  would  shortly  invade  them,  elected  Alexander 
Isthmus  neere  to  be  their  Leader.  Who  assoone  as  hee  came  to  Isthmos, 
Corinth.  where  their  Generall  Parliament  was  assembled,  went  to 

Diogenes,  whom  hee  found  sitting  in  .the  Sunne.  Then 
courteously  saluting  him,  he  demanded  if  he  wanted 
any  thing  t  But  he  answered  only  this,  stand  aside  out 
of  the  Sunne.  Alexander  admiring  the  constancie  of  the 
man,   departing  said,  if  I  were  not   Alexander,   I   would 



be  Diogenes.  Thence  he  went  to  Delphos,  to  consult  Diogenes. 
with  the  Oracle  about  his  expedition.  It  was  an  unluckie  ^^^P^'^^- 
day  wherein  it  was  not  lawfull  to  give  Oracles.  Alexander 
notwithstanding,  going  in  haste  to  the  Temple,  began 
almost  by  force  to  draw  along  the  Priest  of  the  Oracle 
with  him.  My  Sonne,  said  the  Priest,  thou  art  un- 
conquerable. Hee  beeing  joyfuU  at  these  words  said,  I 
have  no  need  of  any  other  Oracle.  And  returning  to  the 
Campe,  where  abode  the  Army  of  thirtie  thousand  foot- 
men, and  five  thousand  horsemen,  hee  did  not  goe  aboard 
the  ship  before  he  had  distributed  all  his  Chattels,  Lands, 
and  Lordships  amongst  his  friends.  He  to  Perdicas  asking, 
what  will  you  leave  for  your  selfe }  answered,  only  Hope. 

Having  sailed  over  the  Hellespont,  he  went  to  Ilium.  His  expedition 
And    then   visited  Achilles    Sepulchre,    and    adorned    his  ^S^^^/^  ^^' 

•  lCTSI  Otis 

Statue  with  Garlands.  Saying,  O  thou  most  happie,  who 
hadst  so  faithfull  a  companion,  living ;  and  dead,  so  great 
a  Poet  to  renowme  thee. 

In  the  meane  while,  the  Chiefetaines  of  Darius,  the  King 
of  Persia  hastening  to  passe  over  Granicum  with  a  great 
power,  Alexander  met  them  at  the  banks  of  the  same 
River :  and  getting  the  higher  ground,  as  soone  as  he  had 
marshalled  his  bands,  joyned  battle  with  the  Barbarians. 
The  fight  waxing  hot  on  both  sides,  Rhesaces  &  Spithri- 
dates,  Darius  his  Captains,  one  with  a  Speare,  the  other 
with  a  Battle-axe,  with  a  ful  careere  encountred  Alexander, 
who  was  easie  to  be  known  by  reason  of  his  Target,  and 
the  Plume  on  his  Helmet,  beeing  a  great  bush  of  white 
feathers.  Avoyding  nimbly  the  one,  he  strooke  Rhesaces 
with  his  Speare  and  with  his  Sword  made  at  the  other, 
who  without  delay,  tooke  away  his  Helmet,  with  his 
Battle-axe  to  his  haire,  but  while  he  lifted  up  his  hand 
for  another  blow,  he  was  strooke  through  with  a  Lance  Clitus  saveth 
by    Clytus.       Alexander    having    vanquished    the    Com-  '^'//^^     , 

•  •        Ills  ^tctofi^ 

manders,  put  the  rest  to  flight.  In  which  flight  twentie 
thousand  of  the  Barbarians  (two  thousand  Horsemen) 
were  slaine.  But  Alexander  lacked  not  above  thirtie 
foure  Souldiers. 



Having  gotten  this  victorie,  he  tooke  the  strong  Citie 
Sardis,  with  other  Townes,  Miletus  and  Halicarnassus. 
Having  determined  to  try  the  upshot  with  King  Darius, 
if  he  would  joyne  battle  with  him,  he  tooke  Phaenicia  and 
Cilicia.  From  thence  marching  to  Pamphilia,  he  subdued 
the  Pisidans  and  Phrygians.  After  taking  Gordium, 
where  had  beene  of  old  King  Midas  his  Pallace,  he  over- 
came the  Paphlagonians,  and  Cappadocians.  But  King 
[I.  i.  83.]  Darius  relying  on  the  number  of  his  forces  (for  he  had 
an  Army  of  sixe  hundred  thousand)  remooved  his  Campe 
from  Susis.  His  Diviners  had  flattered  him  in  the 
Interpretation  of  a  Dreame  of  the  shining  of  Alexanders 
Armie,  and  Alexander  ministring  to  him,  who  entring 
into  Belus  his  Temple,  was  taken  out  of  his  sight.  He 
thought  basely  of  him  also  for  staying  so  long  in  Cilicia. 
There  was  Alexander  detained  in  great  danger  of  his 
life,  having  washed  himselfe  in  a  cold  River,  and  fallen 
into  a  sudden  sicknesse.  When  other  Physicians  gave 
him  over,  Philip  an  Acarnanian  promised  to  recover 
him  in  a  short  space :  and  although  there  came  a  Letter 
from  Parmenio,  warning  him  to  take  heed  of  Philips 
Treason,  who  was  corrupted  by  King  Darius,  yet  he 
dranke  up  the  potion  boldly,  and  with  all  delivered  the 
Letter  to  Philip.  He  read  it  very  heavily,  but  bad 
Alexander  to  be  of  good  cheere.  In  the  meane  time, 
while  the  potion  entred  into  his  bowels,  the  King  lay 
almost  dead.  But  such  was  the  efficacie  of  the  medicine, 
that  he  presently  recovered  his  former  health. 
Second  battle.  Darius  approching,  Alexander  getting  the  higher 
Alexanders  ground,  ordered  his  battle,  and  after  a  great  slaughter 
•^'  put  the   Barbarians  to   flight :  ten  thousand   were  slaine, 

and  many  more  taken.  Alexander  himselfe  was  wounded. 
Alexander  got  the  Tent,  Money,  rich  Stuff^e,  Chariot, 
and  Bow  of  Darius,  all  adorned  with  Gold.  Moreover, 
Darius  his  Mother,  Wife,  and  two  Daughters  Virgins 
were  taken  with  the  rest.  To  whom  hee  said,  com- 
passionating their  fortune,  seeing  them  weeping  and 
lamenting,  that   Darius  was  alive,  and   that  they  should 



have  no  hurt.     And  indeed  (herein  was  Alexander  King 

of   himselfe)    they    suffered    no    hardship    or    dishonor, 

but  lived  unseene  of  any,  as  it  were  in  sacred  Cloysters, 

or  Virginall    Closets.      Alexander    did    so   refraine   from 

them   and   all  others,   that   he  used  to  say  in  jeast,  that 

the  Persian  Damsels  were  eye-sores.     He  was  also  very  His  temper- 

temperate    in    his    diet,    for    betweene    every    cup,    hee  '^"^^• 

accustomed  to  spend  a  long  time  in  discourse. 

Having  divided  the  spoyles,  his   next  Exploit  was  the 
dominion    of    the    Sea,    and    overcomming    Cyprus,    he  Cyprus. 
subdued  all  Phasnicia,  except   Tyre,   which  hee   besieged  Tyrus. 
seven  monethes  with  Mounts,  Engines,  and  two  hundred 
Gallies,  and  at  length  after  divers  skirmishes  tooke  it  by 
assault.      But  when    he    had  added  Gaza  and  Egypt  to 
his  Conquests,  he  resolved  to  visit  the  Temple  of  Jupiter 
Ammon.      A   very  difficult    Journey    and    dreadfull,  by  Amnions 
reason  of  the    want    of   water,   and   store  of  sands :   yet  °^'^<^^^- 
his   good  fortune   prevayled,   showres   making  the  sands 
firmer,  and  Crowes  guiding  him,  he  came  thither  without 
any   harme ;    Whereas   Cambyses   his    Armie    had    beene 
buried   in   the   sands.      Entring    the    Temple   he  saluted 
the  chiefe  of  them,   who   answered.  All   haile,  O  Sonne 
of  Jupiter,  which  he  received  so  joyfully,  that  ever  after 
hee    carried    himselfe    more    haughtily.      In    Egypt    hee  Alexandria 
founded  Alexandria  a  Greeke  Colonie.  builded. 

After  this  the    Ambassadours   of  the   King    of  Persia  Embassage 
came    to    him    with    Letters,     proffering    ten    thousand  -^"^  lianus. 
Talents,    and    all    Mesopotamia,    and    his    Daughter    in 
marriage,  and  Darius  himselfe  to  become  his  friend  and 
associate,  if  he  would  cease  from  Warre  :  such  conditions, 
that  if  I  were  Alexander,  said  Parmenio,  I  would  accept 
them :  so  would  I  said  Alexander,  if  I   were  Parmenio. 
He    bad    them    tell    Darius,    that   he    should    receive   all 
courtesie  of  the  Graecians,  if  he  would  come  to  them,  if 
he   would   not,   let  him  know   that  we,  wil   he,   nill   he,  ^■^^  ^^i^^d 
wil   come   to  him  speedily.      Then   going  out  of  Egypt  ^^^^^jj '^"^^^^ 
into  Phaenicia,  he  took  all  the  Country  between  Euphrates,  ^„^  ^.^^^^^^  ^' 
and  the  second  time  removed  his  Campe  against  Darius,  with  Darius. 
I  225  p 







And  now  the  Armies  came  in  sight  each  of  other, 
wherein  Darius  had  a  Million  of  men.  The  battle  was 
fought  not  at  Arbela,  but  at  Gausanela.  The  Bactrian 
Horsemen  running  upon  the  Macedonians  provoked 
Alexander  to  fight,  who  encouraged  his  men  and  praying 
to  Jupiter  that  he  would  give  him  aide  and  victory,  an 
Eagle  is  reported  to  have  been  shewed  him  by  Aristander 
his  Diviner  flying  above  him  over  his  head,  and  thence 
directing  her  flight  against  the  Persians,  which  filled 
the  Macedonians  with  hopes  and  cheerefull  courage. 
Forcible  was  the  impression,  and  Alexander  pierced  into 
the  midst  of  the  enemies  Campe,  where  beholding  Darius 
well  guarded  in  the  midst  of  his  troupes,  he  gave  a 
terrible  assault  and  routed  them,  many  beeing  slaine. 
Darius  was  of  a  tall  stature,  comely  face.  Kingly  coun- 
tenance, and  sate  aloft  in  a  Chariot  covered  with  Gold, 
which  Darius  leaving,  leaped  upon  a  barren  mare,  seeking 
to  save  his  life  by  flight.  The  dignitie  of  this  victory 
altogether  overthrew  the  Persian  Empire,  and  made 
Alexander  King  of  Asia.  Then  he  tooke  Babylon  and 
Susis,  the  royall  Citie  where  he  found  fortie  thousand 
Talents  of  silver,  with  royall  houshold-stufFe,  and  of 
Hermionike  Purple  kept  one  hundred  and  ninety  yeeres 
still  fresh  to  the  value  of  five  thousand  Talents. 

Now  did  Alexander  advance  into  Persia,  whither 
Darius  had  fled.  There  he  found  asmuch  silver  as 
before  in  Susis,  and  asmuch  royall  furniture  and  goods 
as  laded  ten  thousand  yokes  of  Mules,  and  five  thousand 
Camels.  Hee  tarried  foure  moneths  in  his  wintering 
Lodgings.  And,  as  the  report  is,  when  he  feasted 
under  the  golden  roofe  of  the  Kings  Hall,  he  said.  That 
he  had  obtained  the  fruit  of  his  labours,  seeing  he  so 
magnificently  banqueted  in  the  Palace  of  proud  Xerxes. 
Thais  an  Athenian,  a  beautifull  Strumpet,  being  present, 
enticed  the  King  with  her  flatteries,  and  said,  I  were 
the  happiest  woman  of  Greece,  if  I  might  in  this  our 
mirth  fire  Xerxes  Pallace,  who  sometime  burnt  my 
Athens.     The  King  smiling,  the  Harlot  fired  the  House. 



The  King  bewitched  with  wine  and  her  allurements, 
the  rest  fiirthering  the  flame,  suffered  such  a  goodly 
building  to  be  consumed  to  ashes.  Alexander  was 
naturally  munificent,  and  kept  a  kinde  of  stately  mag- 
nificence in  giving :  which  he  did  illustrate  with  infinite 
testimonies  of  his  bountie,  lesse  esteeming  those  that  [I.  i.  84.] 
refused  then  these  that  craved.  About  this  time  Darius 
had  now  the  third  time  gathered  an  Army.  Alexander 
in  eleven  dayes  passed  with  great  Journies  3200.  furlongs, 
conducting  his  Armie  through  rough  places,  that  wanted 
water,  so  that  the  whole  Armie  well  neere  languished 
with  thirst :  a  certaine  common  Souldier  brought  a 
Helmet  full  of  water  to  Alexander;  who  looking  upon 
all  of  them  panting  for  heate  and  thirst,  gave  it  him 
againe  untouched :  thinking  it  unfitting  that  he  alone 
should  cherish  himselfe,  and  the  others  faint ;  whose 
continencie  the  Souldiers  admiring,  resolved  to  undergoe 
any  trouble,  as  long  as  they  followed  such  a  Leader. 
Then  after  a  few  dayes,  the  Armie  of  King  Darius 
beeing  gathered  together,  did  flee  assoone  as  they  came 
in  sight  of  the  Macedonians.  The  Persians  being  thus 
discomfited,  the  Macedonians  pursuing  them,  found 
King  Darius  in  his  Chariot  stricken  through  with  many 
wounds,  and  almost  dead,  speaking  some  few  things. 
But  when  Alexander  came  thither  by  chance,  hee  tooke  Darius  slain 
very  bitterly  his  ignoble  death,  and  casting  his  coate  h.  ^''^^^°"  °f 
upon  his  carcasse,  and  adding  the  Royall  Ensignes,  he  "  °'^^^' 
gave  charge  to  carrie  it  honourably  to  his  Mother. 
Bessus,  the  Murtherer,  Alexander  caused  to  be  tied  to 
two  trees  brought  by  force  together,  which  rent  him 
in  sunder. 

Darius  being  overthrowne,   he    brought    into  his  sub-  Hynania  sub- 
jection    Hyrcania,    and    all    the    Cities    adjoyning   to   the  '^"'^'^• 
Caspian    Sea.      After    going    into    Parthia,    hee    attired 
himselfe  in  a  habit,  being  a  meane  betweene  a  Persian 
and  a   Mede,  that  he  might  accustome  the  Macedonians 
the   more   willingly   to  adore  him. 

Passing  over  the  River   Orexartes,   which   he  thought 



Scythian  ex- 


Philotas  and 
Clitus  slaine. 

to  be  Tanais,  hee  warred  on  the  Scythians,  and  chased 
them  one  hundred  furlongs.  Thither  Clitarchus,  Poly- 
critus,  Onesicritus,  Antigenes  and  Hister  say,  the  Amazon 
came  to  him;  which  Chares,  Isangelus,  Ptolemaeus, 
Anticlides,  Philon,  Philippus,  Hecatasus,  PhiHppus 
Chalcidensis,  and  Duris  the  Samian,  say  was  a  devised 
Fable :  and  this  appeareth  to  be  true  by  Alexander 
himselfe,  who  writing  to  Antipater  an  exact  Relation 
of  all  things,  mentions  the  Scythian  Kings  offer  of  his 
Daughter  in  marriage,  but  hath  nothing  at  all  of  the 
Amazon.  It  is  said  that  Lysimachus,  when  hee  heard 
Onesicritus  reading  that  Relation,  smiled  and  said. 
Where  was   I   then } 

At  length  beholding  the  beautie  and  noble  demeanour 
of  Roxanes,  Darius  his  Daughter,  hee  married  her, 
that  so  he  might  perpetually  tie  the  Barbarians  to  him; 
whom  hee  did  also  so  reverence,  that  he  did  not  but 
solemnely  enter  in  to  her.  But  when  hee  proceeded  to 
bring  the  rest  of  Asia  to  his  obedience,  he  caused 
Philotas  Parmenio  his  sonne  a  man  of  eminent  place 
to  be  slaine.  Also  a  little  while  after  being  drunke,  he 
strucke  Clitus  through  with  a  Lance,  a  man  of  a  noble 
courage,  which  had  freed  him  from  Spithridates  Battle- 
axe  :  yet  he  presently  repented,  and  snatching  the  Lance 
out  of  Clitus  his  wound,  would  have  turned  it  into 
himselfe;  but  was  restrained  by  the  standers  by,  and 
had  died  with  griefe,  but  that  Aristander  the  Diviner, 
and  the  Philosophers  Callisthenes  and  Anaxarchus  per- 
suaded him  to  patience.  Callisthenes  was  as  ill  repaid 
as  Clitus,  which  before  we  have  mentioned. 

After  this,  Alexander  sets  forth  towards  India,  and 
there  perceiving  his  Army  by  reason  of  the  greatnesse 
of  pillage  to  bee  slow  and  dull,  hee  burned  up  the  baggage 
of  the  Macedonian  Campe.  After  which  he  became  an 
inexorable  and  severe  punisher  of  faults,  and  a  terrour 
to  his  owne.  He  killed  Menander,  one  of  his  greatest 
Familiars  for  neglecting  his  charge :  And  slew  Orsodates 
having  rebelled  with  his  owne  hands.     He  carried  Baby- 



lonians    (or    Chaldasans)    with    him,    whom    hee    used  in 
superstitious  expiations. 

Neere  the  River  Oxus,  Proxenus  found  a  Fountayne 
of  Oyle  and  fat  liquor,  resembling  Oyle  in  colour  and 
taste,  whereas  that  Region  knoweth  not  Olives.  This 
Alexander  tooke  as  a  divine  Miracle  in  his  favour.  The 
Diviners  tooke  it  for  a  token  of  a  difficult  but  glorious 
Warre.  Hee  tooke  two  strong  Rockes  in  his  way, 
which  seemed  impregnable.  When  the  Macedonians 
refused  to  passe  thorow  the  River  to  lay  siege  to  Nysa, 
he  tooke  his  shield  and  was  readie  to  swimme  over 
himselfe.  But  their  Embassage  for  peace  staid  him. 
To  Taxiles  an  Indian  King,  hee  gave  a  thousand  Talents 
of  silver. 

After  that  he  warred  upon  Porus  King  of  a  great 
part  of  India  (some  thinke  Rahanni  to  be  his  Successour, 
and  those  parts  which  the  Reisboots  now  hold  in  the 
parts,  which  whiles  they  please,  acknowledge  the  Mogoll, 
to  have  been  subject  to  him.)  Hydaspes  ranne  betwixt 
both  their  Tents,  and  Porus  by  his  Elephants  (furnished 
also  with  twentie  thousand  foot,  and  two  thousand  horse) 
hindered  the  passage  of  Alexander,  who  therefore  raised 
continuall  alarmes,  noyses  and  tumults  in  his  Tents, 
and  got  over  the  River  with  great  difficultie,  tooke  the 
Indian  Charets,  and  foure  hundred  of  their  Horsemen. 
In  eight  houres  fight  Porus  lost  the  field  and  himselfe. 
Hee  was  foure  Cubits  and  a  handbreadth  high,  and  rode 
upon  an  Elephant,  which  fought  valiantly  for  his  Rider : 
and  finding  himselfe  spent,  kneeled  downe  gently  to 
prevent  his  fall.  Alexander  asked  his  Captive  Porus 
what  he  would  have  done  if  he  had  taken  him :  and 
Porus  answered  that  he  would  have  done  that  which 
should  have  beseemed  the  Majestie  of  either  of  them  : 
because  this  savoured  of  no  barbarousnesse,  he  restored 
him  to  his  Kingdome,  adding  a  Region  of  a  free  State 
there  subdued,  in  which  were  fifteene  Nations  and  5000. 
Cities,  besides  Villages.  In  this  battle  with  Porus,  or 
soone  after  it  Bucephalus  died,  being  thirtie  yeeres  old :  Bucephalia. 



for  whose  death  Alexander  did  so  grieve,  that  he  built 
a  Citie  upon  Hydaspes,  calling  it  by  his  name,  as  another 
[I.  i.  85.]  also  to  his  Dogge  Peritas.  The  Souldiers  now  being 
wearie  of  the  trouble  of  daily  warre,  when  they  under- 
stood that  he  determined  to  goe  to  the  inmost  parts  of 
India,  refused  to  passe  over  Ganges.  For  they  heard  that 
Ganges  was  thirty  two  furlongs  broad  and  a  hundred 
fathome  deepe,  and  the  bankes  covered  with  troupes  of 
Horsemen,  Elephants  and  Footmen ;  viz.  80000.  Horse- 
men 200000.  Footmen,  8000.  Charets,  and  6000. 
Elephants  trained  to  the  warres,  by  the  Gandaritan  and 
Persian  Kings.  Wherefore  Alexander  seeing  his  desires 
could  not  obtaine  their  wished  end,  kept  himselfe  very 
sorrowfull  in  his  Tent,  and  threatned  that  they  should 
receive  no  recompense  for  that  they  had  done,  unlesse 
they  would  passe  over  Ganges :  at  length  over-come  by 
the  entreaties  and  teares  of  his  Souldiers,  he  desisted  from 
his  intended  Journey.  But  longing  to  see  the  Ocean, 
gathering  ships  together  he  came  thither  by  the  Rivers. 
Where  taking  many  Cities  he  was  almost  slaine  by  the 
Malli,  valiant  men  of  India.  For  when  hee  had  lept  into 
the  Citie  from  the  wall  (which  he  first  ascended)  he  was 
oppressed  with  such  a  multitude  of  the  Barbarians,  that 
unlesse  the  Macedonians  had  speedily  succoured  him  being 
grievously  wounded  with  an  Arrow  and  a  blow  with  a 
Club  upon  the  necke,  here  he  had  in  his  rashnesse 
finished  his  dayes.  But  being  freed  from  the  perill  of 
death,  he  overthrew  Cities  and  many  places,  seven 
monethes  being  so  spent.  At  last  hee  came  to  the  Ocean 
with  his  Armie.  Then  contemplating  the  shoares,  and 
finishing  his  holies,  he  intreated  the  Gods  that  no  man 
ever  after  should  goe  beyond  his  bounds :  he  also  bad 
Nearchus  tarrie  about  India,  with  a  Navy.  He  went  on 
foot  to  Oritus.  But  he  was  so  distressed  with  the 
barrennesse  of  the  Countrey,  heate  and  diseases,  that  of  a 
120000.  Footmen,  and  15000.  Horsemen,  scarcely  the 
fourth  part  lived.  After  sixtie  dayes  hee  came  to  Ged- 
rosia,   where  being  honourably  entertained  by  the  Kings 



and  Officers  which  had  prepared  against  his  comming,  hee 
forgot  all  his  passed  troubles  :  so  that  he  spent  his  time 
day    and    night    in    drinking,    banqueting,     singing    and  [I.  i.  86.] 
daliance  with   women.     After    this    Nearchus   returning, 
presently  he  sailed  downe  Euphrates :  and  passing  over 
Arabia  and  Lybia,  purposed  to  goe  to  Hercules  Pillars  by 
the  Mediterranean  Sea.     But  because  his  armie  was  very 
impatient,   being   consumed   by  the  tediousnesse    of  the 
way,  having  sent  backe  Nearchus  to  defend  the  Sea  coasts, 
he    returned    into    Persia.     And    bestowing    his    money 
among  all  his  women  (for  that  was  the  Kings  custome,  as 
often  as  they  entered  Persia)  he  celebrated  the  Nuptials  of 
his    companions    at   Susis.     He   also  maried   Statyra  the 
other  daughter  of  Darius.     Making  then  a  costly  banquet 
to  his  companions,  he  had  9000.  Guests,  and  gave  every 
one  of  them  a  golden  cup.     He  opened  the  Sepulchre  of 
Cyrus,  whose  Epitaph  was  this,  Whosoever  thou  art,  and 
whence  soever  thou  commest  (for  I  know  thou  wilt  come) 
I  am   Cyrus    which    wan   the    Empire    to    the    Persians. 
Envie   me   not  this  little  earth,  which  covers  my  body. 
Calanus  also  here  burned  himselfe,  having  taken  familiar 
leave  of  all,  and  told  the  King  he  would  shortly  see  him 
againe    at    Babylon.     He    also    paid    the    debts    of    his 
souldiers,  which  came  to  loooo.  talents,  lacking  onely  130. 
He  found  30000.  Persian  youths   which   hee  had   given 
order  to  be  trained  and  instructed  of  manly  growth  and 
comely    presence,    which    gave    plausible    testimonies    of 
their   admirable  activity.     This  caused  emulation  to  the 
Macedonians,  which  murmuring,  he  chose   his  guard  of 
the  Persians.     Wereupon  the  Macedonians  being  grieved 
went  to  him,  intreating  him  not  to  reject  them  as  unprofi- 
table ;  for  they  did  confesse  that  they  had  beene  ingratefull, 
and  desired  pardon.     At  length  Alexander  pittying  their 
teares  and  habit,   sent   them    away  abundantly  rewarded 
with    gifts.     He    entertained    others    according    to    their 
dignity.     But  when  he  went  toward  Ecbatana  of  Media, 
he  gave  himselfe  to  plaies  and  spectacles,  and  about  that 
time  a  fever  tooke  away  Ephestion,  whose  losse  heetooke 



Hydaspes, per- 
haps that 
which  now  is 
called  Bhat. 

SO  to  heart  that  nothing  could  please  him.  Therefore  to 
appease  his  griefe,  he  went  to  warre  as  to  a  manhunting : 
And  so  raced  out  all  the  Nation  of  the  Cossaei,  as  it 
were  offering  them  in  sacrifice  to  Ephestio  his  ghost. 
Those  things  being  finished,  he  was  admonished  by  some 
of  the  Chaldeans,  that  hee  should  not  come  to  Babylon. 
But  he  went  notwithstanding,  where  he  was  againe 
troubled  with  many  Diviners,  and  not  onely  suspected  all 
his  servants  but  all  his  gods  and  deities.  At  length  to 
recreate  himselfe  he  went  a  little  into  a  bathe,  where  he 
began  exceedingly  to  sweate  :  And  being  carried  to  bed, 
after  a  few  daies  the  Fever  increasing,  hee  gave  directions 
to  his  Princes  concerning  the  Empire,  and  died.  But 
before  his  body  was  buried,  it  lay  a  great  while  in  hot 
places.  And  seeing  it  remained  sound  and  uncorrupted, 
by  this  all  suspition  of  poison  was  taken  away.  We  will 
end  this  Relation  of  Alexander  with  Nearchus  his  Voyage 
by  him  set  forth. 

The  Voyage  of  Nearchus  and  his  Fleet  set  forth 
by  Alexander  the  Great,  from  the  River  Indus 
to  the  bottome  of  the  Persian   Gulfe. 

IN  this  History  of  Voyages  I  thinke  it  not  a  misse  to 
give  some  accounts  briefly  of  the  Fleete  which 
Alexander  set  forth  from  Indus  to  the  Persian  Gulfe, 
commanded  by  Nearchus,  gathered  out  of  the  eighth 
Booke  of  Arrianus,  who  had  taken  it  out  of  Nearchus 
his  owne  discourse  thereof.  I  had  the  whole  Relation  at 
large  by  me  translated,  as  those  also  of  Arrianus  his  sailing 
about  both  the  Erythraean  and  Euxine  Seas :  but  Time 
hath  so  altered  the  Names,  ports  and  peoples,  that  I  dare 
not  give  you  them  at  large.     This  briefly  was  thus : 

Alexander  provided  his  ships  in  Hydaspes  (a  River 
which  runneth  into  Indus)  and  manned  them  with  Phe- 
nicians,  Cypriots,  ^Egyptians,  men  best  skilled  in  Marine 
affaires.  He  chose  also  for  Captains  the  Greek  Ilanders 
of  Ionia  and  Hellespont,  &  divers  others ;  amongst  the 




rest  Nearchus  which  writ  this  Navigation,  of  Cretan 
ancestry,  an  Amphipolitan  by  habitation,  whom  he  made 
Generall  of  the  Fleet.  After  things  set  in  order,  he 
sacrificed  to  the  Gods  of  his  Country  and  to  such  others 
as  the  Diviners  prescribed,  to  Neptune,  Oceanus,  the 
Sea  Nymphes,  and  to  the  River  Hydaspes,  and  to  Acesines, 
which  floweth  thereinto.  He  instituted  also  musicall  and 
gymnicall  Games  (prizes  for  maisteries)  also,  distributing 
the  remainders  of  the  sacrifices  to  the  Armie.  A  hun- 
dred and  20000.  souldiers  followed  Alexander,  who 
himselfe  went  with  the  ships  downe  Hydaspes.  He  had 
800.  ships,  some  long,  some  of  burthen.  Being  afraid  to 
adventure  so  long  a  Sea  Voyage,  as  from  Indus  to  the 
Persian  Gulfe,  lest  his  glorious  lustre  of  victory  and 
Fortune  hitherto  attending  him  might  so  be  drowned ; 
the  Monson  serving  (the  Etesiae  then  ceasing  which  there 
blew  in  Summer)  he  committed  the  Fleet  to  Nearchus, 
which  put  forth  to  Sea  on  the  twentieth  day  of  Boedro- 
mion,  in  the  eleventh  yeere  of  King  Alexanders  reigne. 
Nearchus  sacrificed  also  before  his  departure,  to  Jupiter 
the  Saviour,  and  likewise  instituted  Games ;  on  that  day 
of  his  departure  he  came  to  a  great  river  called  Stura,  River  Stura. 
about  100  furlongs,  and  staied  there  two  daies.  On  the 
third  day  hee  came  to  another  River  called  Caumana  thirty 
furlongs  further,  where  the  water  began  to  be  salt,  and  the 
tide  ascended.  Thence  he  sailed  twenty  furlongs  to 
Coreatis  within  the  River.  Moving  thence  they  saw  the 
white  frothy  surge  at  the  mouth  of  the  River,  and  in  a 
ditch  or  channell  made  of  five  furlongs,  he  anchored  his 
fleet  when  the  tyde  came  150.  furlongs,  thence  he  came  to  [i.  i.  87.] 
the  He  Crocala,  neere  to  the  which  are  the  Indian  ik  Crocala. 
Arrhabes.  Thence  he  removed,  having  mount  Irus  on 
the  right  hand,  and  the  He  Halitenea  on  the  left,  to  a  Port  Ik  Hnlitenea. 
which  he  called  Alexanders  Port,  before  which  is  Bubarta  Ik  Bubarta. 
a  small  Hand.  There  he  staid  foure  and  twenty  daies, 
and  gathered  Sea  Mice  and  Oysters  wonderful!  great. 
The  winde  ceasing,  he  went  sixtie  furlongs  neere  the 
He   Doma,  where   they  were  forced  to  goe  twenty  fur-  Ik  Doma. 




End  of  India. 
The  Orita. 

J II  their  sail- 
ing is  with 
Oares  and  by 

*  Was  not  this 
age  thinke  you 
like  to  saile  to 
Peru  or  His- 
paniola  ? 

Ships  a  rarity. 

longs  within  land  for  fresh  water :  Having  passed  300. 
furlongs  the  next  day,  they  came  to  the  Region  Saranga, 
and  fetched  water  eight  furlongs  within  land.  Departing 
thence  hee  came  to  Sacalasis,  and  passing  two  rockes 
so  neere  that  the  ships  edged  on  them  as  they  passed 
by,  after  300.  furlongs  he  anchored  in  Morontoboris, 
a  round,  deepe  and  safe  harbour  with  a  narrow  entrance, 
called  the  Womens  Port,  The  next  day  he  left  an 
Hand  to  Sea  ward  of  him  and  yet  so  neere  the  shoare 
that  the  Sea  seemed  a  Gut  or  narrow  ditch.  That  day  he 
sailed  sixtie  furlongs.  On  that  shoare  was  a  wood  and 
shadie  Hand.  The  next  day  he  sailed  thorow  a  narrow 
channell,  the  ebbe  having  left  a  great  part  dry,  and 
having  passed  120.  furlongs  he  came  to  the  mouth  of 
the  River  Arabius,  where  is  a  great  and  safe  harbour. 
They  fetched  water  sixtie  furlongs  up  the  River  in  a 
Lake.  At  the  harbour  is  an  Hand  full  of  Oisters  and  all 
sorts  of  fish.  This  River  confineth  India ;  the  next 
Regions  are  possessed  by  the  Oritse ;  their  first  anchoring 
on  the  Orite-shoare  was  Pagali,  having  sailed  200.  fur- 
longs neere  a  craggie  rocke.  The  next  day  300.  furlongs 
to  Bacana :  and  because  the  shoare  was  rockie,  hee  was 
forced  to  anchor  farre  from  land.  In  this  way  three  ships 
were  lost  in  a  storme,  but  the  persons  were  saved  being 
neere  the  shoare. 

He  sailed  thence  two  hundred  furlongs  to  Comala :  and 
there  went  on  shoare  and  set  up  tents  to  refresh  his  people 
wearied  with  their  long  *  Navigation,  and  desiring  to  have 
some  rest.  Here  Leonnatus,  to  whom  Alexander  had 
given  Commission  for  the  Oritae,  overthrew  them  in  a 
great  battell  and  slew  6000.  The  weatherbeaten  ships 
being  repaired,  and  ten  daies  provisions  being  taken  in, 
and  those  sailers  which  were  weary  of  the  Sea,  being  left 
with  Leonnatus,  some  of  his  company  supplying  their 
roomes :  the  Fleete  proceeded  500.  furlongs,  and 
anchored  at  the  River  Thomeros.  The  Inhabitants 
dwelt  in  small  cottages,  and  wondered  at  the  Navie  as  a 
strange  Noveltie :  they  came  to  the  shoare  with  lances  of 



six  cubits  sharpned  and  burned  at  the  ends,  easily  chased  by 
those  which  were  sent  on  shoare  against  them,  which  also 
tooke  some,  which  had  hard  and  sharpe  nailes  wherewith 
they  killed  fish,  and  cut  softer  wood  (for  they  had  no  use 
of  Iron)  the  harder  they  cut  with  stones:  their  garments 
were   beasts  or  fishes  skins.     Here  Nearchus    staid   five 
dayes,  and  repaired  his  Navie.     Proceeding  three  hundred 
furlongs  he  came  to  Malana,  the  utmost   border  of  the 
Oritae,  who  for  the  most  part  dwell  up  within  the  land  and 
use   Indian  attire   and  armes,  but  differ  in  language  and 
customes.     Nearchus  had  sailed  now  looo.  furlongs  from 
Indus  mouth  to  the  Arrhabius,  and   1600.  by  the  Oritae. 
Now  also  their   shadowes   fell  Southward,   and  at  noone 
they  had  no  shadow.     The  Starres  also  differed  in  their 
height  and  appearance.     After  the  Oritas  are  the  Gedrosi  The  Gedrost. 
amongst  whom  Alexander  found  more  difficulty  then  in 
all  the  rest  of  India.     Nearchus  having  sailed  600.  fur- 
longs came  to  Bagisara,  a  convenient  harbour :  the  Towne 
Pasira  is   sixtie  furlongs  up  from  the  Sea.     Next  day  he 
passed  by  a  high  overhanging  Rocke,  which  runneth  farre 
into  the  Sea  :  and  digging  Wels  had  store  of  water,  but 
brackish  :   sailing  other  six  hundred  furlongs  hee  came  to 
Calime  where  Cornina  lieth  one  hundred  furlongs  into  the 
Sea,   an   Hand  whose  Inhabitants   sent   Nearchus   sheepe, 
whose   flesh   tasted  like  Sea-fowles,  they  being   fed  with 
fishes,  there  being  no  grasse  there.     Next  day  they  sailed 
two  hundred  furlongs  to  Carbis,  the  towne  Cysa  was  thirty 
furlongs  from  Sea.     Here  were  small  Fisher-boates,  but 
the  Fishermen  at  sight  of  the  Fleete  ran  away.     He  passed 
next  a  high  and  craggy  Cape,  reaching  one  hundred  and 
fifty  furlongs  into  the  Sea,  unto  Mosarna  a  safe  harbour. 
There  he  tooke  Hydracces  a  Gedrosian  Pilot  for  Carmania. 
The  way  from  hence  to  the  Persian  Gulfe  is  not  so  evill 
as  the  former. 

Having  sailed  750.  furlongs  he  came  to  the  Balomon 
shoare,  and  after  400.  furlongs  to  Barna,  a  towne  where 
were  Gardens  of  Myrtle  and  divers  flowers,  culture  of 
trees,  and  more  civilitie  of  the  men.     400.  furlongs  further 



The  Ichtkyo- 

Manners  of  the 


[I.  i.  88.] 

How  dijj'ers 
this  from  a 
t'oiage  ? 

he  came  to  Dendrobosa,  where  they  fish  in  small  Boats, 
not  rowing  like  the  Greekes,  but  like  diggers  beating  the 
waters  on  both  sides.  After  800.  furlongs  he  came  to 
Cyiza  a  desert  shore,  and  five  hundred  furlongs  from 
thence  to  the  borders  of  the  Ichthyophagi  or  Fish-eaters. 
They  invaded  the  Towne  to  get  Corne  which  now  failed 
them ;  but  found  little,  except  meale  of  rosted  fishes,  of 
which  they  make  Bread.  Thence  he  went  to  Bagia  a 
rocke  sacred  to  the  Sunne,  thence  to  Talmena  a  good 
port,  1000.  furlongs  from  Bagia.  Thence  to  Canasis  a 
desert  Citie  400.  furlongs  thence,  750.  furlongs  to  Mount 
Canate :  thence  800.  furlongs  to  Taii  ;  thence  to  Dagasira 
300.  furlongs,  thence  1300.  furlongs  to  the  utmost  con- 
fines of  the  Ichthyophagi,  in  great  want  of  provision  :  Here 
was  a  Cape  running  farre  into  the  Sea.  The  coast  of  the 
Ichthyophagi  is  about  loooo.  furlongs,  where  all  feede  on 
fish,  yet  are  there  few  fishermen,  but  the  Ebbe  leaves  the 
fish  on  shoare,  some  have  nets  which  reach  two  furlongs, 
made  of  Palme-tree  leaves.  The  softer  fish  they  eate  raw  : 
the  greater  and  harder  they  roast  in  the  Sunne,  and  then 
beate  them  into  powder  and  make  a  kinde  of  bread  thereof, 
some  sprinkle  the  powder  with  wheate  meale.  Their 
Beasts  have  no  other  foode,  for  there  is  no  grasse. 
There  is  store  of  Crabs,  Oysters,  and  shel-fish ;  Salt  also 
and  Oyle  produced  by  the  soile  it  selfe ;  some  sowe  a 
little  Corne.  Their  houses  are  made  of  Whales  bones. 
The  Whales  casting  much  water  into  the  aire,  the  people 
wondred  what  it  was,  and  hearing  that  they  were  fishes,  the 
Oares  fell  out  of  their  hands  with  feare  :  But  after  being 
hartned,  the  ships  went  neere  together,  and  with  great 
shouts  and  noise  of  Oares  and  sound  of  Trumpets  feared 
the  Whales,  and  made  them  sinke  into  the  deepe.  The 
prodigious  tales  of  the  He  Nosala  sacred  to  the  Sunne,  on 
which,  if  any  went  ashoare  he  should  never  be  scene  after, 
Nearchus  proved  false  by  his  owne  experiment :  as  also 
another  tale  went  thereof  that  a  Nymph  there  dwelt, 
which  lay  with  men  that  came  thither,  and  after  turned 
them  into  fishes. 



After  he  was  come  to  Carmania,  he  anchored  before  a  TheCarmani 
Cape  where  the  Persian  gulfe  goeth  inward  &  then  sailed  Persian gulfe 

the  red  Sea 

no  longer  to  the  West,  but  betwixt  the  West  and  North,  '^^  ^^^-^  ^^  '^^'° 

for  most  Northerly.     Being  come  to  Padichorus  he  sailed 

thence  800.  furl,  to  the  rock  Maceta,  of  a  daies  sailing, 

whence  Cinamon  and  Spices  are  carried  to  the  Assyrians. 

After  700.  furl,  he  came  to  Neapotanum  and   100.  furl. 

further    to    the    River    Anenus;    the     Region    is    called 

Armozia,  cultivated  and  fertile,  except  of  Olives.     Here  Jrmozta,nozv 

they  went  ashoare  desirous  to  rest  from  their  labour,  and  ^ma/. 

there  found  a  Graecian  which  told  them  that  Alexanders 

Campe  was  not  farre  off,  five  daies  journey  from  the  Sea. 

Here  Nearchus  repaired  his  Navie,  and  meane  while  sent 

to  the  King,  &  after  went  himselfe,  he  and  his  by  their 

changed  weatherbeaten    countenances    and  growne  haire, 

being  not  knowne  by  those  whom  Alexander  had  sent  to 

him.     Some  had  made  Alexander  beleeve  his  Fleet  was   ^  f^i^S 

lost,  which  finding  otherwise,  hee  wept  for  joy,  swearing  '^J'^'^h  V^SP^^ 

by  the  Grecian  Jupiter,  and  by  the  Lybian  Ammon,  that  he 

more  joyed  in  those  tidings  then  in  the  Empire  of  all  Asia. 

After  this  hee  instituted  Musical  and  Gymnicke  Games, 

and  pompe  to  Jupiter  Servator,  to   Hercules,  to  Apollo 

the  chaser  away  of  evill,  and  to  Neptune,  with  the  other 

Sea-Gods.     Especially  Nearchus  was  eminent  and  glorious, 

the  whole  army  casting  flowers  and  garlands  on  him. 

Alexander  after  this  would  have  sent  another  to  bring 
the  Fleet  to  Susae,  which  Nearchus  envying  to  any  other, 
intreated  that  the  whole  glory  might  be  entire  to  himselfe, 
and  was  sent  backe.     After  sacrifice  to  Jupiter  the  savior, 
Nearchus  exhibited  a  Gymnicke  game  (for  trying  of  mas- 
teries, which  we  call  prizes)  and  set  saile.     He  passed  by  a  Legend  of Ery- 
small    Hand    called    Organa,    and    another    lesse    called  ^/^«^  ^'J ^^''f 
Oaracta,  300.  rurlongs  rrom  the  place  whence  he  set  rorth,  ^^^  Arabkke 
where  were  many  Vines,  Palmes,  and  Fruits.     Here  they  Gulfe  to  this 
said  was  the  Sepulcher  of  Erythrus,  or  King  Red,  which  Persian,  such 
gave  name  to  this  red  Sea.     The  Hand  was  800.  furlongs  ^/  ^^^  ^p^^  f 
long,  of  which  having  sailed  two  hundred,  he  saw  another  supersticious 
Hand  forty  furlongs  long  sacred  to  Neptune,  and  reported  traditions. 



to  be  inaccessible.    At  their  departing  three  ships  stucke 
fast  by  reason  of  the  Tide,  which  at  the  next  floud  were 
afloate  againe.     After  forty  furlongs  sailing  hee  anchored 
in    another    Hand    300.    furlongs    from    the    Continent ; 
thence  to  the  He  Pylora,  in  which  is  Dodon  a  towne  which 
hath    nothing  but  fish    and  water.     After   300.   furlongs 
sailing,     he    came    to    a    Cape    running    farre    into    the 
Sea,   thence    300.   furlongs    to    the    He    Cataea    sacred   to 
Mercury    and    Venus,    whither     dedicated    Goates    and 
Sheepe     are     yeerely     sent     which     there    grew    wilde. 
Hitherto  the  Carmani  extend  about  3700.  furlongs  by  the 
shoare.     These   live   like   the   Persians   their   neighbours. 
Thence  Nearchus  sailed  to  the  He  Caicandros,  forty  fur- 
longs, and  thence  to  an  inhabited  Hand  where  Pearles  are 
Beginning  of  found,  fifty  f.     Thence  to  Mount  Ochus,  and  thence  to 
the  Persians.   Apostane,  450.  f.  and  after  400.  f.  to  a  Bay  celebrated 
with  many  Villages ;  thence  600.  f.  to  the  mouth  of  the 
River  Oreon :  thence  800.  f.   to  River  Sitacus.     All  this 
course  was  on  the  Persian  shoare,  shelvie  for  the  most  part 
and    fenny.      Thither    Alexander    had    sent    provision   of 
Corne,  and  they  staied  one  and  twenty  dales  to  refresh 
themselves,  and  repaire  their  Navie.     Sailing  thence  750. 
f.  he  came  to  Hieratis  by  the  River  Heratemis,  the  next 
day  to  the  River  Padargus,  where  is  a  fertile  place  called 
Mesambria  a  peninsula  :   200.  furlongs  to  Taornus  to  the 
great  River,  above  whose  entrance  200.  furlongs  are  the 
Persian  Kings  Palaces.     In  this  way  he  saw  a  Whale  dead 
fifty    cubits    long,    with    Oisters    growing    on    the    skin. 
Dolphins  also  bigger  then  those  in  our  Seas.     He  pro- 
ceeded 200.  furlongs  to  the  River  Rhogonis  fifty  furlongs 
to  the  River  Brizana  :  thence  to  Arosis  the  bigest  River 
in   all   his  course,   the  end   of  the   Persian   borders,  that 
Beginning  of  shoare    containing    4400.    furlongs.       There    begin    the 
the  Susians.     Susians,  and  within  land  the  Uzians,  as  the  Mardi  to  the 
Persians,  and  the  Cossasi  to  the  Medes. 

Having  sailed  on  the  Susian  shoare  500.  furlongs, 
he  came  to  Cataderbis,  a  fishie  Lake,  neere  which  is  the 
He    Margastana:    then   he    passed   sholds   which   scarsely 



admitted  ships  single,  discerned  by  stakes  or  poles  pur- 
posely fixed  there,  the  mirie  ground  taking  a  man  up  to 
the  waste.  In  such  way  he  sailed  500,  furlongs.  There- 
after in  a  night  and  day  he  sailed  900.  f.  to  the  mouth  of 
Euphrates,  neere  Diridotis  a  Village  of  the  Babylonians,  a  Euphrates  and 
Mart  for  the  Spices  of  Arabia.  From  thence  to  Babylon,  Babylonians. 
Nearchus  saith,  are  3300.  f  Nearchus  hearing  that  Alex- 
ander was  going  to  Susae,  sailed  backe  toward  Pasitigris,  that 
sailing  up  the  streame  he  might  meete  him,  having  the 
Susians  on  the  left  hand,  and  the  Lake  into  which  Tigris 
runneth  600.  f.  from  the  River  it  selfe,  at  Aginis  a  towne  of 
the  Susians.  Having  sailed  150.  f.  he  staid  till  the 
returne  of  his  Messengers  from  the  King.  At  last  both 
armies  were  joined  with  incredible  joy,  and  Alexander 
exhibited  divers  kinds  of  game  with  sacrifices,  &  much 
honour  was  done  to  Nearchus  ;  Alexander  also  crowned 
him  and  Leonnatus  with  a  crown  of  gold.  Alexander 
sent  others  on  the  right  hand  to  discover  all  the  coasts  of 
Arabia.  And  thus  Europe  must  acknowledge  Alexander 
the  chiefe  Easterne  discoverer,  as  the  Roman  armes  first 
opened  to  us  the  West.  We  will  adde  a  little  out  of 
Ecclesiasticall  writers. 

Chap.  X. 

The  Travels  of  Musaeus,  Thebseus  and  others  men- 
tioned by  Saint  Ambrose  *  ;  of  others  also 
mentioned  in  the  Ecclesiasticall  Histories  of 
Eusebius,   Ruffinus,   Socrates  and  Sozomen. 

Usaeus  Bishop  of  the  Dolens  related  to 
the  Authour  of  the  Tractate  De  Moribus 
Brachmanorum  (supposed  to  be  Saint 
Ambroses)  that  hee  intending  to  goe  into 
India  to  see  the  Brachmans,  had  travelled 
thorow  almost  all  the  Region  Serica,  in 
which  hee  said  there  were  Trees  (which 
broughti  fourth  not  only  leaves,  but  very  fine  wooll  also, 
of  which  they  make   Garments  called   Serica  ;    and    that 


[I.  i.  89.] 

*  Edit.  Paris. 

This  Tractate 
is  in  the  Vati- 
can, Floren- 
tine, and  Mil- 
Ian  Libraries 
attributed  to 
Saint  Am- 
brose.   Others 
doubt  zchether 
the  Author,  or 
Gotten  Trees 


or  Shrubs. 
Serica  is 
Aereby  is 
knoione  to  be 
far  short  of 
China,  neere 
zvhich  Alex- 
ander never 


^Perhaps  the 

Thebceus  in 
many  things  a 

there  was  a  memorable  Pillar  of  stone  thus  inscribed ; 
I  Alexander  came  hitherto ;  and  that  having  passed 
thorow  many  Countreyes,  he  came  at  last  to  Ariana  neere 
the  River  Indus,  and  by  the  intolerable  heat  was  inforced 
to  returne  into  Europe,  not  having  seene  the  Brachmans. 
He  reported  that  he  had  heard  of  Thebaeus  a  certaine 
Scholer  which  went  into  India  to  see  and  conferre  with 
Indian  Philosophers  called  Brachmans  and  Gymnosophists: 
but  hee  was  there  captived.  For  shipping  himselfe  with 
certaine  Merchants  in  the  Red  Sea,  he  first  came  to  the 
Towne  of  the  Adulites,  or  the  Bay  Adulicus,  after  that 
to  the  Promontory  Aromata,  and  a  Mart  of  the  Troglo- 
dytes, and  hence  to  places  of  the  Assumites,  and  many 
dayes  after  to  Muziris  the  Mart  of  all  India  on  this  side 
Ganges,  and  having  stayed  a  while  there,  he  passed  over 
to  the  He  Taprobane.  This  is  governed  by  foure  Princes, 
one  of  which  is  the  chiefe,  whom  the  others  obey,  and  to 
him  are  subject  a  thousand  Hands,  as  he  reported,  of  the 
Arabian  and  Persian  Seas,  and  those  which  they  call 
Mammolas.^  The  Hand  hath  five  Rivers  very  great, 
the  temperature  such  that  at  the  same  time  the  same 
Trees  produced  blossomes  and  fruits  some  greene,  some 
ripe.  The  men  live  on  Fruits,  Rice  and  Milke,  and  the 
chiefe  men  eate  Mutton  and  Goats  flesh  on  solemne 
dayes.  He  was  taken  as  a  Spie  and  kept  sixe  yeeres  in 
Prison,  but  the  Governour  which  had  so  used  a  Roman 
Citizen,  was  by  the  Emperors  command  flayed.  He 
reporteth  true  and  false  things  blended,  and  amongst 
others  of  the  Brachmans  thus.  They  live  naked  in  the 
Regions  adjoyning  to  the  River  Ganges  ;  they  have  no 
beasts,  tillage,  use  of  Iron,  nor  any  kinde  of  Instrument 
to  doe  any  worke :  they  have  an  excellent  Aire  and 
temperate  Climate.  They  alway  worship  God,  of  whom 
they  professe  a  distinct  knowledge,  both  of  his  Providence 
and  Divinity.  They  alwayes  pray,  but  in  their  Prayer 
looke  not  to  the  East,  but  directly  to  Heaven.  They 
eate  (as  the  beasts)  what  they  find  on  the  ground,  leaves, 
and   herbes;    they  have   the   herbe  Inula  and    the    Tree 



Acanthus,     The  men  live  on  the  further  side  of  Ganges, 

on  the  Ocean  Coasts,  the  women  on  this  side,  to  whom 

their  Husbands  use  to  have  recourse  in  July  and  August. 

For    those   moneths  ^    seeme    colder    there,    because    the  ^  This  is  not 

Sunne    then    comes  neerer    to   us,    and   when  they   have  ^^^  ^^"^^^  ^"J 

continued    fortie    dayes    with    their    wives,    they    returne  jj/i^f^j.  ^ij^j. 

home.     When   a  woman   hath   had  a  child  or  two,   her  in  those  places 

Husband  forbeareth  her  altopct^er      And  if  in  five  yeeres  neere  the  hih 

a  woman  hath  no  child,  shee  is  divorced.     And  thus  their  V  tiaiagate, 

number   is   but   small.     The   River  is  passed    over    with  ^heat  and  cold 

great  difficultie  by  reason  of  the  tyrannic  of  Ondonitus,  asbyfaireand 

which   infesteth  those  places,  and  of  a  certaine  beast  so  foule  weather, 

great  that  hee  devoureth  a  whole  Elephant.     This  beast  ^^"^"'  ^^"^& 
■  ^  ,  ^1        T)       L  J  c  -in  the  same 

IS    not    scene  when   the   iJrachmans   time  or    passage    is.  pygpl„.,^lt^  gf 

There  are  Dragons  also  reported   to  be  seventie  Cubits  the  Stcnne  on 

long,    I    saw  one  whose  skin  was   two  and  fortie   foot :  one  side,  and 

Ants  as  great   as  a  mans  span.  Scorpions  a  Cubit  long,  Summer  on  the 

&c.     If  this  Scholler  Thebaeus  be  worthy  credit.     There  ,„„,„  .-,  ,„ 

/T-.  r      ^        TTT  •  r  time,  to 

are  m  the  same  Tractate  added  out   or   the  Writers   of  which  perhaps 
Alexanders   life    many    speeches   and    discourses    of    the  is  here  alluded. 
Brachmans,  which  I  forbeare  here  to  insert.     They  indeed  -^^b.Ep.  I.  z. 
are  in  many  points  admirable,  if  some  Greekes  have  not  ^I'^^'j^ 
rather  made  experiment  of  their  wits  and  facultie  in  Philo- 
sophicall   discourses,   then   delivered  a  true   Historic ;  at 
least  mixed  truth  and  seeming  together,  as  wee  see  here 
in  this  Bishop  and  his  Thebasus.     Those  Gymnosophists 
(as     Megasthenes     also     related)     condemned     Calanus, 
which  followed   Alexander,  whose  Epistle  is  extant  in   a 
worke  of  Saint  Ambrose  lesse  suspected,  which  I  have 
here    also    inserted,   out  of  Saint    Ambrose   his    seventh 

Calanus  to  Alexander.  Thy  friends  perswade  thee 
to  lay  hands  and  violence  on  an  Indian  Philosopher ; 
not  so  much  as  dreaming  of  our  workes.  For  thou 
maist  remoove  our  bodies  from  place  to  place,  but  thou 
shalt  not  compell  our  minds  to  doe  that  which  they  are 
not  willing,  any  more  then  thou  canst  make  Stones  or 
Trees  to  speake.  A  great  fire  causeth  burning  smart 
I  241  Q 


'^  Euseb.  de. 
vit  Const.  I. 
4.  c.  50. 
Indian  Em- 
bassadors to 
as  before  to 
[I.  i.  90.] 

^oc,  hist. 
Eccles.  I.  1. 
c.  15. 
Sozom.  hist. 
Ec.  /.  2.  f.  23. 

to  living  bodies,  and  worketh  corruption :  but  we  are 
above  this,  for  we  are  burned  alive.  No  King  or  Prince 
can  extort  from  us  to  doe  what  we  have  not  determined : 
Nor  are  wee  like  the  Philosophers  of  Greece,  which 
have  studied  words  insteed  of  deeds,  to  get  themselves 
a  name  and  reputation.  With  us  things  are  companions 
to  words,  and  words  to  the  things,  our  deeds  quicke  and 
speeches  short,  we  have  a  blessed  libertie  in  vertue. 

Eusebius*"  in  the  Life  of  Constantine  mentioneth  an 
Indian  Embassie  sent  to  him  with  rich  Presents  of  almost 
all  kind  of  Gemmes,  and  beasts  differing  from  ours, 
with  Pictures  and  Statues,  whereby  the  Indians  acknow- 
ledged him  Emperour,  and  King  of  all  unto  the  remotest 
Coast  of  the  Ocean,  that  as  the  Britaines,  in  the  furthest 
West  obeyed  him  at  first,  so  now  at  last  the  Indians 
in  the  extremest  East. 

Socrates  and  Sozomene  in  their  Ecclesiasticall  Histories 
have  related  how  in  Constantines  dayes  Christian  Religion 
entred  the  Inner  India,  which  (as  some  thinke)  till  that 
time  had  not  heard  of  Christ.  Meropius  a  Philosopher 
of  Tyre  being  desirous  to  see  India  (provoked  by  the 
Example  of  Metrodorus  the  Philosopher,  which  before 
that  had  travelled  thorow  that  Region)  sailed  thither 
with  two  boyes  of  his  Kindred  skilful!  in  the  Greeke 
Tongue.  When  he  had  satisfied  his  desire,  and  was 
now  readie  to  returne,  the  league  betwixt  the  Indians  and 
Roman  Empire  was  broken,  and  the  Philosopher  with 
all  his  company  were  taken  and  slaine,  the  two  youths 
excepted,  which  were  presented  to  the  Indian  King. 
The  King  tooke  liking  of  them,  and  made  one  of  them 
named  Aedesius  his  Cup-bearer,  and  Frumentius  (so  was 
the  other  named)  his  Secretary.  Soone  after  the  King 
dyed  and  gave  them  liberty.  The  Queene  seing  the 
young  King  a  child,  desired  their  care  and  assistance 
till  he  were  growne  to  manhood.  They  yeelded  and 
Frumentius  managed  the  government,  who  enquiring 
amongst  the  Roman  Merchants  which  came  thither, 
whether   there   were  any  Christians  amongst  them,  gave 



them  a  place  by  themselves  to  serve  God  after  the 
Christian  manner,  and  in  processe  of  time  builded  a 
Church  to  pray  in.  These  Christians  instructing  some 
of  the  Indians  in  the  mysteries  of  the  faith,  added  them 
to  their  societie.  When  the  King  was  come  to  mans 
estate,  Frumentius  and  iEdesius  deliver  up  their  accounts, 
and  desire  leave  to  returne  to  their  Countrey,  the  King  and 
his  mother  earnestly  (but  in  vaine)  intreating  their  stay. 

-(^desius  went  to  Tyre  to  see  his  friends,   Frumentius  S.  Athanaslus 
went   to    Alexandria,    and    acquainted    Athanasius,    then  ^("^^  Fruniea- 
newly  Bishop  with  the  premisses,  and  the  hopes  of  Indian  ^-^^^  inr/if 
conversion,  desiring  him   to  send  a   Bishop  and  Clergie 
thither.     Athanasius  considering  well  the  businesse,  con- 
secrateth  Frumentius  Bishop,  saying  he  had  no  man  fitter 
for    that    purpose,    who    thus    honoured    returneth    and 
preacheth  the  faith  to  the  Indians,  builds  many  Churches, 
and  by  the  grace  of  God  worketh  many  Miracles,  healing 
both  bodies  and  soules  of  many.     Ruffinus  writeth,  that 
hee   heard  these   things   of  iEdesius   himselfe,   who    also 
at   Tyre    obtayned    the    dignity    of    Priesthood.      The  Iberians  con- 
Iberians  (now  called  Georgians)  were  at  the   same  time  ^'^'■''^'^• 
converted  by  meanes  of  a  Captive  Christian  woman,  which 
by   Miracles  perswaded   the  King  and  people  to  receive 
the  faith  of  Christ,  which  sent  Embassadors  to  Constantine 
to  enter  into  league,  and  to  obtayn  a  Bishop  &  Clergie, 
which  the  same  Ruffinus  reporteth,  he  heard  of  Bacurius 
a  great  man  of  that  Nation.     Before  we  leave  Socrates, 
it  is  meet  in  this  Argument  of  Travels,  to  mention  his 
report  of  Palladius,  a  man  of  so  strong  constitution  and  Palkdius  his 
admirable  abilitie,  that  he  in  three  dayes  could  ride  from  swiftnesse  and 
Constantinople   to  the  Confines  betwixt  the  Persian  and  ^'''^J^f" 
Roman  Empires,  and  returne  thither  againe  to  his  Master    '"^'  '  '''^'  ^' 
Theodosius  the   Emperour   in   three    other    dales.     Yea, 
he    swiftly    posted   to    all    parts   of  the  World  to  which 
he   was  sent,  insomuch  that  one  said  of  him.  This  man 
by   his  swiftnesse  makes   the   Romane  Empire,    as   large 
as    it    is,    to    be   very    narrow.     The    Persian   King   was 
amazed  to  heare  these  things  reported  of  him. 



'•'  This  was 
intended  the 
beginning  of 
our  promised 
grimage :   but 
no  man  assisted 
the  Pilgrime, 
zvhich  forced 
him  to  leave 
off,  and  in 
token  of  his 
intents  to  give 
this  taste 
*  The  fourth 
time  it  is  now 
on  the  Presse. 

Jo.  2.   lO. 
Gen.  15.  I. 
i.Ccr.  15.2^ 
Dedit  se  in 
dabit  se  in 



Chap.  XL 
A  briefe  and  generall  consideration  of*  Europe. 

§.  I. 

Of  Europe  compared  with  the  other  parts  of  the 


Hree  parts  of  the  World  have  beene  three 
times  *  visited  by  our  more  laborious  then 
learned  Muse  :  the  Fourth  for  whose 
sake  that  triple-worke  received  so  often 
survay,  hath  seemed  forgotten,  Asia, 
Africa,  and  America,  have  first  bin  dis- 
covered to  our  Reader,  not  as  enjoying 
the  first  and  best  place,  but  offering  their  readie  service 
and  best  attendance  unto  Europe ;  the  least  in  quantity, 
and  last  in  discourse,  but  greatest  in  those  things  which 
for  greatnesse  and  goodnesse  deserve  the  most  applause 
and  admiration.  Our  method  hath  not  observed  that 
Feast-masters  rule,  at  the  beginning  to  set  forth  good 
Wine,  and  when  men  have  well  drunke,  then  that  which 
is  worse ;  but  we  have  kept  the  good  Wine  untill  now : 
following  His  example,  who  in  the  first  Creation  made 
Man  last ;  in  humane  and  reasonable  designes,  allots 
the  last  execution,  to  the  first  intentions ;  in  Religions 
Mysteries  sends  the  Gospel  after  the  Law,  gives  Heaven 
after  Earth,  and  reserves  Himselfe  for  the  last  service, 
to  be  our  exceeding  great  reward ;  when  God  shall  be 
all  in  all  unto  his  servants.  Him  I  beseech  that  here  also 
he  will  turne  our  water  into  Wine,  that  we  may  be  able 
to  give  Feastivall  entertainment  unto  our  Guests,  that 
as  Europe  excels  the  other  parts  of  the  World,  so  my 
Muse  may  here  exceed  her  wonted  selfe,  and  present  it 
unto  you  in  ornaments  of  Art,  Industry  and  Syncerity, 
befitting  such  a  Subject.  Hard  were  our  hap  to  suffer 
shipwracke  in  the  Haven ;  to  faile  in  the  last  Act  would 
marre  the  Comaedie ;  to  be  a  stranger  at  home,  and  like 



the  Lapwing  to  flie  most  and  cry  lowdest,  being  farthest 
from  the  Nest,  were  to  travell  of  vanitie,  and  bring  forth 
folly,  or  with  the  wilde  Prodigall  in  the  Gospell  to  be  Luke  15.  17. 
still  travelling  from  himselfe.  We  are  now  in  manner  Jx6'S'"'&-y. 
at  home,  when  most  remote,  never  out  of  European 
limits,  and  therefore  need  not  feare  (as  before)  burning 
or  frozen  Zones,  huge  Oceans,  new  Constellations,  un- 
knowne  Lands,  unpassable  Deserts,  uncouth  Monsters, 
Savage  beasts,  more  beastly  and  monstrous  men.  We 
need  not  follow  the  out-worne  foot-prints  of  rare  un- 
certaine  Travellers,  where  Truth  herselfe  is  suspicious  in 
such  forren  disguised  habit,  nor  need  wee  doubt  to  want 
guides,  except  the  store  become  a  sore,  and  plentie  trouble- 
some. Only  we  may  feare  in  this  taske  frequent  Cen- 
surers,  not  rigid  Catoes,  or  severer  judicious  Judges,  but 
capricious  Novices,  which  having  comne  to  their  Lands 
sooner  then  their  wits,  would  think  the  World  might 
condemne  them  of  ill-spent  time,  if  they  should  not  spend 
an  indigested  censure  on  the  Bookish  Travels  of  others. 
But  I  should  be  like  them  if  I  should  feare  them,  shallow 
and  emptie.  However,  I  have  adventured  on  this  Euro- 
pean Stage :  wherein  we  are  first  to  consider  the  more 
generall  Occurrences,  and  after  that  the  particular  Regions. 
Of  the  former  sort  are  the  Names,  Bounds,  Excellencies, 

§.  II. 

The  Names  of  Europe. 

|He  Ancients  have  differed  much,  nor  is  the  ques- 
tion yet  agreed  on,  about  the  limits  of  Europe, 
some  comprehending  Africa  under  this  division  f^^''-  de  ling. 
(making  but  two  parts  of  the  World)  others  adding  the  ''^'-  ^'  *• 
same  to  Asia.  Thus  Varro  divides  the  Universe  into 
Heaven  and  Earth,  this  into  Asia  and  Europe,  allowing 
to  that  the  Southerne  parts,  to  this  the  Northerne.  So 
Silius  sings  of  Afrike, 

Aut  ingens  Asiae  latus,  aut  pars  tertia  rerum. 


Luc.  I.  9. 

Sal.  Bel.  Jug. 
Jug.  C.  D.  I. 
16.  c.  17. 
O70S.  I.2.C.2. 
Paul ap. 
Juson.  hoc. 
in  Pane.  yr. 
Her.  L  4. 
*  Horn.  Iliad. 

Theocr.  Apol- 
lod.  Horat. 
Ovid.  Senec. 
Manil  ar'c. 
Euseb.  Chron. 
L  2. 

Lucan  otherwise, 

Si  ventos  Coelumque  sequaris 

*  Gor.  Orig. 
I.  9.  z>er.  by 
of  Tcrucs. 

Pars  erit  Europae,  neque  enim   plus  littora  Nili 
Quam  Scythicus  Tanais  primis  a  Gadibus  absint. 

This  opinion  is  alleadged  by  Salust,  Saint  Augustine, 
Orosius,  Paulinus,  followed  by  Isocrates  and  others. 
But  the  most  attribute  to  Europe  only  a  third,  and  that 
the  least  part  in  their  partition  of  the  elder  World. 

No  lesse  contention  hath  beene  about  the  Etymology 
of  the  Name,  which  Herodotus  saith  is  unknowne.  Others 
fetch  from  I  know  not  what  Europa,  the  daughter  of 
Agenor,  ravished  by  Jupiter  in  forme  of  a  Bull.  The 
Truth  should  indeed  be  ravished  by  our  Poets,  if  the 
Fable  bee  received ;  for  she  was  transported  from  Phoe- 
nicia, a  Region  of  Asia  into  Africa ;  others  say  into 
Cyprus;  and  if  wee  agree  to  others  that  it  was  into 
Creta,  yet  KjO^Te?  aei  y^ova-rai,  unlikely  it  is  a  small  Hand 
for  a  small  stay  (for  shee  was  after  that  carried  into 
Afrike)  could  give  name  to  so  great  a  part  of  the 
World.  Nor  have  wee  much  more  satisfaction  in 
Europus,  the  sonne  of  one  Himerus  King  of  some  part 
(can  you  tell  where?)  of  Europe.  Europs  raigned  over 
the  Sicyonians,  saith  Pausanias :  at  that  time  when  Abram 
was  borne,  if  wee  follow  Eusebius,  and  may  bee  the 
likelier  Author  of  this  name.  Some  ascribe  it  to  the 
goodlinesse  of  the  Europaean  Tract,  as  being  beautiful! 
to  the  sight.  Becanus  derives  it  from  ver,*  which  signi- 
fieth  great  or  excellent,  and  hop,  a  multitude ;  rather 
chasing  a  Dutch  then  Greeke  Etymologie,  that  people 
inhabiting  Europe  sooner  (as  hee  conceives)  then  this. 
And  in  another  booke  noted  by  himselfe  for  a  second 
Impression,  he  liketh  better  that  it  should  be  composed  of 
E,  i.  marriage ;  ur  excellent ;  hop,  hope ;  alluding  to  that 
prophecie  of  Noah,  that  Japheth  should  dwell  in  the  tents 
of  Shem,  whose  posterity  being  divorced,  the  Church  of 
the  Gentiles  in  Japhets  progenie  should  succeed  in  a  more 
stable  and  everlasting  marriage.     Ptolemey  better  thinkes 



it  might  bee  called  Celtica,  almost  every  Region  thereof 
being  antiently  either  wholly  or  in  part,  peopled  with  the 
Celtae:  which  Ortelius,  Paulus  Merula,  and  others  have 
shewed  in  the  particulars.  Some  have  called  Europe 
Tyria,  of  that  Tyriam  maiden  aforesaid  ravished  by  a 
Bull  (a  Bull-formed,  or  as  others,  a  Bull-signed  ship; 
after  Palephatus,  a  man  whose  name  was  Bull;  a  Band 
of  Souldiers  say  others  bearing  a  Bull  in  their  Banner; 
the  Mythologians  can  tell  you  more,  if  this  bee  not  too 
much:)  Some  have  of  Japhet  called  it  Japetia.  The 
Abasines  and  Easterne  Inhabitants  of  Asia  call  the 
Europasans  Franks,  which  name  I  suppose  was  occasioned 
by  their  Expeditions  and  Conquests  in  the  Holy  Land, 
and  the  Countries  adjoyning  by  the  Westerne  Forces,  in 
the  composition  whereof  the  French  were  a  principall  Bee  of  this  1%. 
ingredient;  that  I  mention  not  a  French  Councell  to  ^- 1-2.3.'2^4- 
further  it,  and  the  Crowne  of  Jerusalem  falling  to  God- 
frie  of  BuUen  &  his  heires  to  reward  it :  whence  it 
hapned  that  the  Europaeans  then  were,  and  ever  since  [I.  i.  92.] 
are  by  the  Saracens  and  Easterne  Asians  called  Frankes ; 
as  perhappes  for  the  same  cause  the  Turkes  call  those 
of  the  Popish  Faith,  stiling  those  of  the  Greekish  Re- 
ligion Romaeans,  of  their  chiefe  Citie  Constantinople, 
otherwise  named  New  Rome. 

§.   III. 

The  Quantitie,  and  Bounds. 

He  quantitie  of  Europe  is  much  larger,  especi- 
ally towards  the  North,  then  Ptolemey  and  the 
elder  Geographers  have  written.  At  Wardhouse, 
and  the  North  Cape,  the  longest  day  is  reckoned  two 
moneths  and  seven  houres,  in  71.  degrees  30.  minutes, 
whereas  at  the  Hill  Calpe,  one  of  Hercules  Pillars,  and 
at  Cabo  Maini  in  Morea  (accounted  the  most  Southerne 
parts  in  36.  degrees)  the  day  is  but  fourteene  houres 
and  an  halfe  at  the  longest.  Much  difference  hath  beene 
about  the  Easterne  Confines.     Plato,  Aristotle,  Herodotus, 



and  others  extend  it  to  the  River  Phasis,  or  that  Isth- 
mus betwixt  the  Euxine  and  Caspian  Seas ;  Dionysius, 
Arrianus,  Diodorus,  Polybius,  lornandes,  adde  nothing  to 
the  River  Tanais  :  which  Ortelius  passeth  over  and  takes 
in  both  Volga  and  all  the  Muscovites  and  Tartarian 
Hords,  as  farre  as  the  River  Ob.  Ptolemey  imagineth 
a  Une  from  Tanais  Northwards;  which  well  agrees  to 
the  method  of  our  History,  as  including  the  most  part 
of  the  Russian  Empire.  All  the  other  parts  are  bounded 
and  washed  by  the  Sea,  Palus  Maeotis,  the  Euxine,  and 
Egean  on  the  East  inclining  to  the  South;  the  Medi- 
terranean on  the  South,  on  the  West  and  North  the 
Ocean.  Bertius  numbers  2400.  Italian  miles  in  the  lati- 
tude, and  3000.  in  the  longitude. 

§.  mi. 

The  Qualitie  and  Excellencies. 

He  Qualitie  of  Europe  exceeds  her  Quantitie,  in 
this  the  least,  in  that  the  best  of  the  World. 
For  how  many  both  Seas  and  Deserts  take  up 
spacious  Regions  in  Asia,  Africa,  and  America  ?  whereas 
in  Europe  neither  watry  Fens,  nor  unstable  Bogs,  nor 
Inland  Seas,  nor  unwholsome  Ay  res,  nor  wild  Woods, 
with  their  wilder  Savage  Inhabitants,  nor  snow-covered 
Hills,  nor  stiffling  Frosts,  nor  long  long  Nights,  nor 
craggy  Rocks,  nor  barren  Sands,  nor  any  other  effect  of 
Angry  Nature,  where  she  seemes  in  some,  or  other  parts 
thereof  the  hardest  step-mother,  can  prohibite  all  habita- 
tion and  humane  societie.  In  the  most  parts  Nature 
hath  shewed  her  selfe  a  naturall  and  kind  Mother;  the 
providence  of  God,  and  industry  of  Man,  as  it  were 
conspiring  the  Europasan  good.  Which  of  the  Sisters 
are  comparable  in  a  temperate  aire.''  which  in  a  soile  so 
generally  fertile,  so  diversified  in  Hills  and  Dales,  so 
goodly  Medowes,  cheerefiill  Vineyards,  rich  Fields,  fat 
Pastures,  shadie  Woods,  delightfull  Gardens,  varietie  of 
Creatures  on  it,  of  Metalls  and  Mineralls  in  it,  of  Plants 



and  Fruits  growing  out  of  it  ?  Which  so  watered  with 
Fountaines,  Brookes,  Rivers,  Bathes,  Lakes  out  of  her 
owne  bowells  ?  such  sweet  Dewes  and  comfortable  Showers 
from  Heaven  ?  so  frequent  insinuations  of  the  Sea,  both 
for  commerce  with  others,  and  proper  Marine  com- 
modities? Which  so  peopled  with  resolute  courages, 
able  bodies,  well  qualified  mindes?  so  fortified  with 
Castles,  edified  with  Townes,  crowned  with  Cities  ?  And 
if  in  some  of  these  things  Asia,  Afrike,  and  America  piac. 
may  seeme  equall,  or  in  any  thing  superiour,  yet  even 
therein  also  they  are  inferiour,  by  just  and  equall 
inequalitie  made  Tributaries  and  Servants  to  Europe : 
the  first  captived  by  Alexander,  the  first  and  second  by 
the  Romans,  the  last  and  the  most  commodious  places 
of  the  first,  with  all  the  Sea  Trade,  by  Spanish  and 
Portugall  Discoveries  and  Conquests;  first,  second,  last, 
All  and  more  then  they  all,  since  and  still  made  open 
and  obnoxious  to  the  English  and  Dutch,  which  have 
discovered  new  Northerne  Worlds,  and  in  their  thrice- 
worthy  Marine  Armes  have  so  often  imbraced  the  in- 
feriour Globe.  Asia  yeerely  sends  us  her  Spices,  Silkes, 
Gemmes ;  Africa  her  Gold  and  Ivory ;  America  receiveth 
severer  Customers  and  Tax- Masters,  almost  every  where 
admitting  Europasan  Colonies. 

If  I  speake  of  Arts  and  Inventions  (which  are  Mans 
properest  goods,  immortall  Inheritance  to  our  mortalitie) 
what  have  the  rest  of  the  world  comparable.?  First  the 
Liberall  Arts  are  most  liberall  to  us,  having  long  since 
forsaken  their  Seminaries  in  Asia  and  Afrike,  and  here 
erected  Colledges  and  Universities.  And  if  one  Athens 
in  the  East  (the  antient  Europaean  glory)  now  by  Turkish 
Barbarisme  be  infected,  how  many  many  Christian  Athenses 
have  wee  in  the  West  for  it.  As  for  Mechanicall  Sciences, 
I  could  reckon  our  Ancestors  inventions  now  lost,  as  that 
malleable  Glasse  in  the  dayes  of  Tiberias ;  that  oleum 
vinum  found  in  olde  Sepulchers  still  burning:,  after  i  coo.  K  '  ,  ^"  , 
yeeres ;  1  could  glory  or  Archimedes  his  ingenuous  ^igpgyditis  6^ 
Engines ;  but  miserum  est  ist  hue  verbum  &  pessimum,  repartis. 



habuisse  &  non  habere.  I  can  recite  later  inventions 
the  Daughters  of  wonder.  What  eye  doth  not  almost 
loose  it  selfe  in  beholding  the  many  artificiall  Mazes  and 
[I.  i.  93.]  Labyrinths  in  our  Watches,  the  great  heavenly  Orbes 
and  motions  imitated  in  so  small  a  modell  ?  What  eares 
but  Europaean,  have  heard  so  many  Musicall  Inventions 
for  the  Chamber,  the  Field,  the  Church  ?  as  for  Bells, 
Europe  alone  beares  the  bel,  and  heares  the  Musicall 
consort  thereof  in  the  Steeples  diversified,  yea  thence 
descending  to  Birds  and  Squirells .''  Where  hath  the 
taste  beene  feasted  with  such  varieties  for  delight,  for 
health.''  are  not  Distillations,  the  Arts  also  of  Candying 
and  Preserving  meere  Europasan  ?  If  I  should  descend 
lower,  who  invented  the  Stirrop  to  ascend,  the  Saddle 
to  ride  the  Horse.''  Who  devised  so  many  kindes  of 
motions  by  Clock-workes,  besides  Clockes  and  Dialls  to 
measure  Time,  the  measurer  of  all  things.?  Who  in- 
vented wild  Fires  that  scorne  the  waters  force  and 
violence  ?  Who  out  of  ragges  to  bring  such  varieties 
of  Paper  for  Mans  manifold  use .?  Who  so  many  kinds 
of  Mills }  Who  ever  dream't  of  a  perpetuall  Motion 
by  Art,  or  De  quadratura  circuli,  or  innumerable  other 
Mathematicall,  and  Chymicall  devises.?  And  what  hath 
Mars  in  the  World  elsewhere  to  parallel  with  our  Ord- 
nance, and  all  sorts  of  Gunnes  ?  or  the  Muses  with  our 
Printing .?  Alas,  China  yeelds  babes  and  babies  in  both 
compared  with  us  and  ours :  the  rest  of  the  World  have 
them  borrowed  of  us  or  not  at  all.  And  for  the  Art 
Military,  the  exactest  Science,  Discipline,  Weapons, 
Stratagems,  Engines,  Resolution,  Successe  herein,  have 
honoured  Europe  with  the  Macedonian  and  Roman 
spoiles  of  the  World :  and  even  still  the  Turkish  puis- 
sance is  here  seated ;  the  English,  Dutch,  French,  Italian, 
Spanish  courages  have  not  degenerated  from  those  Ances- 
tors, which  tamed  and  shooke  in  pieces  that  Tamer  and 
Terror  of  the  World,  the  Roman  Monarchy. 

But  what   speake   I   of  Men,  Arts,  Armes  ?      Nature 
hath    yeelded    her    selfe    to    Europaean   Industry.      Who 



ever  found  out  that  Loadstone  and  Compasse,  that  findes 
out  and  compasseth  the  World  ?  Who  ever  tooke  pos- 
session of  the  huge  Ocean,  and  made  procession  round 
about  the  vast  Earth  ?  Who  ever  discovered  new  Con- 
stellations, saluted  the  Frozen  Poles,  subjected  the  Burn- 
ing Zones?  And  who  else  by  the  Art  of  Navigation 
have  seemed  to  imitate  Him,  which  laies  the  beames  of 
his  Chambers  in  the  Waters,  and  walketh  on  the  wings  Ps.  104.  3. 
of  the  Wind  ?  And  is  this  all  ?  Is  Europe  onely  a 
fruitfull  Field,  a  well  watered  Garden,  a  pleasant  Paradise 
in  Nature  ?  A  continued  Citie  for  habitation  ?  Queene 
of  the  World  for  power  ?  A  Schoole  of  Arts  Liberall, 
Shop  of  Mechanicall,  Tents  of  Military,  Arsenall  of 
Weapons  and  Shipping  ?  And  is  shee  but  Nurse  to 
Nature,  Mistresse  to  Arts,  Mother  of  resolute  Courages 
and  ingenious  dispositions  ?  Nay  these  are  the  least  of 
Her  praises,  or  His  rather,  who  hath  given  Europe  more 
then  Eagles  wings,  and  lifted  her  up  above  the  Starres. 
I  speake  it  not  in  Poeticall  fiction,  or  Hyperbolicall 
phrase,  but  Christian  Sincerity.  Europe  is  taught  the 
way  to  scale  Heaven,  not  by  Mathematicall  principles, 
but  by  Divine  veritie.  Jesus  Christ  is  their  way,  their 
truth,  their  life ;  who  hath  long  since  given  a  Bill  of 
Divorce  to  ingratefuU  Asia  where  hee  was  borne,  and 
Africa  the  place  of  his  flight  and  refuge,  and  is  become 
almost  wholly  and  onely  Europaean.  For  little  doe  wee 
find  of  this  name  in  Asia,  lesse  in  Africa,  and  nothing  at 
all  in  America,  but  later  Europaean  gleanings.  Here  are 
his  Scriptures,  Oratories,  Sacraments,  Ministers,  Mysteries. 
Here  that  Mysticall  Babylon,  and  that  Papacie  (if  that 
bee  any  glory)  which  challengeth  both  the  Bishopricke  See  Boz.  c.  i 
and  Empire  of  the  World ;  and  here  the  victory  over 
that  Beast  (this  indeed  is  glory)  by  Christian  Reformation 
according  to  the  Scriptures.  God  himselfe  is  our  portion, 
and  the  lot  of  Europes  Inheritance,  which  hath  made  Nature 
an  indulgent  Mother  to  her,  hath  bowed  the  Heavens 
over  her  in  the  kindest  influence,  hath  trenched  the  Seas 
about  her  in  most  commodious  affluence,  hath  furrowed 



in  her  delightfull,  profitable  confluence  of  Streames,  hath 
tempered  the  Ayre  about  her,  fructified  the  Soyle  on  her, 
enriched  the  Mines  under  her,  diversified  his  Creatures 
to  serve  her,  and  multiplied  Inhabitants  to  enjoy  her ; 
hath  given  them  so  goodly  composition  of  body,  so  good 
disposition  of  mind,  so  free  condition  of  life,  so  happy 
successe  in  affaires ;  all  these  annexed  as  attendants  to 
that  true  happinesse  in  Religions  truth,  which  brings  us 
to  God  againe,  that  hee  may  bee  both  Alpha  and  Omega 
in  all  our  good.  Even  in  Civilitie  also  Europe  is  the 
youngest  of  the  Three,  but  as  Benjamin,  the  best  beloved, 
made  heire  to  the  Rest,  exchanging  the  Pristine  Bar- 
barisme,  and  Incivilitie  (which  Authors  blame  in  our 
Ancestors)  with  Asia  and  Africa,  for  that  Civilitie  of 
Manners,  and  Glory  of  Acts  and  Arts,  which  they  (as 
neerer  the  Arkes  resting  place)  sooner  enjoyed,  by 
Mohumetan  pestilence  long  since  becomne  barbarous ; 
the  best  of  the  one  fitly  called  Barbaria,  and  the  best 
Moniments  of  the  other  being  but  names,  ruines,  car- 
kasses,  and  sepulchrall  Moniments  of  her  quandam 

§.  V. 

Of  the  Languages  of  Europe. 

S  for  their  particular  manners,  dispositions,  cus- 
tomes,  wee  shall  in  due  place  observe :  their 
Mother    Tongues    and    Originall    Languages    I 

Jos.  Seal. 

opusc.  d'latv'iba 

de  Eur  op.  ling 

&'apMerula.  _  -  tv/i--i-i 

/>.  2./.  i.f.  8.  will    here   out   of   Scaliger   (our    Europaean   Mithridates) 

relate.  Of  these  he  now  reckons  in  Europe  eleven, 
seven  of  smaller  note,  foure  of  greater,  which  yeeld 
[I.  i.  94.]  many  Dialects,  seeming  differing  languages  out  of  them. 
These  are  the  Greeke,  Latin,  Dutch,  and  Slavon',  from 
whence  by  inflexion,  trajection,  mutation,  and  mixture, 
are  derived  many  others.  Thus  the  Slavon  hath  Daugh- 
ters or  Dialects,  the  Russian,  Polonian,  Bohemian,  Illyrian, 
Dalmatian,  and  Windish  tongues ;  some  of  these  also  not 
a  little  in  themselves  diversified.  They  use  two  sorts  of 
letters,  the  Russian  depraved  from  the  Greeke,  with  some 



barbarous  additions ;  and  the  Dalmatian  of  Saint  Hieroms 
invention,  much  unlike  the  former.  The  Dutch  hath 
three  principall  Idiomes,  Teutonisme,  Saxonisme,  and 
Danisme.  The  first  containes  both  the  High  and  Low 
Dutch  ;  the  second,  the  Nord-albing,  Frisland  and  English 
Dialects;  the  third  Danish,  Sweden,  and  the  Norwegian, 
Mother  of  that  of  the  Islanders.  The  Latin  hath  pro- 
pagated the  Italian,  Spanish  and  French,  The  Greeke 
in  so  many  Lands  and  Hands  so  farre  distant,  cannot  but 
be  much  different. 

The  smaller  languages  yet  Originall,  without  com- 
merce and  derivation  from  others  are,  the  Epirotike, 
or  Albanian  in  the  Mountaines  of  Epirus :  Secondly  the 
Cosaks  or  Tartarian  :  Thirdly,  the  Hungarian,  which 
the  Hunnes  and  Avares  brought  thither  out  of  Asia: 
Fourthly,  that  of  Finnemark,  which  yeelds  also  the 
Lappian :  Fiftly  the  Irish,  which  is  used  likewise  of  the 
Redshankes :  Sixtly  the  Welsh  or  Brittish  (the  same  with 
that  of  the  ancient  Galles,  as  Master  Camden  hath  proved) 
spoken  diversely  in  Wales,  Cornwall,  and  little  Britaine: 
Seventhly,  the  Biscaine,  the  remainder  of  the  old  Spanish, 
in  use  on  both  sides  the  Pyrenaean  Hills.  These  were 
all  in  Ecclesiasticall  affaires  subjected  to  the  Constantino- 
politan  and  Roman  Bishops,  and  used  five  sorts  of  letters, 
the  Greeke,  Latin,  and  Gottish,  besides  those  two  for- 
merly mentioned.  The  Greeke  principally  possesseth  the 
South  East,  the  Latin  with  her  Daughters,  the  South  ; 
the  Dutch,  the  North-west  parts  of  Europe;  and  the 
North-east,  the  Slavon. 

And  thus  have  we  given  a  taste,  of  that  which  some- 
times was  intended,  an  Europaean  Feast :  in  which  if  I 
seeme  to  have  broken  promise,  I  have  not  done  it  alone ; 
and  povertie  cleeres  mee  of  perfidie.  If  yet  my  rashnesse 
bee  accused,  in  promising  upon  hopes  of  others  assist- 
ance, let  him  that  hath  relieved  those  wants  throw  the 
first  stone  at  the  Promiser.  How  ever,  I  will  rather 
confesse  the  Action  then  stand  Sute.  Nor  doe  I  now  beg 
helpes  in  that  kind;   it  is  too  late.     My  body  is  worne 



and  old  before  and  beyond  my  yeeres ;  and  to  have  borne 
so  long  two  such  burthens  as  a  Pulpit  and  Presse,  that  is, 
Heaven  and  Earth,  would  perhaps  have  tired  my  quarrel- 
ling Plaintiffe  too,  to  have  ascended  the  one  (idque 
Londini)  twice  or  thrice  a  weeke  ordinarily,  and  de- 
scended the  other  with  so  frequent  successions,  and  long 
continuations.  Hercules  and  Atlas  were  both  weary  of 
one  burthen  :  Patience  yet  and  pardon !  for  I  have  paid 
here  a  great  part  of  my  debt.  I  have  given  thee  the 
Christian  Sects,  and  Europes  Ecclesiastike  part,  with  her 
other  Secular  parts  also  in  great  part  both  in  Maps  and 
History  presented,  especially  there  where  shee  was  lest 
knowne :  and  if  not  so  fully  as  the  former  in  my  Pil- 
grimage, yet  Poore  men  are  welcome  pay-masters  when 
they  come  with  parts  each  weeke  or  moneth,  or  with  day- 
labour-set-offs  ;  though  they  cannot  at  once  discharge 
the  whole  debt.  Indeed  my  Genius  most  leads  mee  to 
remotest  and  lest  knowne  things,  that  where  few  others 
can  give  intelligence,  I  may  supply  the  Intelligencers 
place.  Of  neere  and  knowne  things,  Scribimus  indocti 
Seven />arfs  of  doctique  poemata  passim.  I  have  given  thee  Arctoa 
f/ie  World.  Regio,  the  Polare  World ;  and  Antarctica,  the  Southerne 
Continent ;  and  both  Americas ;  besides  Asia,  Africa,  and 
Europe  knowne  to  the  Antients,  Yea  I  have  given  thee 
an  Asia  in  Asia,  and  an  Africa  in  Africa  never  knowne  to 
the  Ancients ;  as  likewise  I  may  affirme  of  the  Northerne 
Parts  of  Europe.  Coetera  quis  nescit  "^  Who  cannot 
dull  and  deafe  thine  eares  with  French,  Dutch,  Spanish, 
Italian  affaires }  Neither  are  we  destitute  of  some  intelli- 
gence and  sleighter  knowledge  of  Spaine,  France,  and 
Germany,  Italy  and  other  parts,  which  you  will  find 
handled  in  one  or  other  place  of  this  Worke,  as  much 
as  concerneth  our  Travelling  purpose.  As  for  Spaine, 
the  Kings  Title  is  a  sufficient  Lecture,  which  some  thus 
expresse  :  P.  By  the  Grace  of  God  King  of  Castile,  Lions, 
Arragon,  both  Sicills,  Jerusalem,  Portugall,  Navarre, 
Granada,  Toledo,  Valencia,  Galicia,  Majorca  and  Minorca, 
Sivil,  Sardinia,  Corduba,  Corsica,  Murcia,  Jaen,  Algarbia, 



Algeria,  Gibraltar,  Canary  Hands,  East  and  West  Indies, 
of  the  Hands  and  Continent  of  the  Ocean;  Archduke 
of  Austria,  Duke  of  Burgundy,  Loraine,  Brabant,  Lun- 
burg,  Luxemburg,  Geldres,  Millaine,  &c.  Earle  of  Habs- 
purg,  Flanders,  Tirol,  Barcelona,  Artois,  Hannalt, 
Holand,  Zeland,  Namur,  Zutphen,  &c.  Marquesse  of 
the  Empire,  Lord  of  Biscay,  Friezland,  Mecklin,  Utreck, 
Over-Isell,  Gruningen.  Ruler  in  Asia  and  in  Africa. 
This  doth  more  fully  present  the  present  Spaine  to  your 
view,  then  to  tell  the  Scituation,  Mountaines  and  Rivers ; 
of  which  every  Map  and  Traveller  can  informe  you. 
France  also  is  not  to  be  now  measured  by  the  antient 
Geographicall  limits,  but  by  the  present  Royall,  so  much 
being  most  properly  France,  as  is  comprehended  in  that 
most  compact,  best  seated,  well  peopled,  and  goodliest  of 
Kingdomes.  The  parts  you  shall  see  in  the  Diocesse 
hereafter  following.  Germany  in  largest  sense  by  some 
is  bounded  by  Rhene,  Vistula,  the  Danow  and  the  Ocean, 
is  divided  into  Kingdomes,  Dukedomes,  Counties,  and  Cap.  ult. 
Marquisates.  The  Kingdomes  are  Denmarke,  Norway, 
Sweden,  Boheme.  The  rest  concerning  Germany  and 
other  parts  of  Europe  I  teach  not  here ;  I  point  at  rather 
these  things,  and  therefore  will  returne  to  Our  former 
discourse  of  languages,  and  therein  produce  a  better 
Linguist  and  Artist  then  my  selfe.  Our  learned  Country- 
man, Master  Brerewood  in  his  laborious  Travells  and 
Industrious  Enquiries  of  Languages  and  Religions. 

[Chapter  XII. 


[I.  i.  95.] 

Of  the  ant'ient 
largenesse  of 
the  Greeke 
Strabo.  I.  8. 
non  longe  a 

Senec.  Consol. 
ad  Helu.  c.  6. 
PH.  I.  5.  f. 
29.  hoc  rat.  in 
Lucian.  in 
Dialog,  de 
Amarib.  non 
longe.  ab  Init. 

Chapter  XII. 

Enquiries  of  Languages  by  Edw.  Brerewood, 
lately  Professor  of  Astronomy  in  Gresham 

Reece,  as  it  was  anciently  knowne  by  the 
name  of  Hellas,  was  inclosed  betwixt 
the  Bay  of  Ambracia,  with  the  River 
Arachthus,  that  falleth  into  it  on  the 
West,  and  the  River  Peneneus  on  the 
North,  and  the  Sea  on  other  parts.  So 
that  Acarnania  and  Thessalie,  were  to- 
ward the  Continent  the  utmost  Regions  of  Greece.  But 
yet,  not  the  Countries  onely  contained  within  those 
limits,  but  also  the  Kingdomes  of  Macedon,  and  Epirus ; 
being  the  next  adjoyning  Provinces  (Macedon  toward 
the  North,  Epirus  toward  the  West)  had  anciently 
the  Greeke  tongue  for  their  vulgar  language :  for 
although  it  belonged  originally  to  Hellas  alone,  yet 
in  time  it  became  vulgar  to  these  also. 

Secondly,  it  was  the  language  of  all  the  Isles  in  the 
^gaean  Sea ;  of  all  those  Hands  I  say,  that  are  betwixt 
Greece  and  Asia,  both  of  the  many  small  ones,  that 
lie  betweene  Candie  and  Negropont,  named  Cyclades 
(there  are  of  them  fiftie  three)  and  of  all  above  Negro- 
pont also,  as  farre  as  the  Strait  of  Constantinople. 

Thirdly,  of  the  lies  of  Candie,  Scarpanto,  Rhodes, 
and  a  part  of  Cyprus  and  of  all  the  small  Hands  along 
the  Coast  of  Asia,  from   Candie  to  Syria. 

Fourthly,  not  only  of  all  the  West  part  of  Asia  the 
lesse,  (now  called  Anatolia,  and  corruptly  Natolia)  lying 
toward  the  iEgaean  Sea,  as  being  very  thicke  planted  with 
Greeke  Colonies:  of  which,  some  one,  Miletus  by  name, 
is  registred  by  Seneca,  to  have  beene  the  Mother  of 
seventie  five,  by  Plinie,  of  eightie  Cities ;  But  on  the 
North  side  also  toward  the  Euxine  Sea,  as  farre  (saith 
Isocrates)  at    Sinope,  and    on   the   South  side  respecting 



Afrique,  as  farre  (saith  Lucian)  as  the  Chelidonlan  lies, 
which  are  over  against  the  confines  of  Lycia  with  Pam- 
phylia.     And    yet    although    within    these    limits    onely, 
Greeke   was   generally   spoken,   on    the    Maritime    Coast 
of  Asia,  yet  beyond  them,  on  both  the  shoares  Eastward, 
were  many  Greeke  Cities  (though  not  without  Barbarous 
Cities    among    them).     And    specially  I    find   the   North 
coast  of  Asia,  even  as  farre  as  Trebizond,  to  have  beene 
exceedingly   well    stored    with    them.     But,   it    may    bee 
further  observed  likewise  out  of  Histories,  that  not  onely 
all    the    Maritime    part    of    Anatolia    could    understand 
and  speake  the  Greeke  tongue,  but  most  of  the  Inland 
people  also,  both  by  reason   of  the  great  traffike,  which 
those  rich  Countries  had  for  the  most  part  with  Grecians, 
and   for  that   on  all  sides  the  East  onely  excepted,  they 
were    invironed    with     them.     Yet     neverthelesse,    it     is 
worthy  observing,  that  albeit  the  Greeke  tongue  prevailed 
so    farre    in    the    Regions    of  Anatolia,   as    to    bee    in    a 
manner  generall,  yet  for  all  that  it  never  became  vulgar, 
nor  extinguished  the  vulgar  languages  of  those  Countries. 
For  it  is  not  onely  particularly  observed  of  the  Galatians,  Hieron.  in 
by   Hierome,  that   beside   the   Greeke   tongue,  they   had  P^°^^-  ^:  ^- 
also    their    pecuhar   language    like    that    or    Irier:     and  Q^i^t; 
of  the  Carians   by  Strabo,   that   in   their  language   were  strab.  I.  14. 
found  many  Greeke  wordes,  which  doth  manifestly  import  "^Ub.  citato 
it   to   have    beene   a   severall   tongue:    but   it   is   directly  ^°^'^J-^'Ye 
recorded   by   Strabo   (out   of  Ephorus)   that   of  sixteene  ^2. 
severall  Nations,  inhabiting  that  Tract,  only  three  were 
Grecians,    and    all    the     rest    (whose     names     are    there 
registred)  barbarous ;  and  yet  are  not  omitted  the  Cap- 
padocians,  Galatians,  Lydians,  Maeonians,  Cataonians,  no 
small    Provinces    of    that    Region.     Even    as    it    is    also 
observed    by   Plinie    and    others,    that    the    twentie    two  Plm./^. 
languages,  whereof   Mithridates   King   of  Pontus    is    re-  ^'^^-  ^^^-  ^^ 
membred    to   have   beene   so   skilfull,  as  to  speake  them  (p^//_ /_  17.^. 
without   an   Interpreter,  were   the  languages  of  so   many   17. 
Nations    subject    to    himselfe,  whose    dominion    yet    wee 
know   to    have    beene    contained,  for    the    greatest    part, 
I  257  R 


within  Anatolia.  And  although  all  these  bee  evident 
testimonies,  that  the  Greeke  tongue  was  not  the  vulgar 
or  native  language  of  those  parts,  yet,  among  all  none 
is  more  effectual,  then  that  remembrance  in  the  second 
Chapter  of  the  Acts,  where  divers  of  those  Regions, 
Act.  2.  9.  (St"  as  Cappadocia,  Pontus,  Asia,  Phrygia,  and  Pamphylia, 
lo-  are  brought  in  for  instances  of  differing  languages. 

Fiftly,   Of  the    greatest    part   of  the   Maritime   Coast 
of  Thrace,    not    onely    from    Hellespont    to    Byzantium 
*Dousa.Itin.  (which  was  *that    part    of   Constantinople,  in    the    East 
Constat! tinopo-  corner    of   the    Citie,  where    the    Serraile    of   the    Great 
ht.pag.zi,.     'j'^j.j^^    ^^^    standeth)    but    above    it,  all    along    to    the 
out-lets    of    Danubius.     And    yet    beyond    them    also; 
I   find   many  Greeke   Cities  to   have  been  planted  along 
^c-^Jax  Can-    that    Coast    (Scylax    of   Carianda    is    my   Author,    with 
if'jl^aJd     ^°"^^    others)    as    farre    as    the    Strait    of    Caffa,    and 
VeReLGetic.  specially  in  Taurica.     Yea,  and    beyond    that  Strait  also 
c.  5.  Eastward,    along    all    the    Sea    Coast    of   Circassia,   and 

Mengrelia,  to  the  River  of  Phasis,  and  thence  com- 
passing to  Trebizond,  I  find  mention  of  many  scattered 
Greeke  Cities:  that  is,  (to  speake  briefly)  in  all  the 
circumferences  of  the  Euxine  Sea. 

Sixtly,  (from    the    East    and    North    to   turne   toward 
the  West)   it    was    the    language    of   all    the   West    and 
South    Hands,  that   lie  along  the  Coast  of  Greece,  from 
Candie    to    Corfu,   which    also    was    one    of    them,  and 
withall  of  that  fertile  Sicily,  in  which  one  Hand,  I  have 
[I.  i.  96.]       observed   in   good    Histories,  above    thirtie  Greeke  Col- 
onies to  have  beene  planted,  and  some  of  them  goodly 
Cities,   specially  Agrigentum    and    Syracusa,  which    later 
Strab.  I.  6.  in  Strabo    hath    recorded    to    have    been   one    hundred  and 
medio.  eighty  furlongs,  that   is,  of  our   miles   two    and    twenty 

and  a  halfe  in  circuit. 

Seventhly,  not  onely  of  all  the  Maritime  Coast  of 
Italie,  that  lyeth  on  the  Tyrrhene  Sea,  from  the  River 
Garigliano,  (Liris  it  was  formerly  called)  to  Leucopetra, 
the  most  Southerly  point  of  ItaHe,  for  all  that  shoare 
being    neere    about   two   hundred   and   fortie   miles,   was 



inhabited   with   Greeke   Colonies :    And   thence   forward, 
of  all  that  end  of  Italie,  that  lyeth  towardes  the  Ionian 
Sea,    about    the    great    Bayes    of  Squilacci    and    Taranto 
(which  was   so   thicke   set  with   great   and  goodly  Cities 
of  Graecians,  that  it  gained  the  name  of  Magna  Graecia) 
but,  beyond   that  also,  of  a  great  part  of  Apulia,  lying 
towards    the   Adriatique    Sea.     Neither   did   these   Mari- 
time  parts   onely,  but   as   it  seemeth   the   Inland   people 
also     towards     that    end    of   Italie,    speake    the    Greeke 
tongue.     For    I    have    seene    a   few   old   Coynes   of  the 
Brutians,   and   more   may  bee   seene   in   Goltzius   having  Goltz.  in 
Greeke   Inscriptions,  wherein   I   observe   they  are   named  ^'^mismat. 
^pemoL  with  an   ae,  and  two  tt,  and  not  as  the  Romane  ^^^^i^  rj,^i, 
Writers    terme    them,    Brutii.     And    I    have    seene    one  24. 
piece   also   of  Pandosia,  an   Inland  Citie  of  those  parts, 
with  the  like.     Neither  was  the  vulgar  use  of  the  Greeke 
Tongue,  utterly  extinct  in  some  of  those  parts  of  Italie, 
till  of  late :   for  Galateus  a  learned  man  of  that  Countrey    Galat.  in  de- 
hath    left    written,    that    when    he    was    a    Boy    (and    he  ^"''^P-  ^'^^'^'- 
lived   about  one  hundred  and  twentie  yeeres  agoe)  they  ^''"' 
spake   Greeke   in   Callipollis,   a  City  on   the  East  shoare 
of  the  Bay  of  Taranto  :  But  yet  it  continued  in  Ecclesi- 
asticall  use  in  some  other  parts  of  that  Region  of  Italie 
much    later,   for    Gabriel    Barrius    that    but    lived    about  Bar.  I.  z,.  de 
forty   yeeres    since,  hath   left   recorded,   that   the   Church  ^J^tt^t^t-Cala- 
of    Rossano    (an    Archiepiscopall     Citie     in     the     upper 
Calabria)  retayned  the  Greeke  Tongue  and  Ceremony  till 
his    time,    and    then    became    Latine.     Nay,    to   descend 
yet    a    little    neerer    the    present    time,    Angelus    Rocca  Rocca  Tract. 
that  writ  but  about  twentie  yeeres  agoe,  hath  observed,  ^^  ^''^^^f^'^ '« 
that   hee   found   in    some  parts  of  Calabria,  and  Apulia, 
some    remaynders    of    the    Greeke    speech    to    bee    still 
retayned.  ^strab.  L  4. 

Eightly,  and  lastly,  that  shoare  of  France,  that  lyeth  mn  long,  a 
towards  the   Mediterraine  Sea,   from    Rodanus   to   Italie,  princip. 
was  possessed  with  Graecians,  for  ^Massilia  was  a  Colonic  ^^"'"f  \'  "* 
of  the  Phoceans,  and  from   it  many  other  Colonies  were  ^^-^^^^  " 
derived,  and  ^placed  along  that  shoare,  as  farre  as  Nicaea,  P//>/./.  3.^.5. 



in    the    beginning    of    Italic,    which    also    was    one    of 


And   yet   beside   all   these  forenamed,  1   could   reckon 

up  very  many  other  dispersed  Colonies  of  the  Greekes 

both    in    Europe,   and    Asia,  and    some   in  Afrique,   for 

although    I    remember    not,    that    I    have    read    in    any 

History,  any   Colonies    of  the    Grecians    to    have    beene 

planted   in   Afrique,  any  where   from   the   greater  Syrtis 

Westward,  except  one  in  Cirta,  a  City  of  Numidia,  placed 

there  by  Micipsa  the  Sonne  of  Masinissa,  as  is  mentioned 

Strab.  I.  17.     in   Strabo :  yet  thence  Eastward  it  is  certaine  some  were: 

for    the    great    Cities    of  Cyrene    and    Alexandria,    were 

"Loco jam        both   Greeke.     And   it   is   evident,   not   onely  in  "^Strabo 

citato.  ^^^  Ptolemie,  but   in    Mela,  and   other   Latine  Writers, 

^Z'-^^J  }'     that    most    of    the    Cities    of    that    part    carried    Greeke 

Jfn.  Mela.  .111         o   •  tt-  1      1       j-         1 

/.  i.r.  8.        names.     And    lastly.    Saint    Hierome    hath    directly    re- 

Hieronin.  loco  corded,  that  Lybia,  which  is  properly  that  part  ot 
supra  citato.  Afrique  adjoyning  to  -/Egypt,  was  full  of  Greeke  Cities. 
These  were  the  places,  where  the  Greeke  Tongue 
was  natively  and  vulgarly  spoken,  either  originally, 
or  by  reason  of  Colonies.  But  yet  for  other  causes, 
it  became  much  more  large  and  generall.  One  was 
the  love  of  Philosophie,  and  the  Liberall  Arts  written 
in  a  manner  onely  in  Greeke.  Another,  the  exceeding 
great  Trade  and  Traffique  of  Grascians,  in  which,  above 
all  Nations,  except  perhaps  the  old  Phaenicians  (to  whom 
yet  they  seeme  not  to  have  beene  inferiour)  they  imployed 
themselves,  A  third,  beyond  all  these,  because  those 
great  Princes,  among  whom  all  that  Alexander  the  Great 
had  conquered,  was  divided,  were  Graecians,  which  for 
many  reasons,  could  not  but  exceedingly  spread  the 
Greeke  Tongue,  in  all  those  parts  where  they  were 
Governours :  among  whom,  even  one  alone,  Seleucus 
Jppian.  I.  de  by  name,  is  registred  by  Appian,  to  have  founded  in 
Bellis  Syriac.  ^^^  £^g^  p^j.^.g  under  his  government,  at  least  sixty 
Cities,  all  of  them  carrying  Greek  names,  or  else  named 
after  his  Father,  his  Wives,  or  himselfe.  And  yet  was 
there    a    fourth     cause,    that    in    the    aftertime    greatly 



furthered  this  inlargement  of  the  Greeke  Tongue, 
namely  the  imployment  of  Grascians  in  the  government 
of  the  Provinces,  after  the  Translation  of  the  Imperiall 
seate  to  Constantinople.  For  these  causes  I  say,  to- 
gether with  the  mixture  of  Greeke  Colonies,  dispersed 
in  many  places  (in  which  fruitfulnesse  of  Colonies,  the 
Graecians  farre  passed  the  Romanes)  the  Greeke  Tongue 
spread  very  farre,  especially  towards  the  East.  In  so 
much,  that  all  the  Orient  (which  yet  must  be  under- 
stood with  limitation,  namely  the  Orientall  part  of  the 
Roman  Empire,  or  to  speake  in  the  Phrase  of  those 
times,  the  Diocesse  of  the  Orient,  which  contayned 
Syria,  Palestine,  Cilicia,  and  part  of  Mesopotamia  and 
of  Arabia)  is  said  by  Hierome,  to  have  spoken  Greeke  :  Hiero.  ubi 
which  also  Isidore,  specially  observeth,  in  iEgypt,  and  ^^pe^-lsidor. 
Syria,  to  have  beene  the  Dorique  Dialect.  And  this  ^  ^^f^'  '  ^' 
great  glorie,  the  Greeke  Tongue  held  in  the  Apostles 
time,  and  long  after,  in  the  Easterne  parts,  till  by  the 
inundation  of  the  Saracens  of  Arabia,  it  came  to  ruine 
in  those  Provinces,  about  six  hundred  and  forty  yeeres 
after  the  birth  of  our  Saviour,  namely,  in  the  time  of  the 
Emperor  Heraclius  (the  Arabians  bringing  in  their  language 
together  with  their  victories,  into  all  the  Regions  they  [i.  i.  gy.j 
subdued)  even  as  the  Latine  Tongue  is  supposed  to 
have  perished  by  the  inundation  and  mixture  of  the 
Gothes,  and  other  barbarous  Nations  in  the  West. 

BUt    at    this    day,  the    Greeke  Tongue   is  very  much   Of  the  decay 
decayed,     not     only    as     touching     the     largenesse,  ^^Kf^he 
and     vulgarnesse     of     it,    but    also     in     the     purenesse  ^^TIJ 
and   elegancie   of  the    Language.     For  as    touching    the  tongue,  and  of 
former.     First,    in    Italie,    France,    and    other    places    to  the  present 
the   West,    the    naturall    Languages    of    the    Countries  ^"'^^'^'' 
have    usurped    upon    it.      Secondly,    in    the    skirts    of  ^^^^^^-^^'^P- 
Greece    it    selfe,    namely    in    Epirus,    and    that    part    of 
Macedon,    that   lyeth    towards    the   Adriatique    Sea,    the 
Sclavonique  Tongue    hath    extinguished   it.     Thirdly,  in 
Anatolia,    the    Turkish    Tongue    hath    for    a    great    part 



suppressed  it.  And  lastly,  in  the  more  Eastward,  and 
South  parts,  as  in  that  part  of  Cilicia,  that  is  beyond 
the  River  Piramus,  in  Syria,  Palestine,  iEgypt  and 
Lybia,  the  Arabian  Tongue  hath  abolished  it :  Abolished 
it  I  say,  namely,  as  touching  any  vulgar  use,  for,  as 
touching  Ecclesiasticall  use,  many  Christians  of  those 
parts  still  retayne  it  in  their  Lyturgies.  So  that,  the 
parts  in  which  the  Greeke  Tongue  is  spoken  at  this 
day,  are  (in  few  words)  but  these.  First  Greece  it  selfe 
(excepting  Epirus,  and  the  West  part  of  Macedon.) 
Secondly,  the  lies  of  the  ^Egean  Sea.  Thirdly,  Candie, 
and  the  lies  Eastward  of  Candie,  along  the  Coast  of 
Asia  to  Cyprus  (although  in  Cyprus,  divers  other 
Languages  are  spoken,  beside  the  Greeke)  and  likewise 
the  lies  Westward  of  Candia,  along  the  Coasts  of 
Greece,  and  Epirus,  to  Corfu.  And  lastly,  a  good  part 
of  Anatolia. 

But  as  I  said,  the  Greeke  Tongue,  is  not  onely 
thus  restrained,  in  comparison  of  the  ancient  extention 
that  it  had,  but  it  is  also  much  degenerated  and 
impaired,  as  touching  the  purenesse  of  speech,  being 
over-growne  with  barbarousnesse  :  But  yet  not  without 
some  rellish  of  the  ancient  elegancie.  Neither  is  it 
altogether  so  much  declined  from  the  ancient  Greeke, 
Bellon.  obser-  as  the  Italian  is  departed  from  the  Latine,  as  Bellonius 
vat.  I.  I.e.'}).  \y2,x\!x  also  observed,  and  by  conferring  of  divers  Epistles 
uicogt^c.  .  ^£  ^^^  present  Language,  which  you  may  find  in  Crusius 
his  Turcograecia,  with  the  ancient  Tongue,  may  be  put 
out  of  question  which  corruption  yet,  certainly  hath 
not  befallen  that  Language,  through  any  inundation  of 
barbarous  people,  as  is  supposed  to  have  altered  the 
Latine  Tongue,  for  although  I  know  Greece  to  have 
beene  over-runne  and  wasted,  by  the  Gothes,  yet  I  finde 
not  in  Histories,  any  remembrance  of  their  habitation, 
or  long  continuance  in  Greece,  and  of  their  coalition 
into  one  people  with  the  Grascians,  without  which,  I 
conceive  not,  how  the  Tongue  could  be  greatly  altered 
by  them.     And  yet  certaine  it  is,   that  long  before   the 



Turkes  came  among  them,  their  Language  was  growne  to' 
the  corruption  wherein  now  it  is,  for  that,  in  the  Writ- 
ings of  Cedrenus,  Nicetas,  and  some  other  late  Greekes 
(although    long    before    the    Turkes    invasion)    there    is 
found,  notwithstanding  they  were  learned  men,  a  strong 
rellish  of  this  barbarousnesse  :   Insomuch  that  the  learned 
Graecians  themselves,  acknowledge  it  to  bee  very  ancient, 
and    are    utterly    ignorant,    when    it    began     in     their  Gerkch.  in 
Language  :   which  is  to  me  a  certaine  argument,  that  it  ^P"^\  ^« 
had   no   violent   nor   sudden   beginning,  by  the   mixture  corrac  I  7. 
of  other  forreine  Nations  among  them,  but  hath  gotten  p,  ^89. 
into  their  Language,  by  the  ordinarie  change,  which  time 
and   many  common   occasions   that   attend    on    time,  are 
wont  to  bring  to  all  Languages  in  the  World,  for  which 
reason,   the   corruption   of  speech    growing    upon    them, 
by  little  and   little,   the   change    hath    beene    unsensible. 
Yet    it    cannot   be   denied   (and   '^  some   of  the   Graecians  ^Zjgomdosin 
themselves  confesse  so  much)  that  beside  many  Romane  Ep"^- ^ 
words,  which  from  the  Translation  of  the  Imperiall  Seate     '*^'    "^  *" 
to  Constantinople,  began  to  creepe  into  their  Language, 
as  we   may  observe   in   divers   Greeke  Writers   of  good 
Antiquitie,  some  Italian  words  also,  and   Slavonian,  and 
Arabique,    and    Turkish,    and    of    other    Nations,    are 
gotten    into    their    Language,    by    reason    of    the    great 
Traffique    and    Commerce,  which    those    people  exercise 
with  the  Grecians.     For  which  cause,  as  Bellonius  hath  Bell,  obser.  I. 
observed,  it  is  more  altered  in  the  Maritime  parts,  and   ^-  '"•  3- 
such    other    places    of  forreigne   concourse,  then   in   the 
inner    Region.     But    yet,     the    greatest     part     of    the 
corruption  of  that  Language,  hath  beene  bred  at  home, 
and   proceeded    from    no    other   cause,   then    their   owne 
negligence,    or    affectation.      As    first    (for    example)    by 
mutilation  of  some  words,  pronouncing  and  writing  h\.v  Vide  Cms. 
for   lurjSev^   va    for    "iva    &c.     Secondly,  by   compaction  of  ''^'^•/•44- 
severall  words  into  one,  as  TrodSe^  for  ttoO  elSe?,  araa-r-nBrj        '      g" 
for  ek  ra  (xrridrf  &c.     Thirdly,  by  confusion  of  sound,  as  399.  ^c. 
making     no     difference     in     the     pronouncing    of    three 
vowels,  namely  n,  h  ^  and  two  Dipthongues  ei  and  01,  all 



Burran.  in 
Coroii.  pre- 
tiosa.  Gerlach. 
apud  Cms.  I. 
7.  Turcog.  p. 

Bellon.  observ. 
I.  z.  c.  III. 

[Li.  98.] 
^  Burdovitx  in 
Epist.  ad 
Chitra^,  apud 
ilium  in  li.  de 
statu  Eccle- 
siar.  /.  47. 
Vide  Chitra. 
loco  citato,  c^■ 
Crus.  p.  i.y 
&=  415.  tSr'r. 
Of  the  ancient 
largenesse  of 
the  Roman 
tongue  in  the 
time  of  the 
Chap.  3. 

which  five  they  pronounce  by  one  Letter  i,  as  o[Ko<i,  ee'iKwv, 
crryjOrj^  Xvirt],  they  pronounce  icos,  icon,  stithi,  lipi. 
Fourthly,  by  Translation  of  accents,  from  the  syllables 
to  which  in  ancient  pronouncing  they  belonged,  to 
others.  And  all  those  foure  kinds  of  corruption,  are 
very  common  in  their  Language  :  for  which  reasons, 
and  for  some  others,  which  may  be  observed  in 
Crusius,  Burrana,  &c.  the  Greeke  Tongue,  is  become 
much  altered  (even  in  the  proper  and  native  words  of 
the  Language)  from  what  anciently  it  was.  Yet  never- 
thelesse  it  is  recorded  by  some,  that  have  taken  diligent 
observation  of  that  Tongue,  in  the  severall  parts  of 
Greece,  that  there  be  yet  in  Morea,  (Peloponesus) 
betwixt  Napoli  and  Monembasia  (Nauplia  and  Epidaurus, 
they  were  called)  some  fourteene  Townes,  the  Inhabitants 
whereof  are  called  Zacones  (for  Lacones)  that  speake 
yet  the  ancient  Greeke  Tongue,  but  farre  out  of 
Grammer  Rule  :  yet,  they  understand  those  that  speake 
Grammatically,  but  understand  not  the  vulgar  Greeke. 
As  Bellonius  likewise  remembreth  another  place,  neere 
Heraclea  in  Anatolia,  that  yet  retayneth  the  pure 
Greeke,  for  their  vulgar  Language.  But  the  few  places 
beeing  excepted,  it  is  certaine,  that  the  difference  is 
become  so  great,  betwixt  the  present  and  the  ancient 
Greeke  that  their  Lyturgie,  ^  which  is  yet  read  in  the 
ancient  Greeke  Tongue,  namely  that  of  Basil,  on  the 
Sabbaths  and  solemne  dayes,  and  that  of  Chrysostome 
on  common  dayes,  is  not  understood  (or  but  little 
of  it)  by  the  vulgar  people,  as  learned  men  that  have 
beene  in  those  parts,  have  related  to  ^others,  and  to  my 
selfe  :  which  may  be  also  more  evidently  prooved  to 
be  true  by  this,  because  the  skilfuU  in  the  learned 
Greeke  cannot  understand  the  vulgar. 

THe  ordinary  bounds  ot  the  Romane  Empire  were, 
on  the  East  part  Euphrates,  and  sometimes 
Tigris  :  On  the  North  the  Rivers  of  Rhene  and 
of  Danubius,  and    the   Euxine   Sea  :    On   the  West   the 



Ocean  :  On  the  South  the  Cataracts  of  Nilus  in  the 
utmost  border  of  ^Egypt,  and  in  Afrique  the  Moun- 
taine  Atlas,  Which,  beginning  in  the  West,  on  the 
shoare  of  the  Ocean,  over  against  the  Canarie  Hands, 
runneth  Eastward  almost  to  ^gypt,  being  in  few  places 
distant  from  the  Mediterrane  Sea,  more  then  two 
hundred  miles.  These  I  say,  were  the  ordinary  bounds 
of  that  Empire  in  the  Continent  :  for  although  the 
Romanes  passed  these  bounds  sometimes,  specially 
toward  the  East  and  North,  yet  they  kept  little  of  what 
they  wanne,  but  within  those  bounds  mentioned,  the 
Empire  was  firmely  established.  But  heere,  in  our 
great  He  of  Britaine,  the  Picts  wall  was  the  limit  of  it, 
passing  by  New-castle  and  Carleil  from  Tinmouth  on 
the  East  Sea,  to  Solway  Frith  on  the  West,  being  ^  first  ^ 
begun  by  the  Emperour  Adrian,  and  after  finished  or  ^^'^fwm  6^ 
rather  repaired,  by  Septimius  Severus. 

To  this  greatnesse  of  Dominion  Rome  at  last  arrived 
from   her  small  beginnings.     And   small   her   beginnings 
were   indeed,   considering   the   huge  Dominion   to  which 
shee  attained.     For  first,   the  Circuit  of  the   Citie  wall, 
at    the    first    building    of    it,    by    Romulus    in    Mount 
Palatine,   could    not    bee   fully   one   mile  :    for   the   Hill 
it    selfe,    as    is    observed    by    Andrea    Fulvio,    a    Citizen  ^nd.  Fuh, 
and  Antiquarie  of  Rome,  hath  no  more  in  circuit  :   And,  ^-  ^• 
that    Romulus    bounded    the    Pomerium    of    the    Citie  ^ntiq.  Rom. 
(which   extended   somewhat   beyond    the   wall)   with    the  ^-  3- 
foot     of     that     Hill     in     compasse     Gellius     hath     left  Gell.l.\i.c. 
registred.     Secondly,     the    Territorie    and    Liberties    of  ^^' 
Rome,  as  Strabo  hath  remembred,  extended  at  the  first,  ^trab.  I.  i. 
where   it    stretched    farthest    scarce    six    miles    from    the 
Citie.     And  thirdly,  the  first  Inhabitants  of  Rome,  as  I 
find   recorded   in   Dionysius  of  Halicarnassus,   were   not  ^^'<'«y^-  ^'^Z- 
in  number  above  3300.  at  the  most.     Yet,  with  Time,  ^'  ^' 
and    fortunate    successe,    Rome    so    increased,!   that    in  Antiq.  Rom. 
Aurelianus  his  time,  the  circuit  of  the  Citie  wall  was  fiftie  yopisc  in 
miles,  as  Vopiscus  hath  recorded  :    And  the  Dominion,  '^^^'^^^^^°- 
grew    to    the    largenesse    above    mentioned,    contayning 



above     3000.    miles    in    length,    and    about     1200.    in 
breadth  :    and  lastly  the   number  of  free   Citizens,   even 
in    the    time    of  Marius,  that   is,   long   before    forreigne 
Cities  and  Countries,  began  to  be  received  into  participa- 
tion   of  that    freedome,    was    found    to    be    463000.    as 
Euseb.  in       Eusebius  hath  remembred  :    of  free   Citizens  I  say  (for 
C/iro.  ad       ^^^^^  onely  came  into  Cense)  but  if  I  should  adde  their 
Oymp.  174.  ^^-^gg^  ^^^  children,  and   servants,   that  is,  generally  all 
^Lipstusde     the   Inhabitants,   ''a  learned   man    hath    esteemed    them, 
mag.  Rom.       ^  ^^^  without  great  likelihood  of  truth,  to  have  beene 


'  ^'       no  lesse,  then  three  or  foure  Millions. 

Beyond  these  bounds  therefore  of  the  Roman  Empire 
(to   speake    to    the    point    in    hand)  the    Roman    tongue 
could  not  bee  in  any  common  use,  as  neither,  to  speake 
of    our    Kings    Dominions    in     Ireland,    Scotland,    nor 
Northumberland,   as    being    no    subjects   of   the    Roman 
Empire.     And    that    within    these    bounds    it    stretched 
farre    and    wide    (in    such    manner    as    I    will    afterward 
declare)   two  principall  causes  there  were.     One  was  the 
multitude  of  Colonies,  which  partly  to  represse  rebellion 
in    the    subdued    Provinces,    partly    to    resist    forreigne 
Invasions  partly  to  reward  the  ancient  Souldiers,  partly 
to   abate   the   redundance   of   the    City,   and    relieve    the 
poorer    sort,    were    sent    forth    to    inhabit    in    all    the 
Provinces    of   the   Empire  :    Another   was   the   Donation 
of  Romane   freedome,   or   Communication    of  the    right 
and   benefit  of  Romane   Citizens,   to  very  many  of  the 
Provinciall,    both    Cities    and     Regions.     For    first,    all 
Italic   obtained   that   freedome   in   the  time  of  Sylla  and 
Marius,   at    the    compounding   of  the    Italian   Warre,  as 
App'ian.l.  I.  Appian   hath  recorded  :  All  Italie  I  say,  as  then   it  was 
Civil,  longe     called,   and   bounded,   with    the   Rivers   of  Rubicon   and 
ante  med.       ^^nus,  that  is,  the  narrower  part  of  Italie  lying  betwixt 
the  Adriatique  and  the  Tyrrhene  Seas.     Secondly,  Julius 
Caesar  in   like   sort   infranchised   the    rest   of  Italie,   that 
is    the    border    part,   named   then   Gallia  Cisalpina,  as   is 
Dion.l.\\.    remembred  by  Dion.     But  not  long  after,  the  forreigne 
Provinces  also,  began  to  bee  infranchised,  France  being 



indued  with  the  liberty  of  Roman  Citizens  by  Galba,  as 

I  find  in  Tacitus  ;  Spain  by  Vespasian,  as  it  is  in  Plinie.  Tacit.  I.  i. 

And   at   last,   by   Antonius   Pius,   all   without   exception,  pll^°T^\ 

that  were  subject  to  the  Empire  of  Rome,  as  appeareth 

by    the    testimonie    of    Ulpian    in    the    Digests.     The  Digest.  I.  i. 

benefit    of  which    Romane    freedome,    they    that    would  ^j^l^^-f^[^'^^'' 

use,  could  not  with  honestie  doe  it,  remayning  ignorant  Leg  In  Orbe 

of  the  Romane  Tongue.  Romano. 

These  two  as  I  have  said,  were   the   principall   causes 
of  inlarging  that  Language  :  yet   other   there   were   also 
of  great  importance,  to  further  it.     For  first,  concerning 
Ambassages,  Suites,  Appeales,  or  whatsoever  other  busi- 
nesse    of    the    Provincials,   or    Forreignes,    nothing    was 
allowed    to    be    handled,    or    spoken    in    the    Senate    at 
Rome,     but    in    the     Latine    Tongue.      Secondly,     the 
Lawes   whereby  the   Provinces   were   governed,   were   all 
written    in    that    Language,    as    beeing    in    all    of  them, 
excepting    onely  Municipall   Cities,  the   ordinary  Roman 
Law.     Thirdly,    the    'Praetors    of    the    Provinces,    were  ' Digest. I. \z. 
not   allowed    to  deliver   their   Judgements,   save   in   that  ^^^j.  ^^  ^^ 
Language :  and  wee  reade  in  Dion  Cassius,  of  a  principall  D^^^g^  ' 
man  of  Greece,  that  by  Claudius  was  put  from  the  order  [i.  i.  ^g.] 
of  Judges,  for    being   ignorant  of  the   Latine    Tongue:  Dion.l.t,-]. 
and  to  the  same   effect  in    Valerius    Maximus,  that  the  f^al.  Max.  I. 
Romane    Magistrates    would    not    give    audience    to    the  ^'  ^*  ^* 
Grascians,   (lesse    therefore    I   take    it    to    the    Barbarous 
Nations)    save    in    the    Latine    Tongue.     Fourthly,    the 
generall  Schooles,  erected  in  sundry   Cities   of  the   Pro- 
vinces, whereof  wee  finde  mention   in  Tacitus,  Hierome,   Tacit.  I.  3. 
and  others  (in  which  the  Roman  Tongue  was  the  ordinary  ^""'^'-  . 

....      litcfott,  tti  hiP, 

and  allowed  speech,   as   is  usual  in   Universities  till  this  ^^  Rusticum. 
day)  was  no  small  furtherance  to  that  Language.      And,  Tom.  i. 
to   conclude  that  the  Romans  had  generally  (at  least  in 
the  after-times,  when   Rome   was   become   a   Monarchie, 
and  in  the  flourish  of  the  Empire)  great  care  to  inlarge 
their    Tongue,    together    with     their    Dominion,     is    by 
Augustine    in    his    Bookes    de    Civit.    Dei,    specially   re-  Aug.  de  Ci. 
membred.     I  said  it  was  so  in  after  times,  for  certainly,  Dei,/.i().c.j. 



that  the  Romanes  were  not  very  anciently  possessed  with 
that  humour  of  spreading  their  Language,  appeareth  by 
L'w.  hist.  Ro.  Livie,  in   whom  we   find   recorded,   that   it  was    granted 
^'  4-°'  the   Cumanes,  for  a  favour,  &   at   their   Suit,  that   they 

might  pubHkely  use  the  Roman  Tongue,  not  fully  one 
hundred  and  fortie  yeeres  before  the  beginning  of  the 
Emperours:  And  yet  was  Cuma  but  about  one  hundred 
miles  distant  from  Rome,  and  at  that  time  the  Romanes 
had  conquered  all  Italie,  Sicilie,  Sardinia,  and  a  great 
part  of  Spaine. 

But  yet  in  all  the  Provinces  of  the  Empire,  the  Romane 
Tongue  found  not  alike  acceptance,  and  successe,  but 
most  inlarged  and  spread  it  selfe  toward  the  North  and 
West,  and  South  bounds :  for  first,  that  in  all  the 
Villei.  I.  2.  Regions  of  Pannonia,  it  was  knowne,  Velleius  is  mine 
Author :  Secondly,  that  it  was  spoken  in  France  and 
Strab.  I.  3.  Spaine,  Strabo  :  Thirdly,  that  in  Afrique,  Apuleius :  And 
^  4-'  .  it  seemeth  the  Sermons  of  Cyprian  and  Augustine,  yet 
Florid.  ^"  extant  (of  Augustine  it  is  manifest)  that  they  preached 
to  the  people  in  Latine.  But  in  the  East  parts  of  the 
Empire,  as  in  Greece,  and  Asia,  and  so  likewise  in 
Afrique,  from  the  greater  Syrtis  Eastward,  I  cannot  in 
my  reading  find  that  the  Roman  tongue  ever  grew  into 
any  common  use.  And  the  reason  of  it  seemes  to  be, 
for  that  in  those  parts  of  the  Empire  it  became  most 
frequent,  where  the  most,  and  greatest  Romane  Colonies, 
were  planted.  And  therefore  over  all  Italy,  it  became 
in  a  manner  vulgar,  wherein  I  have  observed  in  Histories, 
and  in  Registers  of  ancient  Inscriptions,  to  have  beene 
planted  by  the  Romanes  at  severall  times  above  one 
hundred  and  fiftie  Colonies :  as  in  Afrique  also  neere 
sixtie  (namely  fiftie  seven)  in  Spaine  nine  and  twentie, 
in  France,  as  it  stretched  to  Rhene  twentie  sixe,  and  so 
in  Illyricum,  and  other  North  parts  of  the  Empire, 
betweene  the  Adriatique  Sea,  and  Danubius  verie  many. 
And  yet  I  doubt  not,  but  in  all  these  parts,  more  there 
were,  then  any  Historic  or  ancient  Inscription  that  now 
remaynes  hath  remembred. 



And  contrariwise  in  those  Countries,  where  fewest 
Colonies  were  planted,  the  Latine  Tongue  grew  nothing 
so    common :    as    for    example    heere    in    Britaine,    there 

were  but    foure :    i    Yorke,    2    Chester,    3    Caeruske    in  i  Eboracum. 

Monmouth-shire,  and  4  Maldon  in  Essex  (for  London,  ^  Debuna. 

although  recorded  for  one    by  Onuphrius,  was  none,  as  ^  Camalodu- 

is    manifest    by    his    owne  ^   Author,    in    the    place    that  num  Onuphr. 

himselfe  alleadgeth)  and  therefore  we  find  in  the  British  in  Imp.  Rom. 

Tongue  which  yet  remaineth  in  Wales,  but  little  rellish  '^T^^"^- ^•^\- 

(to  account  of)  or  relikes  of  the  Latine.     And,  for  this  Q^^p\  /  -^^ 

cause    also    partly    the    East    Provinces    of  the    Empire,  citato.  ' 
savoured  little  or  nothing  of  the  Roman  Tongue.     For 
first  in  Afrique  beyond  the  greater  Syrtis,  I  find  never 

a  Romane  Colonie  :   for  Onuphrius,  that  hath  recorded '  '  Vide.  Digest. 

Indicia    Cyrenensium    for    one,    alleadging    Ulpian    for  ^-  5°-  ^i^-  ^^ 

Author,    was    deceived    by    some    faultie    Copie    of    the  ^'.""^''' ^'S- 

T^-  T-'  1  1      <^      •         1  ri  .  sciendum  Pan- 

JJigests.     l^or    the    corrected    Copies    have    Zernensium,  drell.  id. 
and  for  Indicia,   is   to    be   read    In    Dacia,  as    is    rightly  Comment. 
observed  (for  in  it  the  Citie  of  Zerne  was)  by  Pancirellus.  ^^^'''-  ■^^Z^'- 
Secondly,  in  Egypt,  there  were  but  two :   and  to  be  briefe,   ^^'^^"''^^^ 
Syria  onely  excepted,  which  had  about  twentie  Romane 
Colonies,  but    most  of  them  late  planted,  especially  by 
Septimius  Severus,  and  his  Sonne  Bassianus,  to  strengthen 
that  side  of  the  Empire  against  the  Parthians  (and  yet  I 
finde    not    that    in    Syria,    the     Romane    Tongue,    ever 
obtained  any  vulgar  use)   the    rest,   had    but    verie    few, 
in  proportion  to  the  largenesse  of  those  Regions. 

Of   which    little   estimation,    and    use    of   the    Roman 
Tongue,  in  the  East  parts,  beside  the  want  of  Colonies 
fore-mentioned,  and    to    omit    their  love   to   their  owne 
Languages,  which  they  held  to  be  more  civill  then  the 
Romane,    another   great    cause    was    the    Greeke,    which 
they  had    in    farre   greater   account,    both    for    Learning 
sake  (insomuch  that  Cicero  confesseth,  Graeca  (saith  he)   Cicer.inOrat. 
leguntur  in  omnibus   fere   gentibus,   Latina  suis  finibus,  P''°-  ^^''^hia 
exiguis   sane,    continentur)    and    for    Traffique,   to    both  ^°^^^' 
which,  the    Graecians,  above   all   Nations   of  the    World 
were  anciently  given:    to   omit,   both   the   excellencie   of 



the  Tongue  it  selfe,  for  sound  and  copiousnesse,  and  that 

it    had    forestalled    the    Romane    in    those    parts.     And 

certainly,  in  how  little  regard  the  Romane  Tongue  was 

had  in  respect  of  the  Greeke  in  the  Easterne  Countries, 

may  appeare  by  this,  that  all  the  learned  men  of  those 

parts,  whereof  most  lived  in  the  flourish  of  the  Romane 

Empire,  have  written  in  Greeke,  and  not  in  Latine :  as 

Philo,    Josephus,     Ignatius,    Justine    Martyr,     Clemens 

Alexandrinus,      Origen,     Eusebius,      Athanasius,     Basil, 

Gregorie  Nyssene,  and  Nazianzene,  Cirill  of  Alexandria, 

and  of  Jerusalem,  Epiphanius,  Synetius,  Ptolemie  Strabo, 

Porphyrie,   and    verie    many  others,  so    that    of   all    the 

Writers   that    lived  in  Asia,  or   in   Afrique,   beyond  the 

greater   Syrtis,   I   thinke    wee    have  not  one    Author   in 

the    Latine    Tongue :    and    yet    more    evidently    may    it 

appeare    by   another    instance,  that  I   finde  in    the  third 

Consil.  Ephe-  Generall   Councell   held  at    Ephesus,  where   the  Letters 

sin.  Tom.  2.     q{  (-^g  Bishop  of  Rome,  having  beene  read  by  his  Legates, 

cap.  13.  E  tt.  -^  j.j^^  Latine  Tongue,  it  was  requested  by  all  the  Bishops, 

ri.  i.  1 00.1      that   they   might  be   translated   into  Greeke,  to  the  end 

they  might  be  understood.     It  is  manifest  therefore,  that 

the  Romane  Tongue  was  neither  vulgar,  nor  familiar  in 

the    East,   when   the    learned    men    gathered    out    of  all 

That  the  parts  of  the  East  understood  it  not. 

Roman  1  ongue   ^ 

abolished  not  •  r  r      1         t> 

the  vulgar  C^\^  ^^  weake   impression   therefore    of  the    Romane 

languages,  in  \J  Language  in  the    East,  and   large  entertainment  of 

theforreme  j^.  -^^  ^j^g  West,  and  other  parts  of  the  Empire,  and  of 

thTRoman  ^^^  causes   of  both,  I   have   said   enough.     But  in  what 

Empire.  Sort,    and    how    farre    it    prevailed,   namely,   whether    so 

Chap.  4.  farre,  as  to  extinguish   the  ancient  vulgar  Languages  of 

Galat  de  Sttu  ^-^Qse  parts,  and  it  selfe,  in  stead  of  them,  to  become  the 

apigta.p.  ^2X\wQ  and  vulgar  Tongue,  as  Galateus  hath  pronounced 

Viv.  I.  ■^.  de  touching    the    Punique,  and  Vives  with  many  others  of 

traden.  dis-  the  Gallique  and  Spanish,  I  am  next  to  consider. 
ciplin.  &=  ad        Y\x%X.  therefore,  it  is  certainly  observed,  that  there  are 

Def  li  \Q  ^^  ^^^^  ^^Y'  fourteene  Mother  Tongues  in  Europe  (beside 

c,  7.  the  Latine)  which  remaine,  not  onely  not  abolished,  but 



little  or  nothing  altered,  or   impaired   by   the    Romanes. 

And  those  are  the  i  Irish,  spoken  in  Ireland,  and  a  good 

part  of  Scotland :  the  2  Brittish,  in  Wales,  Cornwaile,  and 

Brittaine  of  France :  the  3   Cantabrian   neere  the   Ocean  3  ^'^^^-  '" 

about    the    Pyrene   Hils,   both    in    France    and    Spaine :  j^'^^^'^-  de 

the  4  Arabique,  in  the   steepie   Mountaines  of  Granata,  ^fj^f"/ 

named    Alpuxarras :     the    5    Finnique,    in    Finland,    and  Cosm.part.2. 

Lapland :   the  6  Dutch,  in  Germany,  Belgia,  Denmarke,  /.  2.  c.  8, 

Norway,  and  Suedia :    the  old  7  Cauchian,  (I  take  it  to  5  ■5^^^-  ^o<^' 

be  that,  for  in  that  part  the   Cauchi  inhabited)  in  East  "^^^°' 

Frisland,  for ""  although  to  strangers  they  speake  Dutch,  "  Onel.  in. 

yet  among  themselves  they  use  a  peculiar  Language  of  ^  *.  ^^": 

their    owne :     the     8     Slavonish,    in    Polonia,     Bohemia, 

Moscovia,   Russia,  and   many  other  Regions   (whereof  I 

will   after   intreate   in   due   place)   although  with   notable 

difference  of  Dialect,  as  also  the  Brittish  and  Dutch,  in 

the    Countries    mentioned   have :    the   old   9   Illyrian,   in 

the  He  of  Veggia,  on  the  East  side  of  Istria  in  the  day 

of  Liburnia :    the  10  Greeke,  in  Greece,  and  the  Hands 

about  it,  and  part  of  Macedon,  and  of  Thrace :   the  old 

II    Epirotique"  in    the   Mountaine    of  Epirus :    the    12  "Sca/./oc 

Hungarian  in  the  greatest  part  of  that  Kingdome  :   the  ^"''^^''" 

13    lazygian,  in    the    North    side    of   Hungaria    betwixt   \i Bert.  in. 

Danubius     and     Tibiscus,     utterly    differing     from     the  '^^"'^P- 

Hungarian    Language:     And    lastly,    the    14    Tarturian,      '^"S^^- 

of  the  Precopenses,  betweene  the  Rivers  of  Tanaas  and 

Borysthenes,  neere  Meotis  and  the  Euxine    Sea,  for,  of 

the    English,    Italian,    Spanish,    and    French,    as    being 

derivations,    or    rather    degenerations,    the    first    of    the 

Dutch,  and  the  other  three  of  the  Latine,  seeing  I  now 

speake  onely  of  Originall  or  Mother  Languages,  I  must 

be    silent :    And    of    all    these    fourteene    it    is    certaine, 

except   the    Arabique,   which  is    knowne  to  have  entred 

since,    and   perhaps    the    Hungarian,   about    which   there 

is  difference  among  Antiquaries,  that  they  were  in  Europe 

in   time   of  the   Romane   Empire,   and   sixe   or   seven  of 

them,  within  the  Limits  of  the  Empire. 

And  indeed,  how  hard  a  matter  it  is,  utterly  to  abolish 



a  vulgar  Language,  in  a  populous  Countrey,  where  the 
Conquerers  are  in  number  farre  inferiour  to  the  Native 
Inhabitants,  whatsoever  Art  be  practized  to  bring  it 
about,  may  well  appeare  by  the  vaine  attempt  of  our 
Norman  Conquerour  :  who  although  hee  compelled  the 
English,  to  teach  their  young  children  in  the  Schooles 
nothing  but  French,  and  set  downe  all  the  Lawes  of  the 
Land  in  French,  and  inforced  all  pleadings  at  the  Law 
to  be  performed  in  that  Language  (which  custome  con- 
tinued till  King  Edward  the  Third  his  dayes :  who 
disanulled  it)  purposing  thereby  to  have  conquered  the 
Language  together  with  the  Land,  and  to  have  made 
all  French:  yet,  the  number  of  English  farre  exceeding 
the  Normans,  all  was  but  labour  lost,  and  obtained  no 
further  effect,  then  the  mingling  of  a  few  French  words 
with  the  English.  And  even  such  also  was  the  successe 
of  the  Frankes  among  the  Gaules,  of  the  Gothes  among 
the  Italians  and  Spaniards,  and  may  be  observed,  to  be 
short  in  all  such  conquests,  where  the  Conquerors  (beeing 
yet  in  number  farre  inferiour)  mingle  themselves  with 
the  Native  Inhabitants.  So  that,  in  those  Countries 
onely  the  mutation  of  Languages  hath  ensued  upon 
Conquests,  where  either  the  ancient  Inhabitants  have 
beene  destroyed  or  driven  forth,  as  wee  see  in  our 
Countrey  to  have  followed  of  the  Saxons  victories  against 
the  Brittaines,  or  else  at  least  in  such  sort  diminished, 
that  in  number  they  remained  inferiour,  or  but  little 
superiour  to  the  Conquerours,  whose  reputation  and 
authoritie  might  prevaile  more  then  a  small  excesse  of 
multitude.  But  (that  I  digresse  no  further)  because 
certaine  Countries  are  specially  alleaged,  in  which  the 
Romane  Tongue  is  supposed  most  to  have  prevailed,  I 
will  restraine  my  discourse  to  them  alone. 

And  first,  that  both  the  Punique  and  Gallique  Tongues, 
remained  in  the  time  of  Alexander  Severus  the  Emperour 
(about  two  hundred  and  thirtie  yeeres  after  our  Saviours 
birth)  appeareth  by  Ulpian,  who  lived  at  that  time,  and 
was  with  the  Emperour  of  principall  reputation,  teaching, 



that  °Fidei  commissa  might  bee  left,  not  onely  in  Latine,  ° Digest.!. 'SfZ. 
or  Greeke,  but  in  the  Punique  or  Gallique,  or  any  other  ^^^^  K^^^^ 
vulgar    Language,     Till   that  time  therefore,  it  seemeth 
evident,  that  the    Romane    Tongue    had    not   swallowed 
up  these  vulgar  Languages,  and  it  selfe  become  vulgar 
in  stead  of  them.     But  to  insist  a  little  in  either  severally. 
First,  touching   the    Punique,   Aurelius    Victor   hath   re-  Aur.  Victor. 
corded  of  Septimius  Severus,  that  he  was,  Latinis  literis  ^^  ^P^^""^- ^ 
sufficienter  instructus,  but  Punica  eloquentia  promptior, 
quippe  genitus  apud  Leptim  provintiae  Africae.     Of  which 
Emperors  sister  also  dwelling  at   Leptis  (it  is  the   Citie 
wee  now  call  Tripoly  in  Barbaric)   and  comming  to   see  [I.  i.  loi.] 
him,    Spartianus    hath    left    written,    that    shee    so    badly  Spartian.  in 
spake    the    Latine    tongue    (yet    was    ^Leptis    a    Roman  ^^'^^''°- P"^- 
Colony)    that    the    Emperour    blushed    at    it.     Secondly  ^jntonin.  in 
long   after    that,    Hierome    hath    recorded    of  his    time,  itimrario. 
that   the  Africans  had    somewhat   altered    their   language  Hieron.  in 
from   the  PhcEnicians :    the   language   therefore   then   re-  P[°^^-J\'^- 

1      r  1         ,  111  r     1 

mamed,  tor  else  how  could  hee  pronounce  or  the  pre-  Calat.infine 
sent  difference  }     Thirdly,  Augustine  (somewhat  younger 
then  Hierom,  though   living  at   the  same  time)  writeth 
not    onely    that   ''hee    knew   divers    Nations    in   Afrike,  ^ August,  de 
that  spake  the  Punike  tongue,  but  also  more  particularly  P^I-'^^^; 
in  ''another    place,    mentioning    a  knowne    Punike    pro-  ^id'sermz^ 
verb,   he  would    speake    it    (he    said)   in  the  Latine,  be-  deverb.Apost. 
cause   all    his   Auditors   (for  Hippo   where  hee  preached 
was    a    Roman     Colony)    understood    not    the    Punike 
tongue:  And  some  other '^  passages   could  I  alleadge  out  "^  Id.  Expos  in 
of  Augustine,  for  the  direct  confirmation   of  this  point,   ^^%^'  ^^"^' 
if  these  were  not  evident  and  effectuall  enough.     Lastly,  ^^y^^  J^'^J" 
Leo  Africanus,  a  man  of  late  time,   and    good   reputa-  Leo  i.  Africa. 
tion,  affirmeth,  that  there  remaine  yet  in  Barbary,  very  L.  i.descript. 
many  descended  of  the  old  Inhabitants,  that  speake  the  Africa. cap. 
African  tongue,  whereby  it  is  apparent  that  it  was  never  jfi-l^f^i^ 
extinguished  by  the  Romanes. 

Secondly,  touching  the  antient  Gallike  tongue,  that  it 
also    remained,  and   was    not    abolished    by  the   Romane  ^^^^^  ^      ^^ 
in  the    time    of   Strabo,  who    flourished  under   Tiberius  princip. 
I  273  s 


Tacit,  in  Julio 

Lamprid.  in 
Severo,  longe 
post  med. 

Strab.  I.  4. 

"  Vel.  Pater- 
cul.  I.  I. 


Vid.  Annot. 
ad  August  de 
Civ.  Dei.  I. 
19.  c.  7. 
Id.  I.  z-de 

Caesars  government,  it  appeareth  in  the  fourth  Book 
of  his  Geography,  writing  that  the  Aquitani  differed 
altogether  in  language  from  the  other  Gaules,  and  they 
somewhat  among  themselves.  Nor  after  that  in  Tacitus 
his  time,  noting  that  the  language  of  France  differed 
little  from  that  of  Brittaine.  No,  nor  long  after  that  in 
Alexander  Severus  his  time,  for  beside  the  authoritie  of 
UJpian  before  alleadged  out  of  the  Digestes,  it  is  mani- 
fest by  Lampridius  also,  who  in  the  life  of  the  said 
Alexander,  remembreth  of  a  Druide  woman,  that  when 
hee  was  passing  along,  in  his  Expedition  against  the 
Germaines  through  France,  cried  out  after  him  in  the 
Gallike  tongue  (what  needed  that  observation  of  the 
Gallike  tongue,  if  it  were  the  Romane  ?)  Goe  thy  way, 
quoth  shee,  and  looke  not  for  the  victory,  and  trust 
not  thy  Souldiers.  And  though  Strabo  bee  alleadged 
by  some,  to  prove  the  vulgarnesse  of  the  Latine  tongue 
in  France,  yet  is  it  manifest,  that  he  speaketh  not  of 
all  the  Gaules,  but  of  certaine  onely,  in  the  Province 
of  Narbona,  about  Rhodanus,  for  which  part  of  France 
there  was  speciall  reason,  both  for  the  more  ancient 
and  ordinary  conversing  of  the  Romanes,  in  that  Region 
above  all  the  rest :  for  of  all  the  seventeene  Provinces 
of  France,  that  of  Narbona  was  first  reduced  into  the 
forme  of  a  Province  :  And  the  Citie  of  Narbona  it  selfe, 
being  a  Mart  Towne  of  exceeding  trafHke  in  those  dayes, 
was  the  ^ first  forraine  Colonic  that  the  Romanes  planted 
out  of  Italy,  Carthage  onely  excepted :  And  yet  further- 
more, as  Pliny  hath  recorded,  many  towns  there  were 
in  that  Province,  infranchized,  and  indued  with  the 
libertie  and  right  of  the  Latines.  And  yet  for  all  this, 
Strabo  saith  not,  that  the  Roman  tongue  was  the  native 
or  vulgar  language  in  that  part,  but  that  for  the  more 
part   they  spake  it. 

Thirdly,  concerning  the  Spanish  tongue:  Howsoever 
Vives  writ,  that  the  languages  of  France  and  Spaine 
were  utterly  extinguished  by  the  Romanes,  and  that  the 
Latine  was  become  '^Vernacula  Hispaniae,  as  also  Galliae 



&  Italiae  ;  and  ^some  others  of  the  same  Nation  vaunt,  ^ Marin. Skul. 
that    had  not    the    barbarous    Nations    corrupted    it,  the  ^^  Reo.  Hts- 
Latine  tongue  would    have    beene    at    this   day,  as  pure  ^  , 
in  Spaine,  as  it  was    in  Rome  it  selfe    in  Tullies   time : 
yet  neverthelesse  manifest  it  is,  that  the  Spanish  tongue 
was    never    utterly  suppressed    by    the    Latine.     For    to 
omit  that  of  Strabo,  ^that    there  were  divers  languages  ^Stra.l.-^. 
in  the  parts  of  Spaine,  as  also  in  'another  place,  that  q{  P^^j- ^  prin- 
the  speech  of  Aquitaine  was  liker    the  language  of   the  "i^J°'i      ^^ 
Spaniards,  then  of  the  other  Gaules :    It   is   a   common  princip. 
consent  of  the  best  Historians  and  Antiquaries  of  Spaine,  '  Marian,  de 
^  that  the  Cantabrian  tongue,  which  yet  remaineth  in  the  ^^^-  ^"P-  ^• 
North  part  of  Spaine  (and  hath   no   relish  in  a  manner   V/"  •^'  o-    ; 
at  all  or  the  Roman)  was  either  the  ancient,  or  at  least  ^^  reb.  His- 
one  of  the  ancient  languages  of  Spaine.     And  although  pan.  I.  4.  c. 
'Strabo    hath    recorded,    that    the    Romane    tongue    was  uhim.&'Altb. 
spoken  in   Spaine,  yet  hee  speaketh  not  indefinitely,  but      ^'^^ pf  ^' 
addeth  a  limitation,  namely,  about   Baetis.     And   that   in  c.  \.  Veil'. 
that    part    of  Spaine,  the  Romane  tongue    so    prevailed,  Patenul.  I.  z. 
the    reason    is    easie    to    be    assigned    by  that  wee    finde 
in  Pliny.     Namely,   that    in  Baetica,  were    eight    Roman 
Colonies,  eight  Municipall  Cities,  and  twentie  nine  others 
indued  with  the  right  and  libertie  of  the  Latines. 

Lastly,  to  speake  of  the  Pannonian  tongue  (Pannonia 
contained    Hungarie,    Austria,    Stiria,    and    Carinthia)    it 
is  certaine  that    the  Roman  did  not    extinguish  it :    For 
first,  Paterculus  (who  is  the  onely  Author  that  I  know 
alleadged  for  that  purpose)  saith  not,  that  it  was  become 
the  language  of  the  Countrey,  for   how  could  it,  being 
but  even  then  newly  conquered  by  Tiberius  Cassar  .''  but 
onely  that    in   the    time    of  Augustus,    by    Tiberius    his 
meanes  the  knowledge  of  the  Romane  tongue  was  spread 
in   all  Pannonia.     And  secondly,  Tacitus  after  Tiberius   Tacit,  de 
his  time  hath  recorded,  that  the  Osi  in  Germany  might  "">rib.  Germ. 
be  knowne  to  be  no  Germanes,  by  the  Pannonian  tongue,  P^°P^P'- 
which  *a  little  before    in  the    same    booke,  he    plainely  *  Lib  eod. 
acknowledged  to  be   spoken  even  then  in  Pannonia.        parum  a 

And  as  for  these  reasons,  it  may  well  seeme  that  the  "'' 



Roman  tongue  became  not  the  vulgar  language  in  any 
of  these  parts  of  the  Empire,  which  are  yet  specially 
instanced,  for  the  large  vulgarity  of  it :  So  have  1  other 
reasons  to  persuade  mee,  that  it  was  not  in  those  parts, 
nor  in  any  other  forraine  Countries  subject  to  the  Empire, 
[1.  i.  I02.]  either  generally  or  perfectly  spoken.  Not  generally 
(I  say)  because  it  is  hard  to  conceive,  that  any  whole 
Countries,  specially  because  so  large  as  the  mentioned 
are,  should  generally  speake  two  languages,  their  owne 
Native  and  the  Romane.  Secondly,  there  was  not  any 
Law  at  all  of  the  Romanes,  to  inforce  the  subdued 
Nations,  either  to  use  vulgarly  the  Romane  tongue,  or 
not  to  use  their  owne  native  languages  (and  very  ex- 
treame  and  unreasonable  had  such  Lords  beene,  as 
should  compell  men  by  Lawes,  both  to  doe,  and  to 
speake  onely  what  pleased  them.)  Neither  do  I  see 
any  other  necessitie,  or  any  provocation  to  bring  them 
to  it,  except  for  some  speciall  sorts  of  men,  as  Merchants, 
and  Citizens,  for  their  better  traffick  and  trade.  Lawyers 
for  the  knowledge  and  practise  of  the  Romane  Lawes, 
which  carried  force  throughout  the  Empire  (except 
priviledged  places)  Schollers  for  learning,  Souldiers,  for 
their  better  conversing  with  the  Romane  Legions,  and 
with  the  Latines,  Travellers,  Gentlemen,  Officers,  or  such 
other,  as  might  have  occasion  of  affaires  and  dealing 
with  the  Romans.  But  it  soundeth  altogether  unlike  a 
truth,  that  the  poore  scattered  people  abroad  in  the 
Country,  dwelling  either  in  solitarie  places,  or  in  the 
small  Towns  and  Villages,  either  generally  spake  it,  or 
could  possibly  attaine  unto  it.  An  example  whereof,  for 
the  better  evidence  may  at  this  day  bee  noted ;  in  those 
parts  of  Greece,  which  are  subject  to  the  Dominions  of 
Bellon.Obser-  the  Turks  and  Venetians:  for  as  Bellonius  hath  observed, 
vat,  I.  i.f.  4.  |.]^g  people  that  dwell  in  the  principall  Townes  and  Cities, 
subject  to  the  Turke,  by  reason  of  their  trade,  speake 
both  the  Greeke  and  Turkish  tongues,  as  they  also  that 
are  under  the  Venetians,  both  the  Greeke  and  Italian, 
but  the  Countrey  people  under  both  governments,  speake 



onely   Greeke.     So  likewise    in   Sardinia,   as   is   recorded 
by  *  others,  the  good  Townes  by  reason  of  the  Spanish  *  Gesner.  in 
Government  and  Trade,  speake  also  the  Spanish  tongue,  Mtthr.inLin- 
but  the  Countrey  people  the  naturall  Sardinian  language  ^^^   ^'^* 
onely :  And,  the  like  by  our  owne  experience  wee  know  Rocca  de  Dia- 
to  bee  true,  in  the  Provinces  subject  to  our  King,  namely,  lect.  in  Ling. 
both  in  Wales  and    Ireland.     It   seemeth  therefore   that  ^^^^^'^' 
the  Romane  tongue  was  never  generally  spoken  in  any  ^^/^/j^,/^  „^] 
of  the  Roman  Provinces  forth  of  Italy.  descrit.  di 

And   certainely  much  lesse   can  I   perswade   my  selte,  Sardigna. 
that    it  was    spoken  abroad    in    the    Provinces    perfectly. 
First,  because  it  seemes  unpossible   for  forraine  Nations, 
specially  for    the    rude    and    common   people,  to    attaine 
the    right   pronouncing    of    it,  who,   as    wee    know    doe 
ordinarily  much  mistake  the  true   pronouncing  of   their 
native   language :     for   which    very    cause,    wee    see    the 
Chaldee    tongue  to  have    degenerated    into    the    Syriake 
among  the  Jewes,  although  they  had  conversed  seventie 
yeeres  together   among    the  Chaldeans.     And  moreover, 
by  daily  experience  wee  see  in  many,  with  what  labour 
and  difficulty,  even  in  the  very  Schooles,  and  in  the  most 
docible  part  of  their  age,  the  right  speaking  of  the  Latine 
tongue  is   attained.     And  to    conclude,  it  appeareth    by 
Augustine  in  sundry  places,  that  the  Roman  tongue  was  f^ide  August. 
unperfect  among  the  Africans  (even  in  the  Colonies)  as  ^^  Enarrat. 
pronuncing    ossum  for   os,  floriet    for    florebit,  dolus  for  ^^^q^^'T 
dolor,  and   such  like,  insomuch  that   hee   confesseth,  hee  je  doctrin. 
was  faine  sometimes  to  use  words  that  were  no  Latine,  Chris,  c.  13. 
to  the  end  they  might  understand  him.  dr' Tract  j  in 


THe    common    opinion,  which    supposeth    that    these  Of  the  begin- 

Nations    in    the    flourish    of   the    Romane    Empire,  »"'gofthe 

spake   vulgarly  and    rightly   the    Latine    tongue,  is,  that  ^^nmh  and 

the  mixture  of  the  Northerne  barbarous  Nations  among  ^anish  lan- 

the     ancient    Inhabitants,    was    the    cause    of    changing  guages. 

the  Latine    tonge    into    the    languages,  which   now  they  Ghap.  5. 
speake,  the  languages  becomming  mingled,  as  the  Nations 
themselves    were.      Who,    while    they    were    inforced    to 



attemper  and  frame  their  speech,  one  to  the  under- 
standing of  another,  for  else  they  could  not  mutually 
expresse  their  mindes  (which  is  the  end  for  which  Nature 
hath  given  speech  to  men)  they  degenerated  both,  and 
so  came  to  this  medly  wherein  now  wee  finde  them. 

Which  opinion  if  it  were  true,  the  Italian  tongue, 
must  of  necessitie  have  it  beginning  about  the  480. 
yeere  of  our  Saviour :  Because,  at  that  time,  the  Bar- 
barous Nations  began  first  to  inhabite  Italy,  under 
Odoacer,  for  although  they  had  entred  and  wasted  Italy 
long  before,  as  first,  the  Gothes  under  Alaricus,  about 
the  yeare  414:  Then  the  Hunnes  together  with  the 
Gothes,  and  the  Heruli,  and  the  Gepidi,  and  other 
Northerne  people  under  Attila,  about  An.  450.  Then 
the  Wandales  under  Gensericus,  crossing  the  Sea  out 
of  Afrike,  about  An.  456.  (to  omit  some  other  inva- 
sions of  those  barbarous  Nations,  because  they  prospered 
not)  yet  none  of  these,  setled  themselves  to  stay  and 
inhabite  Italy,  till  the  Heruli,  as  I  said  under  Odoacer, 
about  An.  480.  or  a  little  before  entred  and  possessed 
it  neere  hand  twenty  yeeres,  Hee  being  (proclaimed  by 
the  Romanes  themselves)  King  of  Italy,  about  sixteene 
yeeres,  and  his  people  becomming  inhabiters  of  the 
Countrey.  But,  they  also,  within  twenty  yeeres  after 
their  entrance,  were  in  a  manner  rooted  out  of  Italy, 
by  Theodoricus  King  of  Gothes,  who  allotted  them  onely 
a  part  of  Piemont  above  Turin  to  inhabite :  for  Theo- 
doricus being  by  Zeno  then  Emperour,  invested  with 
the  title  of  King  of  Italy,  and  having  overcome  Odoacer, 
somewhat  afore  the  yeere  500.  ruled  peaceably  a  long 
time,  as  King  of  Italy,  and  certaine  others  of  the  Gothes 
Nation  succeeded  after  him  in  the  same  government, 
the  Gothes  in  the  meane  space,  growing  into  one  with 
the  Italians,  for  the  space  neere  hand  of  sixtie  yeeres 
together.  And  although  after  that,  the  Dominion  of 
Italy  was  by  Narses  againe  recovered  to  the  Empire  in 
the  time  of  Justinian,  and  many  of  the  Gothes  expelled 
Italy,  yet    farre    more    of  them    remained,  Italy  in  that 



long    time    being    growne    well    with    their    seed     and 

posteritie.      The    Heruli    therefore,  with  their  associates  [I.  i.  103.] 

were  the  first,  and  the  Gothes  the  second  of  the  barbarous 

Nations    that  inhabited    Italy.     The   third    and  the    last, 

were  the  Longbards,  who  comming  into  Italy  about  the 

yeere  570.  and  long  time  obtaining  the   Dominion  and 

possession,  in  a  manner   of  all   Italy,   namely  above  two 

hundred    yeeres,   and   during   the    succession    of   twenty 

Kings    or    more,    were    never    expelled    forth    of    Italy, 

although  at  last  their  Dominion  was  sore  broken  by  Pipin 

King    of  France,  and  after  more   defaced   by   his  sonne 

Charles  the  Great,  who  first  restrained  and  confined  it  to 

that  part,  which  to  this  day,  of  them  retaineth  the  name 

of  Lombardy,  and  shortly  after  utterly  extinguished  it, 

carrying  away  their  last  King  captive  into  France.     Now 

although   divers  *  Antiquaries   of  Italy  there  bee,  which  *  Blond  in 

referre    the    beginning   of  the    Italian    tongue,    and    the  ^^^^-  ^!^"^' 

change   of  the  Latine   into  it,   to  these  third  Inhabitants  i/[archia  Tri- 

of  Italy    the    Longbards,    by    reason   of   their  long  and  visana. 

perfect  coalition  into  one  with  the   Italian   people  :    yet  Tinto.  delk 

certainely,  the  Italian  tongue  was  more  antient  then  so,  ^o^'-^^^-  '^'^'- 
r       \      •  ^         ^  i  •  ^^i  /  erona  l.  z.c.  z. 

ror  besides  that  there  remames  yet  to  bee  scene  (as  men    c^  ^i^ 

*worthy    of  credit    report)    in    the    King  of  France   his  ■* Pro- 

Library  at   Paris,   an   Instrument  written   in   the   Italian  nuntlat  Ling. 

tongue,    in    the    time    of  Justinian  the   first,   which  was  lat.cap.T,.<2^ 

before  the  comming  of  the  Longbards  into  Italy  :    another  Q^'^g^.  f  . 

evidence  more  vulgar,   to   this   effect,  is  to  be  found  in  c.  18. 

Paulus  Diaconus  his  Miscellane  History  :  where  wee  read  Paul.  Diacon. 

that  in  the  Emperour  Mauritius  his  time,  about  the  yeer  ^"^-  ■^"^^^• 

590.  when  the  Longbards  had  indeed  entred,  and  wasted    '^^^J'^jlY^ 

Gallia  Cisalpina,  but  had  not  invaded  the  Roman  diction 

in   Italy,   that   by   the  acclamation    of  the   word   Torna, 

Torna,   (plaine    Italian)    which  a  Roman  Souldier   spake 

to  one  of  his  fellowes  afore,  (whose  beast  had  overturned 

his  burthen)   the  whole  Army  (marching  in  the  darke) 

began   to   cry   out,  Torna,  Torna,  and  so  fell  to   flying 


But  the  French   tongue,  if  that  afore  mentioned  were 



the  cause  of  it,  began  a  little  before,  in  the  time  of 
Valentinian  the  third,  when  in  a  manner  all  the  West  part 
of  the  Empire  fell  away  (and  among  the  rest,  our  Coun- 
trey  of  England,  being  first  forsaken  of  the  Romans 
themselves,  by  reason  of  grievous  warres  at  their  owne 
doores,  and  not  long  after  conquered  and  possessed  by 
the  Saxons,  whose  posteritie  (for  the  most  part  wee  are) 
namely,  about  the  yeere  450  :  France  being  then  subdued 
and  peaceably  possessed  by  the  Franks  and  Burgundians, 
Nations  of  Germany  :  the  Burgundians  occupying  the 
Eastward  and  outward  parts  of  it,  toward  the  River  of 
Rhene,  and  the  Franks  all  the  inner  Region.  For 
although  France  before  that  had  beene  invaded  by  the 
Wandali,  Suevi,  and  Alani,  and  after  by  the  Gothes,  who 
having  obtained  Aquitayn  for  their  Seat  and  Habitation, 
by  the  grant  of  the  Emperour  Honorius,  expelled  the 
former  into  Spaine,  about  An.  410  :  yet  notwithstanding, 
till  the  Conquest  made  by  the  Franks  and  Burgundians, 
it  was  not  generally,  nor  for  any  long  time  mingled  with 
strangers,  which  after  that  Conquest  began  to  spread 
over  France,  and  to  become  native  Inhabitants  of  the 

But  of  all,  the  Spanish  tongue  for  this  cause  must 
necessarily  bee  most  antient  :  for  the  Wandali  and  Alani, 
being  expelled  France,  about  the  yeere  410,  beganne 
then  to  invade  and  to  inhabite  Spaine,  which  they  held 
and  possessed  many  yeeres,  till  the  Gothes  being  expelled 
by  the  Franks  and  Burgundians,  out  of  France  into 
Spaine,  expelled  them  out  of  Spaine  into  Afrike  (the 
Barbarous  Nations  thus  like  nailes  driving  out  one 
another)  and  not  onely  them,  but  with  them  all  the 
remnants  of  the  Roman  Garrisons  and  government,  and 
so  becomming  the  entire  Lords  and  quiet  possessours  of 
all  the  Countrey,  from  whom  also  the  Kings  of  Spaine 
that  now  are  be  descended.  Notwithstanding,  even  they 
also  within  lesse  then  three  hundred  yeeres  after,  were 
driven  by  the  Saracens  of  Afrike,  into  the  Northerne  and 
mountainous  parts  of  Spaine,  namely  Asturia,  Biscay,  and 



Guipuscoa,  till  after  a  long  course  of  time,  by  little  and 
little  they  recovered  it  out  of  their  hands  againe,  which 
was  at  last  fully  accomplished  by  Ferdinand,  not  past  one 
hundred  and  twenty  yeeres  agoe,  there  having  passed 
in  the  meane  time,  from  the  Moores  first  entrance  of 
Spaine  at  Gibraltar,  till  their  last  possession  in  Granada, 
about  seven  hundred  and  seventy  yeeres. 

Whereby  you  may  see  also,  when  the  Roman  tongue 
began  to  degenerate  in  Afrike  (if  that  also,  as  is  supposed 
spake  vulgarly  the  Latine  tongue,  and  if  the  mixture  of 
barbarous  people  were  cause  of  the  decay,  and  corruption 
of  it)  namely,  about  the  yeere  430.  for  about  that  time, 
the  Wandali  and  Alani,  partly  wearied  with  the  Gottish 
warre  in  Spaine,  and  partly  invited  by  the  Governour 
Bonifacius  entred  Afrike,  under  the  leading  of  Gensericus, 
a  part  whereof  for  a  time,  they  held  quietly,  for  the 
Emperour  Valentinianus  gift  :  But  shortly  after,  in  the 
same  Emperours  time,  when  all  the  West  Provinces  in  a 
manner  fell  utterly  away  from  the  Empire,  they  also 
tooke  Carthage  ;  and  all  the  Province  about  it,  from  the 
Romans.  And  although  the  dominion  of  Afrike  was 
regained  by  Bellizarius  to  the  Empire  almost  100.  yeeres 
after,  in  Justinians  time,  yet  in  the  time  of  the  Emperour 
Leontius  (almost  700.  yeeres  after  our  Saviours  birth) 
it  was  lost  againe,  being  anew  conquered,  and  possessed 
by  the  Sarracens  of  Arabia  (and  to  this  day  remaineth 
in  their  hands)  bringing  together  with  their  victories,  the 
language  also,  and  religion  (Mahumatanisme)  into  all  that 
coast  of  Afrike,  even  from  /Egypt  to  the  Strait  of  Gib- 
raltar, above  2000.  miles  in  length. 

About  which  time  also,  namely  during  the  government 
of  Valentinian  the  third,  Bulgaria,  Servia,  Boscina,  Hun- 
garie,  Austria,  Stiria,  Carinthia,  Bavaria  and  Suevia  (that 
is,  all  the  North-border  of  the  Empire,  along  the  River  [I.  i.  104.] 
Danubius)  and  some  part  of  Thrace,  was  spoiled  and 
possessed  by  the  Hunnes,  who  yet  principally  planted 
themselves  in  the  lower  Pannonia,  whence  it  obtained 
the  name  of  Hungarie. 



Out  of  which  discourse  you  may  observe  these  two 
points.  First,  what  the  Countries  were,  in  which  those 
wandring  and  warring  Nations,  after  many  transmigrations 
from  place  to  place,  fixed  at  last  their  finall  residence  and 
habitation.  Namely  the  Hunnes  in  Pannonia,  the  Wan- 
dales  in  Afrique,  the  East  Gothes  and  Longbards  in 
Italie,  the  West  Gothes  in  Aquitaine  and  Spaine,  which 
being  both  originally  but  one  Nation,  gained  these  names 
of  East  and  West  Gothes,  from  the  position  of  these 
Countries  which  they  conquered  and  inhabited,  the  other 
barbarous  Nations  of  obscurer  names,  being  partly 
consumed  with  the  warre,  and  partly  passing  into  the 
more  famous  appellations.  And  Secondly,  you  may  ob- 
serve, that  the  maine  dissolution  of  the  Empire,  especially 
in  Europe  and  Afrique,  fell  in  the  time  of  Valentinian 
the  third,  about  the  yeere  450.  being  caused  by  the 
barbarous  Nations  of  the  North  (as  after  did  the  like 
dissolution  of  the  same  Empire  in  Asia,  by  the  Arabians 
in  the  time  of  Heraclius,  about  the  yeere  640.)  and 
together  with  the  ruine  of  the  Empire  in  the  West  by  the 
inundation  of  the  foresaid  barbarous  Nations,  the  Latine 
tongue  in  all  the  Countries  where  it  was  vulgarly 
spoken  (if  it  were  rightly  spoken  any  where  in  the 
West)  became  corrupted. 

Wherefore  if  the  Spanish,  French  and  Italian  tongues, 
proceeded  from  this  cause,  as  a  great  number  of  learned 
men,  suppose  they  did,  you  see  what  the  antiquity  of 
them  is  :  But  to  deliver  plainly  my  opinion,  having 
searched  as  farre  as  I  could,  into  the  originals  of  those 
languages,  and  having  pondered  what  in  my  reading, 
and  in  my  reason  I  found  touching  them,  I  am  of 
another  minde  (as  some  learned  men  also  are)  namely, 
that  all  those  tongues  are  more  ancient,  and  have  not 
sprung  from  the  corruption  of  the  Latine  tongue,  by 
the  inundation  and  mixture  of  barbarous  people  in 
these  Provinces,  but  from  the  first  unperfect  impression 
&  receiving  of  it,  in  those  forraine  Countries.  Which 
unperfectnesse  notwithstanding  of  the  Roman  tongue  in 


those  parts,  although  it  had,  as  I  take  it  beginning  from 
this  evill  framing  of  forraine  tongues,  to  the  right  pro- 
nouncing of  the  Latine,  yet  I  withall  easily  beleeve,  and 
acknowledge  that  it  was  greatly  increased,  by  the  mixture 
and  coalition  of  the  barbarous  Nations.  So  that  me 
thinkes,  I  have  observed  three  degrees  of  corruption  in 
the  Roman  tongue,  by  the  degeneration  whereof  these 
languages  are  supposed  to  have  received  their  beginning. 
The  first  of  them  was  in  Rome  it  selfe,  where  towards  the 
latter  end  of  the  Common-wealth,  and  after,  in  the  time 
of  the  Empire,  the  infinite  multitude  of  servants  (which 
exceedingly  exceeded  the  number  of  free  borne  Citizens) 
together  with  the  unspeakeable  confluence  of  strangers, 
from  all  Provinces,  did  much  impaire  the  purenesse  of 
their  language,  and  as  Isidore  hath  observed,  brought  hUor.Origin. 
many  barbarismes  and  solaecismes  into  it.  Insomuch,  that  ^-  9-  '^-  ^• 
Tertullian  in  his  time,  when  as  yet  none  of  the  barbarous  Tertul.  in 
Nations  had  by  invasion  touched  Italic  (for  he  lived  ^/«'%^-'^^^- 
under  Septimius  Severus  government)  chargeth  the  ^" '  ^^'  ' 
Romans  to  have  renounced  the  language  of  their  fathers. 
The  Second  step,  was  the  unperfect  impression  (that  I 
touched  before)  made  of  the  Roman  tongue  abroad  in  the 
forraine  Provinces  among  strangers,  whose  tongues  could 
not  perfectly  frame  to  speake  it  aright.  And  certainly,  if 
the  Italians  themselves,  as  is  remembred  by  Cicero,  failed  Cicer.  1. 1.  de 
of  the  right  and  perfect  Roman  pronunciation,  I  see  not  ^''^^°^'^- 
how  the  tongues  of  strange  Nations,  such  as  the  Gaules 
and  Spaniards  were,  should  exactly  utter  it.  And  the 
Third,  was  that  mixture  of  many  barbarous  people  (to 
which  others  attribute  the  beginning  of  the  languages 
in  question)  which  made  the  Latine,  that  was  before 
unperfect,  yet  more  corrupt  then  they  found  it,  both 
for  words  and  for  pronouncing :  So  that,  I  rather  thinke 
the  barbarous  people  to  have  beene  a  cause  of  increasing 
the  corruption,  and  of  further  alteration  and  departure 
of  those  languages  from  the  Roman,  then  of  beginning 
them.  And  me  thinkes  I  have  very  good  reasons  so 
to   be  perswaded,  beside   all   the  arguments  above  men- 



Germ.  I.  i. 
c.  '3,1.  Lazius. 
I.  lo.  de 
Gent.  Gorop. 
Origin.  Ant- 
werp. I.  7. 
Gesner.  in 
Rhenan  lib.  z. 
Rer.  Germ. 
Leunclav.  in 
Pandect  Tur- 
ric.  §71.6^ 
Jlii  multi. 

touching  the 
extent  of  the 
Latine  tongue 
and  the  begin- 
ning of  the 
with  their 
Chap.  6. 
[I.  i.  105.] 
Plutar.  in 
quest,  platonic. 
qua  St.  9. 

tioned,  which  I  produced,  both  for  the  remaining  of  the 
vulgar  languages,  and  for  the  unperfect  speaking  of 
the  Roman  tongue  in  the  Provinces.  First,  because  the 
Gothes,  Wandales,  Longbards,  as  also  the  Franks  and 
Burgundians'  language  was,  by  the  consent  of  *  learned 
men,  the  Germane  tongue,  which  hath  but  small  affinitie 
or  agreement  with  either  the  Italian,  French  or  Spanish 
tongues.  Secondly,  because  among  all  the  auncient 
writers  (and  they  are  many)  which  have  written  of  the 
miserable  changes  made  in  these  West  parts  of  the  World, 
by  those  infinite  swarmes  of  barbarous  people,  I  finde  not 
one,  that  mentioneth  the  change  of  any  of  these  languages 
to  have  beene  caused  by  them :  which  me  thinkes  some 
ancient  writers  among  so  many  learned,  as  those  times, 
and  those  very  Countries,  abounded  withall,  and  whose 
writings  yet  remaine,  would  certainly  have  recorded. 
But  though  we  finde  mention  in  sundry  ancient  writers, 
of  changing  these  languages  into  the  Roman  (whom  yet  I 
understand  of  that  unperfect  change  before  touched)  yet 
nothing  is  found  of  any  rechanging  of  those  languages 
from  the  Roman,  into  the  state  wherein  now  they  are. 
But  it  is  become  a  question  onely  of  some  late  searchers 
of  Antiquity,  but  of  such,  as  determine  in  this  point, 
without  either  sound  reason  or  good  countenance  of 

THese  reasons  perhaps  (joyned  with  the  other  above 
alleadged,  whereby  I  endevoured  to  prove  that  the 
Latine  tongue  perfectly  spoken,  was  never  the  vulgar 
language  of  the  Roman  Provinces)  may  perswade  you 
as  they  have  done  mee,  that  the  barbarous  Nations  of  the 
North,  were  not  the  first  corrupters  of  the  Latine  tongue, 
in  the  Provinces  subject  to  Rome,  nor  the  beginners  of 
the  Italian,  French  and  Spanish  tongues  :  yet  some  diffi- 
culties I  finde  (I  confesse)  in  writers  touching  these 
points,  which  when  I  have  resolved  my  opinion  will 
appeare  the  more  credible. 

One  is  out  of   Plutarch   in   his  Platonique   questions, 



affirming  that  in  his  time  all  men  in  a  manner  spake  the 
Latine  tongue. 

Another,    before   touched,   that    Strabo  recordeth    the  Strab.  I.  3. 
Roman    tongue    to    have    beene   spoken    in   Spaine    and  '^  +* 
France,  and  Apuleius  in  Africke,  which  also  may  appeare  ^P"{-  i" 
by  sundry  places  in  Augustine,  whose  Sermons  seeme  (as      "^^  "' 
Cyprians  also)  to  have  bin  made  to  the  people  in  that 

A  third,  how  it  falleth  if  these  vulgar  tongues  of 
adulterate  latin  be  so  ancient,  that  nothing  is  found 
written   in   any  of  them   of  any  great  antiquity  ? 

A  fourth,  how  in  Rome  and  Latium,  where  the  Latine 
tongue  was  out  of  question,  native,  the  latine  could  so 
degenerate,  as  at  this  day  is  found  in  the  Italian  tongue, 
except  by  some  forraine  corruption  ? 

To  the  first  of  these  I  answere,  either,  that  as  Divines 
are  wont  to  interpret  many  generall  propositions  ;  Plutarch 
is  to  be  understood  de  generibus  singulorum,  not  de 
singulis  generum  :  So  that  the  Latine  tongue  was  spoken 
almost  in  every  Nation,  but  not  of  every  one  in  any 
forraine  Nation  :  Or  else,  that  they  spake  the  Latine 
indeede,  but  yet  unperfectly  and  corruptly  as  their 
tongues  would  frame  to  utter  it. 

To  the  second  I  answere :  first,  that  Strabo  speaketh 
not  generally  of  France  or  Spaine,  but  with  limitation  to 
certaine  parts  of  both,  the  Province  of  Narbon  in  France, 
and  the  Tract  about  Boetis  in  Spaine.  Secondly,  that 
although  they  speake  it,  yet  it  followeth  not,  that  they 
speake  it  perfectly  and  aright  (except  perhaps  in  the 
Colonies)  so  that  I  will  not  deny  but  it  might  be  spoken 
abroad  in  the  Provinces,  yet  I  say  it  was  spoken  corruptly, 
according  as  the  peoples  tongues  would  fashion  to  it, 
namely  in  such  sort,  that  although  the  matter  and  body 
of  the  words,  were  for  the  most  part  Latine,  yet  the 
forme,  and  sound  of  them  varied  from  the  right  pro- 
nouncing: which  speech  notwithstanding  was  named 
Latin,  partly  for  the  reason  now  touched,  and  partly 
because  they  learned  it  from  the  Romanes  or  Latines,  as 



Nitha.  de 
disserts .  filior. 

Antonin.  in 
Plin.  lun.  in 
Epi.  I.  %.  ad 
''Plin.  Sec. 
Hist.  nat.  I.  5 . 
r.  4. 

Velleius  1.  i. 
Appian.  I.  de 
Bel.  Punicis 
in  fine. 
^  Enarr.  Ps. 

'^ L.  2.  de  doc. 
Chr.  f.  13. 
^  Tract.  7.  in 

Tschud.  De- 
script.  Alpino" 
cap.  36. 
Genebr.  I.  4. 
Chr.Secul.  1 1 . 

the  Spaniards  called  their  language  Romance,  till  this 
day,  which  yet  we  know  to  differ  much  from  the  right 
Roman  tongue :  and  as  Nithardus  (Nephew  to  Charles 
the  Great)  in  his  Historie  of  the  dissension  of  the  sonnes 
of  Ludovicus  Pius  called  the  French  then  usuall  (whereof 
hee  setteth  downe  examples)  the  Romane  Tongue,  which 
yet  hath  no  more  agreement  with  the  Latine  then  the 
French  hath  that  is  now  in  use.  Thirdly,  to  the  objec- 
tion of  Cyprians  and  Augustines  preaching  in  Latine,  I 
answere  that  both  ^  Hippo,  whereof  Augustine  was 
Bishop,  and  ^  Carthage,  whereof  Cyprian  was  Archbishop, 
were  Roman  Colonies,  consisting  for  the  most  part  of  the 
progenie  of  Romans,  for  which  sort  of  Cities,  there  was 
speciall  reason.  Although  neither  in  the  Colonies  them- 
selves (as  it  seemeth)  the  Roman  tongue  was  altogether 
uncorrupt,  both  for  that  I  alleadged  before  out  of  Sparti- 
anus  of  Severus  his  sister  dwelling  at  Leptis,  and  for  that 
which  I  remembred  out  of  Augustine  for  Hippo,  where 
they  spake  ""  Ossum  and  ^  Floriet,  and  ^  Dolus,  for  Os  and 
Florebit  and  dolor  (and  yet  were  both  Leptis  and  Hippo 
Roman  Colonies :)  And  yet  it  appeareth  further  by 
Augustine,  that  in  their  translations  of  the  Scriptures,  and 
in  the  Psalmes  sung  in  their  Churches,  they  had  these 
corruptions,  where  yet  (as  it  is  like)  their  most  corrupt 
and  vulgar  Latine  had  not  place. 

To  the  third  I  answere,  that  two  reasons  of  it  may  be 
assigned :  One,  that  learned  men  would  rather  write  in 
the  learned  and  grammaticall,  then  in  the  vulgar  and 
provinciall  Latine.  Another,  that  the  workes  of  un- 
learned men  would  hardly  continue  till  our  times,  seeing 
even  of  the  learned  ancient  writings,  but  few  of  infinite, 
have  remained.  Furthermore,  it  is  observed  of  the 
Germaine  tongue,  by  Tschudas  and  of  the  French  by 
Genebrard,  that  it  is  very  little  above  400.  yeeres,  since 
bookes  began  to  be  written  in  both  those  languages,  and 
yet  it  is  out  of  all  doubt,  that  the  tongues  are  much 

To  the  fourth  I  say,  that  there  is  no  language,  which 



of  ordinary   course   is  not  subject  to    change,    although 
there  were  no  forraine  occasion   at  all :    which   the   very 
fancies  of  men,  weary  of  old  words  (as  of  old   things)    is 
able  enough   to   worke,  which   may   be   well    proved   by 
observations  and  instances  of  former  changes,  in  this  very 
tongue  (the  Latine)  whereof  I   now  dispute.     For  Quin-  Quintil.  Just. 
tilian  recordeth,  that  the  Verses  of  the  Salii  which  were  ^^^^°''-  ^-  i- 
said   to  be  composed  by  Numa  could   hardly  be  under-  ^^'    ' 
stood  of  their  Priests,  in  the  latter  time  of  the  Common- 
wealth, for  the  absolutenesse  of  the  speech.     And  Festus  fest.  in  Die- 
in   his  booke   de  verborum   significatione,    who   lived   in  ^^""-^^^^^"^ 
Augustus  Caesars  time,  hath  left  in  observation,  that  the    °'^"'' 
Latine  speech,  which  (saith  he)  is  so  named  of  Latium, 
was  then  in  such  manner  changed,  that  scarsly  any  part 
of  it  remained  in   knowledge.     The  Lawes   also  of  the 
Roman  Kings,  and  of  the  Decemviri,  (called  the  Lawes  of 
the  twelve  Tables)  collected  and  published  in  their  owne  Fu/^.  Urshi. 
words  by  Fulvius  Ursinus  are  no  lesse  evident  testimonies,  ""^^  ^'^  ^"ton. 
if  they  be  compared  with  the  later  Latine,  of  the  great  j^^f^i  /  c 
alteration  of  that  language.  nlfuscmsult' 

Furthermore,    Polybius    hath   also    recorded,    that  the  [i.  i.  io6.] 
articles   of  league,  betwixt  the  people   of  Rome  and  of  Polyb.  I.  3. 
Carthage,  made  presently  after  the  expulsion  of  the  Kings 
from  Rome,  could  very  hardly  in  his  time  be  understood, 
by  reason  of  the  old  forsaken  words,  by  any  of  the  best 
skilled    Antiquaries    in   Rome.     In  which  time  notwith- 
standing,   they    received    very   few    strangers    into    their 
Citie,  which  mixture  might  cause  such  alteration,  and  the 
difference  of  time  was  but  about  three  hundred  and  fifty 
yeeres.     And  yet  to  adde  one  instance  more,  of  a  shorter 
revolution  of  time,  and  a  cleerer  evidence  of  the  change, 
that  the  Roman  tongue  was  subject  to,  and  that,  when  no  *-S^^'j^f!^^' 
forraine  cause  thereof  can  be  alleadged :  there  remaineth  p^^.  "^  i  ""'' 
at  this  day  (as  it  is  certainly*  recorded)  in  the  Capitall  at  c.  18.  A-ci-/- 
Rome,   though  much   defaced  by  the  injury  of  time,   a  '^f"-  Cit.  tad. 
Pillar  (they  call  it  Columnam  rostratam,  that  is,  decked  ^"  Tractat.  de 
with  beakes  of  ships)  dedicated  to  the  memory  of  Duillius  yuLrh^Ital 
a  Roman  Consull,  upon  a  navale  victory  obtained  against  cap.  7.  c^c. 



the  Carthaginians,  in  the  first  Punicke  warre,  not  past  one 
hundred  and  fifty  yeeres  before  Ciceroes  time,  when  the 
Roman  tongue  ascended  to  the  highest  flourish  of  Ele- 
gancie,  that  ever  it  obtained :  And  thus  the  words  of  the 
Pillar  are  (those  that  may  be  read)  as  I  finde  them 
observed,  with  the  later  Latine  under  them. 

Exemet.  Leciones.  Macistratos.  Castreis.  Exfociont. 
Exemit.  Legiones.  Magistratus.  Castris.  EfFugiunt. 
Pucnandod.  Cepet.  Enque.  Navebos.  Marid.  Consol. 
Pugnando.  Cepit.  Inque.  Navibus.  Mari.  Consul. 
Primos.  Ornavet.  Navebous.  Claseis.  Paenicas.  Sumas. 
Primus.  Ornavit.  Navibus.  Classes.  Punicas.  Summas. 
Cartaciniensis.  Dictatored.  Altod.  Socicis.  Triresmos. 
Carthaginiensis.  Dictatore.  Alto.  Sociis.  Triremes. 
Naveis.  Captom.  Numei.  Navaled.  Praedad.  Poplo,  &c. 
Naves.   Captum.    Nummi.  Navali.    Praeda.   Populo,  &c. 

Where  you  see  in  many  words,  e.  for  i,  c.  for  g.  o.  for 
u.  and  sometime  for  e.  and  d.  superfluously  added  to  the 
end  of  many  words.  But  (to  let  forraigne  tongues  passe) 
of  the  great  alteration  that  time  is  wont  to  work  in 
languages,  our  own  tongue  may  afford  us  examples 
evident  enough :  wherein  since  the  times  neere  after, 
and  about  the  Conquest,  the  change  hath  beene  so 
great,  as  I  my  selfe  have  seene  some  evidences  made 
in  the  time  of  King  Henry  the  first,  whereof  I  was 
able  to  understand  but  few  words.  To  which  purpose 
also,  a  certaine  remembrance  is  to  be  found  in  HoUn- 
sheds  Chronicle,  in  the  end  of  the  Conquerours  raigne, 
in  a  Charter  given  by  him  to  the  Citie  of  London. 

Of  the  ancient  T)Ut  if  the  discourse  of  these  points  of  Antiquitie,  in 
Languages  of  JQ)  handling  whereof  I  have  declared,  that  while  the 
^F^ance^inP  Roman  Empire  flourished,  it  never  abolished  the  vulgar 
Jfrtque.  languages,  in  France,  or  Spaine,   or  Afrique,    howsoever 

Chap.  7.  in  Italie.  If  that  discourse  I  say,  move  in  you  perhaps 
a  desire  to  know  what  the  ancient  vulgar  languages  of 
those   parts   were  :    I  will  also  in  that  point,  out  of  my 


reading    and    search    into    Antiquitie,   give  you  tlie  best 
satisfaction  that  I   can. 

And  first  for  Italic :  Certaine  it  is,  that  many  were 
the  ancient  tongues  in  the  severall  Provinces  of  it, 
tongues  I  say,  not  dialects,  for  they  were  many  more. 
In  Apulia,  the  Mesapian  tongue :  In  Tuscanie  and 
Umbria,  the  Hetruscan,  both  of  them  utterly  perished : 
Yet  in  the  booke  of  ancient  Inscriptions,  set  forth  by  Inscrip.  vet. 
Gruter  and  Scaliger,  there  be  some  few  Moniments  /"^<?-H3-H4- 
registred  of  these  languages,  but  not  understood  now 
of  any  man.  In  Calabria  both  the  higher  and  lower, 
and  farre  along  the  miritime  coast  of  the  Tyrrhene 
Sea,  the  Greeke.  In  Latium  (now  Campagna  di  Roma) 
the  Latine.  In  Lombardie,  and  Liguria,  the  old  tongue 
of  France  whatsoever  it  was.  Of  which  last  three,  the 
two  former  are  utterly  ceased  to  be  vulgar :  and  the 
third,  no  where  to  be  found  in  Italie,  but  to  be  sought 
for  in  some  other  Countrie.  And  although,  beside  these 
five,  wee  finde  mention,  in  ancient  writings  of  the  Sabine, 
the  Oscan,  the  Tusculan,  and  some  other  tongues  in 
Italie,  yet  were  they  no  other  then  differing  dialects  of 
some  of  the  former  languages,  as  by  good  observations, 
out  of  Varro,  Festus,  Servius,  Paul.  Diaconus,  and 
others,  might  be  easily  prooved. 

Secondly,    of  France    what    the    ancient    tongue    was, 
hath  bin   much   disputed,    and    yet    remaineth  somewhat 
uncertaine :    Some    thinking    it  to   have  beene  the  Ger- 
maine,  others  the  Greeke,  and  some  the  Walsh  tongue. 
But,    if  the    meaning    of  these    resolvers    be,    that    one 
language,  whatsoever  it  were,  was  vulgar  in  all  France, 
they    are    verie    farre    wide.     Caesar    and    Strabo    having 
both  recorded,  that  there  were  divers  languages  spoken  Bella  Gallic 
in  the  divers  parts.     But,  to  omit   the  speech  of  Aqui-  ^^^^_  ^^  '-^ 
taine,   which  Strabo   writeth   to   have  had  much  affinitie  princip. 
with  the  Spanish  :    And,  of   that    part    (in   Cassar   called 
Belgia)  that  at  the   River  of  Rhene  confined  with   Ger- 
manie,    which    for    that    neighbourhood,    might     partake 
much    of  the    Germaine   tongue :    To  omit  those  I  say, 
I  289  T 


Cas.  I.  z,.de 
Bello  Gallic, 
long,  post  med. 
Varro  ap. 
Hieron.  in. 
prof  at.  I.  2. 
6^  aptid  Li- 
dor  um  li.  15. 
Orig.  cap.  i. 
[I.  i.  107.] 
Cas.  I.  de 
Bello  Gallico. 
Tacit.  I.  de 
Mor.  Germa- 
nor.  prope 
finem.  Sueton. 
in  Caligula 
c.  47. 
Hottom.  in 
Fran,  cogall. 
c.  2. 

Perion  I.  de 
Cognat  Ling. 
Gal.   y 
Graca  Pas- 
te II.  I.  de  12. 
Tschud  in 
Descr.  Rhet. 
Alp.  c.  28. 
Gorop.  in. 
Isac.  in  Glos- 
sario.  Prisco. 

Lhuid  in 
Britan.  Cam- 
den in 
Strab.  I.  4. 

the  maine  question  is,  about  the  language  of  the  Celtae, 
which  as  inhabiting  the  middle  part  of  France,  were 
least  of  all  infected  with  any  forraine  mixture.  And 
certainely,  that  it  was  not  the  Greeke,  appeareth  out  of 
Caesar,  written  to  Q.  Cicero,  (then  besieged  by  the  Gaules) 
in  Greeke,  lest  the  Gaules  should  intercept  his  Letters. 
And  secondly,  no  lesse  evidently  by  Varro,  written  of 
the  Massilians  that  they  spake  three  languages,  the 
Roman,  the  Greeke,  and  the  Gallique  tongue :  And 
thirdly,  the  remnants  of  that  tongue,  may  serve  for 
instance,  whereof  many  old  words  are  found  dispersed 
in  ancient  writers,  that  have  no  affinitie  at  all  with  the 
Greeke.  The  Greeke  therefore,  was  not  the  ancient 
native  language  of  the  Gaules ;  Neither  was  it  the  Ger- 
maine  :  for  else  it  had  beene  but  an  odde  relation  and  reason 
of  Caesars,  that  Ariovistus  a  German  Prince,  had  lived 
so  long  in  Gallia,  that  he  spake  the  Gallique  tongue : 
And  that  of  Tacitus,  that  the  Gallique  tongue  proved 
the  Gothines  to  be  no  Germaines :  And  that  of  Suetonius, 
that  Caligula  compelled  many  of  the  Gaules  to  learne 
the  Germaine  tongue.  But  Hottoman  (of  all  that  I  have 
read)  speaking  most  distinctly,  touching  the  originall  and 
composition  of  the  French  tongue,  divideth  it  as  now  it 
is  spoken,  equally  into  two  parts,  of  which  he  supposcth 
the  one  (and  I  thinke  it  is  rather  the  greater  part)  to 
have  originall  from  the  Latine  tongue :  and  the  other 
halfe,  to  be  made  up,  by  the  German  and  Greeke,  and 
Brittish  or  Walsh  words,  each  almost  in  equall  measure. 
Of  the  deduction  of  the  French  words  from  the  Greeke, 
you  may  read  Perionius,  Postell,  and  others  :  Of  those 
from  the  Germaine,  Tschadus,  Goropius,  Isacius,  &c. 
Of  the  Walsh,  Lhuid,  Camden,  &c.  Which  last  in- 
deede  for  good  reason,  seemeth  to  have  beene  the  native 
language  of  the  ancient  Celtae,  rather  then  either  the 
Greeke  or  Dutch  tongues :  for  of  the  Greeke  words 
found  in  that  language,  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Massilians,  and  their  Colonies,  inhabiting  the  maritime 
coast  of  Province,  together  with  the  ready  acceptance  of 



that  language  in  France  (mentioned  by  Strabo)  may  be 
the   cause :     As    likewise    of    the    Germaine    words,    the 
Franks    and    Burgundions    conquest,    and    possession    of 
France,  may  be  assigned  for  a  good  reason  :   But  of  the 
Brittish  words  none  at  all  can  be  justly  given,  save,  that 
they  are  the  remnants  of  the  ancient  language.     Secondly,  Tacit,  in  Julio 
it  seemeth  to  be  so  by  Tacitus,  written,  that  the  speech  ^S.^'^">^^- 
of  the  Gaules,  little  differed  from  that  of  the  Brittaines. 
And  thirdly,  by  Caesar,  recording,  that  it  was  the  custome 
of  the  Gaules  that  were  studious  of  the  Druides  disci- 
pline, often  to  passe  over  into  Brittaine  to  be  there  in- 
structed :   wherefore   seeing  there  was  no  use  of  bookes 
among  them,  as  is  in  the  same  place  affirmed  by  Caesar,  C^^-  ^-  6-  de 
it  is  apparent  that  they  spake  the  same  language.  '  ^^^^^'^°- 

Thirdly,  the  Spanish  tongue  as  now  it  is,  consisteth  of 
the  old  Spanish,  Latine,  Gottish,  and  Arabique  (as  there 
is  good  reason  it  should,  Spaine  having  beene  so  long 
in  the  possessions  of  the  Romans,  Gothes,  and  Moores) 
of  which,  the  Latine  is  the  greatest  part  (next  it  the 
Arabique)  and  therefore  they  themselves  call  their  lan- 
guage Romance.  And  certainely  I  have  seene  an  Epistle 
written  by  a  Spaniard,  whereof  every  word  was  both 
good  Latine  and  good  Spanish,  and  an  example  of  the 
like  is  to  be  seene  in  Merula.  But  the  language  of  ^erul.  m- 
Valentia  and  Catalonia,  and  part  of  Portugall,  is  much  J^^f /'^g'"'  ^' 
tempered  with  the  French  also.  Now  the  ancient  and 
most  generall  language  of  Spaine,  spoken  over  the 
Country  before  the  Romaines  conquest,  seemeth  to  me 
out  of  question,  to  have  beene  the  Cantabrian  tongue, 
that  namely  which  yet  they  speake  in  Biscay,  Guipuscoa, 
Navarre,  and  Asturia,  that  is  to  say,  in  the  northerne 
and  mountainous  parts  of  Spaine,  neere  the  Ocean,  with 
which  the  Vasconian  tongue  also  in  Aquitaine,  neere 
the  Pyrene  hils,  hath  as  there  is  good  reason  (for  out 
of  those  parts  of  Spaine  the  inhabitants  of  Gascoigne 
came)  much  affinitie  and  agreement.  And  my  reason 
for  this  opinion  is,  that  in  that  part  of  Spaine,  the 
people    have    ever    continued    without    mixture  of  any 



forraine  Nation,  as  being  never  subdued  by  the  Cartha- 
ginians,  nor    by   the    Moores,   no,    nor    by   the   Romans 
(for  all  their  long  warring   in   Spaine)  before  Augustus 
Caesars  time,  and   for  the   hiUinesse,  and  barenesse,  and 
unpleasantnesse  of  the   Countrie,   having   nothing   in   it, 
to   invite    strangers   to   dwell   among   them.     For    which 
cause,  the  most  ancient  Nations   and   languages  are  for 
the    most    part    preserved     in    such    Countries:    as   by 
Thucyd.  I.  I.    Thucydides   is   specially   observed,   of  the   Attiques,   and 
paiil.aprincip.  Orcadians,    in    Greece,    dwelling    in    barren    soiles :     Of 
which    Nations    the    first,    for    their   Antiquitie,  vaunted 
of  themselves  that  they  were  a.vT6-)^ovi<;,  and  the  second, 
Trpoa-eXTjvoi  as  if  they  had  beene  bred  immediately  of  the 
Earth,  or   borne  before   the    Moone.     Another   example 
whereof  wee  may  see  in  Spaine  it  selfe,  for  in  the  steepy 
Mountaines  of  Granata,  named  Alpuxarras,  the  progeny 
of  the  Moores  yet  retaine  the  Arabique  tongue  (for  the 
Spaniards  call  it  Araviga)   which  all   the   other  remnants 
of  the   Moores   in  the   plainer   Region   had   utterly   for- 
gotten and  received  the  Castilian  (till  their  late  expulsion 
out  of    Spaine)    for    their    vulgar   language.      The    like 
whereof,  is  also  to  be  scene  in  the  old  Epirotike  speech 
and   Nation,  which   yet   continueth   in   the    mountainous 
part  of  Epirus,  being    (for    the    tongue)    utterly    extin- 
guished in  all  the  Country  beside.     And  (to  let  forraine 
instances  goe)   in   the    Brittaines   or    Welsh-men    in   the 
hilly   part    of  our    owne    Countrey.      What    the    reason 
thereof    may    bee,    I    will    not    stand    now    curiously    to 
enquire :     whether     that    being     inured     to    labour,    to 
watching,    to    sundry    distemperatures    of  the    aire,    and 
much    other    hardnesse    (for    otherwise    their   living    will 
not  bee  gotten  out  of  such  barren  ground)  they  prove 
upon  occasion  good   and   able   Souldiers.''     Or,  that  the 
craggy    Rockes    and    Hills    (like    fortresses    of    Natures 
owne    erecting)    are    easily    defended    from    forraine    in- 
vaders.?    Or    that   their    unpleasant   and   fruitlesse    soile, 
hath  nothing  to   invite  strangers  to  desire  it  ?     Or  that 
wanting    riches,    they    want     also     the    ordinary     com- 



panions   of   riches,   that   is   proud   and    audacious    hearts, 
to    provoke    with    their    injuries    other    Nations    to    be 
revenged    on    them,  either    by    the    conquest   or   desola- 
tion of  their  Countries?     But  whatsoever  the  cause  may- 
be, certainly    in    effect    so    it    is,   that    the    most   ancient 
Nations  and    Languages,  are  for   the   most   part   to  bee 
found  in  such   unpleasant  and   fruitksse  Regions:  Inso- 
much  that    the    Byscaynes,   who    gave    mee    occasion   of  l^-  ^-  '°^-] 
this  digression,  vaunt  of  themselves  among  the  Spaniards,  jf""'  "^^J'^"' 
that  they  are  the  right  Hidalgos  (that  is  Gentlemen)  as  ^J^^' ^''^' 
some  also  report  of  the   Welshmen   here  in   Brittaine  to  *  Gesner  in 
say  of  themselves,  which  yet  I  that  am   their  neighbour 
(to  confesse  a  truth)  never  heard  them  say.  fi""!^-^^^ 

Now  lastly,  touching  the  Punike  tongue,  as  I  am  not  Rocchadedia- 

of  Galateus  his  opinion,  that  it  was  utterly  extinguished  kct.  in  Ling. 

by  the  Romanes :  So  neither  can  I  bee  of  the  phantasie  Arabica. 

(for  it  is  no  better)  that  many*  other  learned   men  are:  ^°!^^^^-  ^^ , 

namely,  that  it  was  the  Arabike,  that  is  to  say  the  same  li"^,' jrab" 

language,   that  is  vulgar  in   Afrike  at   this  day.     For  it  Mas.inGram. 

is   well    knowne    to    the    skilfull    in    Histories,    that    the  Syriaca.  prop. 

Punikes    were    of    another   off-springs    (not    of  Arabian  ^"'^•-S^^/'W. 

\        j^u^v-  J.        ^        ^1  J  •  1  de  ration.  Lin- 

racej  and  that  it  is  not  yet  a  thousand  yeeres,  since  that        . 

tongue  was  by  the  Arabians,  together  with  their  victories  Schidler. 

brought   into    Afrike.     And    as    certaine    also    it   is,    that  in  Lex.  Pen- 

the   remnants   of   the    Africans   progeny,   as   *Leo   Afri-  i'^of^o  in  voce 

canus  hath  recorded,  hath  a  different  language  from  the  7?P, 

AL-1  T»  i-r»-i  1  Mart. 

Arabike.     But  the  runike   tongue   seemeth   to   mee  out  Caleott.  de 

of  question,  to  have  bin  the  Chananitish  or  old  Hebrew  doct.  promis- 

language,  though  I  doubt  not  somewhat  altered  from  the  ^«f-  ^-  ^\  ^ 

originall  pronuntiation,  as  is  wont  in  tract  of  time  to  befall  J"    jk-^ 

Colonies  planted  among  strangers  farre  from  home.     For  /  j^  Descrip. 

first  Carthage  it  selfe,  the  Queene  of  the  Cities  of  Afrike  Jfr.  cap.  de 

(and  well   might    she    be    termed   so,   that    contained    in  ^'^H-  Afi}(^' 

circuit  24.  miles,  as  Florus  in  his  abridgement  of  Livie  P^^-^^^P^'^"^- 

hath  recorded,  and  by  the  utter  wall  360.  furlongs,  that  sl^ab.  Lij. 

is  45.  miles)  as  it  is  in  Strabo :  And  held  out  in  emula-  Plin.  /.  15. 

tion  with  Rome,  as  is  noted  by  Pliny,  120.  yeeres,  and  ^-  ^8. 

to  conclude   (before    the    second    Punike    warre)   had   in 



li.  citato. 
Mela. I.  i.c.j, 
Liv.  li.  32. 
Appia.  I.  de. 
Bel.  Punicis 
in  principio. 
Curtius.  I.  4. 

Jrias  Mont, 
lib.  Chanaan. 
c.  8. 

Postel.  in  de- 
script.  Syri^. 
c.  de  ^yria 

subjection  all  the  Coast  of  the  Mediterrane  Sea,  from 
the  bottome  of  the  greater  Syrtis  in  Afrike,  to  the 
River  Ebro  (Iberus)  in  Spaine,  which  is  about  2000. 
miles  of  length,  that  the  same  Carthage  I  say,  and  divers 
other  Cities  of  Afrike  (of  which  Pliny  nameth  Utica 
and  Leptis,  as  being  the  principall)  were  Colonies  of  the 
Phoenicians,  and  namely  of  the  Tyrians,  is  not  onely  by 
Strabo,  Mela,  Livie,  Plinie,  Appian,  and  many  other 
certaine  Authors,  acknowledged,  and  by  none  denied, 
but  also  the  very  names  of  Poeni  Punici,  being  but 
variations  or  mutilations  of  the  name  Phoenicii  import 
so  much,  and  lastly  their  language  assureth  it.  For 
Hierome  writing  that  their  language  was  growne 
somewhat  different  from  the  Phoenician  tongue, 
doth  manifestly  in  these  words  imply,  it  had  beene 
the  same. 

And  what  were  the  Phoenicians  but  Chanaan ites  .f" 
The  Phoenicians  I  say,  of  whose  exceeding  merchandiz- 
ing wee  read  so  much  in  antient  Histories,  what  were 
they    but    Chanaanites,    whose     very    name*    signifieth 

^oiviKT],  in  the  Greek  signifieth  the  Palme,  for  as  touching  the 
deduction  of  the  name  Phoenicia,  either  from  p5S  by  Montanus,  or 
from  M^S  "^aiS  by  Postellus,  signifying  the  delicacy  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants by  the  first,  and  their  observation  or  adoration  of  the  fire, 
by  the  second,  they  are  but  late  sprung  fantasies,  and  have  not 
any  ground  of  reason  at  all  :  for  as  much,  as  in  all  the  Hebrew 
writings  of  the  Bible,  that  country  is  never  termed  by  any  name 
sounding  toward  Phenicia,  but  in  the  Greeke  onely.  But  in  many 
old  coynes  that  I  have  seene,  I  have  noted  the  Palme  Tree,  as  the 
speclall  cognisance  of  Phoenicia,  (as  I  have  also  the  Olive  branch, 
and  Conies  to  be  of  Spaine  :  the  Horse  of  Mauritania :  the  Ele- 
phant, or  the  spoile  of  the  Elephant  of  Afrike  :  the  Camell  of 
Arabia  :  the  Crocodile,  or  the  Bird  Ibis,  of  Egypt  :  and  divers  other 
specialties  for  other  Countries :)  And  namely  I  have  scene  sundry  old 
Coynes  of  the  Emperour  Vespatian,  of  severall  devices  and  imagery, 
stamped  for  a  memoriall  of  his  conquest  of  Judaea,  and  taking  of 
Jerusalem  (for  the  Inscription  is  in  every  of  them,  Judaea  capta)  & 
in  each  of  them,  I  especially  observed  a  woman  sitting  in  a  sad  and 
mournefull  fashion,  with  her  backe  to  a  Palme  tree  :  wherein,  I 
make  no  doubt,  but  the  desolate  woman  signifieth  Judasa,  and  the 
Palme,  Phoenicia,  even  as  Phoenicia  is  immediately  toward  the  North, 
at  the  backe  of  Judaea. 



Merchants?  for,  the  very  sarne  Nation,  that  the  Graecians 
called  Phasnicians  {(poiviKe?)  and  the  Romans  in  imitation 
of  that  name  Poenos  &  Punicos,  for  the  exceeding  store 
of  good    Palmes,    wherewith    that    Countrey    abounded : 
Insomuch  that  in  Monuments  of  Antiquitie,  the  Palme 
Tree  is  observed  for  the  Ensigne  of  Phoenicia :   the  same 
Nation   I   say,   called    themselves,   and    by    the    Israelites 
their    next    neighbours,    were    called    Chanaanites.     And 
that    they    were    indeed    no    other,    I   am   able   easily   to 
prove.     For  first,  the   same  woman   that  in   Mathew  is  MatiA.i$.2z. 
named  a  Canaanite,  is  in  Marke  called  a  Syropoenician.  Mark.  7.  26. 
2.  Where  mention   is   made   in  Josua,  of  the   Kings  of  Jos.  5.  i. 
Canaan,  they  are  in  the   Septuagints  translation  named, 
^aa-tXek  rrj^  (poivUri^.     3.  To  put  it  out  of  question.     All  that 
Coast,  from   Sidon  to  Azzah  (that   was   Gaza)    neere   to 
Gerar,  is  registred  by  *  Moses,  to  have  beene  possessed  *G^«.  10. 19, 
by  the  posteritie  of  Chanaan  :   Of  which  coast  the  more 
Northrene    part    above    the    promontory    of    Carmel,    or 
rather  from  the  river  Chorseus  (Kison  the  J  ewes  called 
it)   that   neere   the   promontory  of  Carmell,   entreth   the 
Sea   to   the  Citie  of  Orthosia,   above   Sidon   Northward, 
is    by    Strabo,    Pliny,    Ptolomy    and    others,    referred    to  Strai.  I.  16. 
Phoenicia   (although   Strabo   extend  that  name,  along  all  »°^  ^ong.  ante 
the  Maritime  Coast  of  Palestina  also,  to  the  confines  of  Y'^'  ^^^"' 
^gypt,  as  Dionysius  Periegetes  also  doth,  placing  Joppa  Pio'iem.  Tab 
and  Gaza,  and   Elath  in  Phoenicia)  which  very  tract   to  4.  JsU. 
have  been  the  severall  possessions  of  Zidon,  and  Cheth,  Dionys.  Jlex. 
and  Girgashi  and  Harki,  and  Arvade,  and  Chamathi,  six  ^^  Penegest. 
of  the  eleven  sonnes  of  Canaan  (the  other  five  inhabiting 
more  to   the  South  in   Palestina)  they   that   are   skilfull 
in  the  ancient  Chorography  of  the  Holy  Land  cannot  be 
ignorant.    Seeing  therefore  out  of  this  part  of  the  Land  of 
Canaan,  (for  in  this  part  Tyrus  was)  the  Carthaginians, 
and  other  Colonies  of  the  Phoenicians  in  Afrike  came,  it 
is  out  of  all   doubt,   that   they   were   of  the   Chananites  ^ug-  Expos. 
progeny :    and    for    such    in   very   deed,   and    no    other,  ^^'^^°^^'  'Pf'{ 
they    reputed    and    professed    themselves    to    be :     for  ^^^  °'"'^"'  ^" 
as    Augustine    hath    left    recorded,  who   was    borne    and 



lived  among  them,  the  Countrey  people  of  the  Punikes, 
when  they  were  asked  touching  themselves  what  they 
were,  they  would  make  answer  that  they  were  Channai, 
meaning,  as  Augustine  himselfe  doth  interprete  them 

Certain  therfore  it  is,  that  the  native  Punike  lan- 
guage was  the  Chanaanitish  tongue :  but  that  I  added 
for  explication  this  clause  (or  the  old  Hebrew,  meaning 
by  the  old  Hebrew,  that  which  was  vulgarly  spoken 
among  the  J  ewes  before  the  captivity)  you  will  perhaps 
[I.  i.  109.]  suspect  my  credit,  and  bee  offended,  for  I  am  not 
ignorant  how  superstitiously  Divines  for  the  most  part 
are  affected  toward  the  Hebrew  tongue:  yet  when  I 
had  set  down  the  Africans  language  to  have  been  the 
Canaanitish  tongue,  I  thought  good  to  adde  for  plainesse 
sake  (or  the  old  Hebrew)  because  I  take  them  indeed 
to  bee  the  very  same  language,  and  that  Abraham  and 
his  posterity  brought  it  not  out  of  Chaldaea,  but  learned 
it  in  the  land  of  Chanaan.  Neither  is  this  opinion  of 
*  mine,  a  meere  paradox  and  fantasie,  but  I  have  *  three 
Phcenic.  lit.     or  foure  of  the  best   skilled   in   the  language  and   anti- 

^^•'^;1*        quities  of  that  Nation,  that  the  later  times  could  afford 
Anas  Monta.    ^r     ^  -j  aj  ^-i        u       *  i     ■   \,     • ,.    • 

L.  Chanaan     o^  the    same    mmde :     And    certamly,   by    *  Isaiah    it    is 

c.  9.  Gene-      called  in   direct  termes,  the  language  of  Chanaan  :     And 
brard.  I.  i.       \\_    is   moreover   manifest,  that   the   names   of  the   places 
Chron.  an.       ^^^  Cities  of  Chanaan  (the  old  names  I  meane  by  which 
ZcaRsladfest.  '^^1  ^ere  called  before  the  Israelites  dwelt  in  them,  as 
indict.  Sarra.  is   to  be   seene    in   the   whole   course   of  the   Bookes   of 
y  in  ep.  ad     Moses  and  of  Joshuah)  were  Hebrew  names  :   touching 
Ubert.  l£  ad   ^hj^h  point,   although   I   could  produce  other   forceable 
* Isa  iQ  18     reasons,  such  as  might  (except  my  fantasie  delude  mee) 
vexe  the  best  wit  in  the  world  to  give  them  just  solu- 
tion,   yet    I    will   adde    no    more,    both    to    avoid    pro- 
lixity, and  because    I    shall  have    in  another  place  fitter 

But  to  speake  particularly  of  the  Punike  tongue, 
which  hath  brought  us  into  this  discourse,  and  which 
I    proved   before    to    bee    the   Canaanitish    language :     it 



is   not  onely  *   in  one   place   pronounced   by    Augustine  *  ^"S-  ^"  ^^''• 
(who    knew    it    well,    no    man    better)    to    have    neere  j^^-JlEmng. 
affinitie    with    the    Hebrew    tongue,    which    also    the  *  ^^^_  ^^^^ 
Punike  wordes  dispersed  in   the  writings  of  Augustine, 
and    others    (as    many    as    come    to    my    remembrance) 
prove    to    be    true.     But    more    effectually    in    *  another  *Jug./.z. 
place,   to    agree    with    it    in    very    many,  yea    almost    in  ^p"//J'J^-'' 
every    word.     Which   speech,  seeing    they   could    in    no   j 
sort    have    from    the    Israelites,  being   not    of  Abrahams 
posteritie  (both  because  no  such  transmigration  of  them 
is   remembred   in    the   holy   Histories,  and   for  that   the 
Punike  Colonies,  are  specially  mentioned  to   have   beene 
deduced    from    Tyre,    which    never    came   into   the   pos- 
session of  the  Israelites)  but  from  the  Canaanites,  whose 
off-spring   they   were :    It   followeth   thereupon   that   the 
language   of  the   Canaanites,  was   either   the   very  same, 
or  exceeding  neere  the  Hebrew.     And  certainly,  touch- 
ing the  difference   that   was   betweene   the   Hebrew   and 
the  Punike,  I    make    no  doubt,  but   the   great   distance 
from    their    primitive    habitation,  and   their    conversation 
with     strangers    among    whom    they    were    planted,  and 
together  with   both   the   length   of  time,  which   is   wont 
to  bring  alteration  to  all  the  Languages  in   the  World, 
were  the  causes  of  it.     And  although  that  Punike  speech 
in  PlautuSj  which  is  the  onely  continued  speech  of  that  P/aut.  in 
language,    that    to    my    knowledge    remaineth    extant    in  Pa^"u/o.  Jet. 
any  Author,  have    no    such    great   convenience  with  the 
Hebrew   tongue,   yet  I   assure    my    selfe    the    faults    and 
corruptions  that  have   crept   into   it  by   many   transcrip- 
tions, to    have  beene    the  cause    of  so    great    difference, 

*  As  in  the  Punike  tongue  Salus  three,  Augustin.  in  expos,  inchoat. 
epist.  ad  Roman.  Heb.  la^^lD.  Edom,  bloud.  Enar.  Psalm.  136.  Heb. 
Qiri-  Mamon,  lucre,  De  Sermon.  Dom.  in  Mont.  1.  2.  c.  14.  Heb. 
"ll^XJ-  Bal.  the  Lord.  Qusest.  in  Judic.  cap.  16.  Heb.  pS?!-  Samen, 
Heaven.  Ibid.  Heb.  D"'72"lD.  Messe,  to  annoint.  Tract.  15.  in  Joan. 
Heb.  ntD'JQ-  Alma,  a  Virgine.  Hieron.  in  c.  7.  Isai.  Heb.  Piyy^y. 
Gadir.  a  fence  or  wall.  Plinie.  1.  4.  c.  22.  "m^,  and  some  other  that 
diligence  might  observe. 



Of  the  lar ge- 
ne sse  of  the 
Turkish,  iff 
yirabike  lan- 
guages. C.  8. 

Gesner.  in 
Mithrid.  in 
Ling.  Illy- 
ricca.  Boccha 
in  Append  de 
dialect,  in 

*Postell.  de 
hng.  Dalmat. 
Rocch.  in 
Vatcan.  p. 
1 6 1 .  y  alii. 
'Roccha.  lib. 
citato  pag. 

by  reason  whereof  it  is  much  changed  from  what  at 
first  it  was  when  Plautus  writ  it,  about  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  yeeres  agoe :  And  specially  because  in 
transcribing  thereof  there  would  bee  so  much  the  lesse 
care  taken,  as  the  language  was  lesse  understood  by 
the  Writers,  and  by  the  Readers,  and  so  the  escapes 
lesse  subject  to  observation  and  controlement. 

MAny  are  the  Nations  that  have  for  their  vulgar 
Language,  the  Slavonish  Tongue  in  Europe,  and 
some  in  Asia.  Among  which  the  principall  in  Europe 
are  the  Slavonians  themselves  inhabiting  Dalmatia  and 
Liburnia,  the  West  Macedonians,  the  Epirotes,  the 
Bosinates,  Servians,  Russians,  Bulgarians,  Moldavians, 
Podolians,  Russians,  Muscovites,  Bohemians,  Polonians, 
Silesians.  And  in  Asia  the  Circassians,  Mangrellians, 
and  Gazarites.  These  I  say  are  the  principall,  but  they 
are  not  all :  for  Gesner  and  Roccha  reckon  up  the 
names  of  sixtie  Nations,  that  have  the  Slavonian  tongue 
for  their  vulgar  language.  So,  that  it  is  knowne  to  be 
vulgarly  spoken  over  all  the  East  parts  of  Europe  (in 
more  then  a  third  part  of  the  whole)  even  to  the 
utmost  bounds  of  it  the  Rivers  of  Droyna  and  Tanais  ; 
Greece  and  Hungary,  and  Walachia  onely  excepted. 
Indeed  the  Regions  of  Servia,  Bosina,  Bulgaria,  Rascia, 
Moldavia,  Russia  and  Moscovia,  namely  all  the  Nations 
of  the  Easterne  parts,  which  celebrate  their  divine 
service  after  the  Greeke  Ceremony,  and  professe  Ecclesi- 
asticall  obedience  to  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople, 
writ  in  a  divers  sort  of  Character  from  that  of  the 
Dalmatians,  Croatians,  Istrians,  Polonians,  Bohemians, 
Silesians  and  other  Nations  toward  the  West  (both 
which  sorts  of  Characters  are  to  bee  seene  in  Postels 
Booke  of  the  Orientall  languages)  of  which,  this  last  is 
called  the  Dalmatian  or  Illyrian  Character,  and  was  of 
*  Hieromes  divising,  that  other  bearing  for  the  most  part 
much  resemblance  with  the  Greeke,  is  termed  the 
Servian    Character,  and   was   of  « Cyrills   invention :     for 



which    cause,    as    Roccha    hath    remembred,    they    terme 

the    language    written     in    that    Character    ^  Chiurilizza.  ^Idpag.iyi. 

But    yet  notwithstanding  the  difference  of  Characters  in 

the    writing    of  these   Nations,  they  speake  all  of  them 

(the  difference  of  dialect  excepted)  the  same  language. 

But  yet  is  not  the  Slavonike  tongue  (to  answere  your 
question)  for  all  this  large  extent,  the  vulgar  language  of 
the  Turkish  Empire.    For  of  the  Turks  Dominion  onely 
Epirus,    the    West    part    of    Macedon,    Bosina,    Servia,  [Li.  no.] 
Bulgaria,  Rascia,  and  part  of  Thrace,  and  that  hee  hath 
in  Dalmatia  and  Croacia  (beside  the  Mengrelli  in  Asia) 
speake    vulgarly   the   Slavonian    tongue.     But    no   where 
for  the  more  precise   limitation,  neither   in   Asia   nor  in 
Europe  is   that  language   spoken   more   Southward,  then 
the    North    Parallel    of   forty    degrees :     some    part    of 
Epirus   onely  excepted :     I   meane   it   is    not    spoken    as 
the  vulgar   language    of  any    Nation    more    Southward. 
For    else,    being    acceptable    and   usuall,  as   it   is    in   the 
Great  Turkes  Serrail  at  Constantinople,  and  familiar  with 
most  of  the  Turkish  Souldiers,  by  reason  of  their  Gar- 
risons    and    other     great    imployment    in    those    parts 
toward  the  confines  of  Christian  Princes,  all  which  parts 
as    before    I    said    (Hungarie    and    Walachia    excepted) 
speake    that    language :     for    these    reasons    I    say,  it   is 
spoken  by  divers  particular  men  in  many  places  of  the 
Turkish  Dominion,  and   the  Janizares   and   Officers   for 
the  most  part  can   speake   it,  and  many  others   also   of 
the  better  sort,  but  yet  the  generall  and  vulgar  language 
of  his    Dominion    (excepting    those    places    afore    men- 
tioned) it  is  not. 

But    in    Anatolia,   although    the    old    languages    still 
remaine,    being    for    the    most   part   corrupt   Greeke,   as 
also  in  Armenia  they  have  their   peculiar  language,  yet 
is    the    Turkish    tongue    very    frequent    &    prevaileth 
in  them  both  :    which  being  originally  none  other  then  Mkhov.  I.  i. 
the    Tartarian    tongue,   as   Michovius,   and    others    have  '^^  Sarmatta. 
observed,    yet   partaketh   much,   both   of  the   Armenian  ^jg^}iaie°"in 
&   Persian,  by    reason    of  the  Turkes  long  continuance  ling.  Tunica. 



in  both  those  Regions,  before  they  setled  the  Seat  of 
their  Dominion,  and  themselves  among  the  Grecians, 
for  which  cause  it  is  not  without  mixture  of  Greeke 
also,  but  chiefly  and  above  all  other  of  the  Arabike, 
both  by  reason  of  their  Religion  written  in  that  language, 
and  their  training  up  in  Schooles  unto  it,  as  their  learned 
tongue.  And  yet  although  the  Turkish  bee  well  under- 
stood both  in  Natolia  and  Armenia,  yet  hath  it  neither 
extinguished  the  vulgar  languages  of  those  parts,  neither 
obtained  to  it  selfe  (for  ought  I  can  by  my  reading 
find)  any  peculiar  Province  at  all,  wherein  it  is  become 
the  sole  native  and  vulgar  language,  but  is  only  a 
common  scattered  tongue,  which  appeareth  to  be  so 
much  the  more  evidently  true,  because  the  very  Cities 
that  have  been  successively  the  Seats  of  the  Ottaman 
Sultans  ;  namely,  Iconium  (now  Cogna)  in  Lycaonia, 
then  Prusa  in  Bithynia  ;  thirdly,  Adrianople  in  Thrace  ; 
and  lastly,  Constantinople,  are  yet  knowne  to  retaine 
their  old  native  language,  the  Greeke  tongue :  Al- 
though the  Turkish  tongue  also  bee  common  in  them 
all,  as  it  is  likewise  in  all  other  Greeke  Cities  both  of 
Greece  and  Asia. 

But    in   the    East    part    of  Cilicia    beyond    the    River 

Pyramus,  as    in    all    Syria    also,    and    Mesopotamia    and 

Palestina,  and  Arabia  and  ^gypt,  and  thence  Westward 

in   all    the    long    tract    of  Afrike,    that    extendeth    from 

^gypt    to    the    Strait    of   Gibralter,    I    say,   in    all    that 

lieth  betwixt  the  Mountaine  Atlas,  and  the  Mediterrane 

Sea  (now  termed  Barbary)  excepting  Marocco,  and  here 

and  there  some  scattered  remnants   of  the  old  Africans 

*PostelL  in      in  the  Inland  parts,  the  Arabike  tongue  is  become  the 

prafat  Gram-  y^jg^j.    language,     although     somewhat    corrupted    and 

Ludovlc.  Res:,  varied  in  dialect,  as  among  so  many  several!  Nations  it 

/.  8.  de  Fids-  is  unpossible  but   it   should  bee.     And   although   I   bee 

situd.  Rer.  ad  farre    from    *  their   opinion,   which    write    (too   overlash- 

\^^lj  i'f^gly)  that  the  Arabian  tongue  is   in   use   in   two   third 

ObservatJ.x.  P^^ts  of  the  inhabited  world,  or  in  more,  yet  I  finde  that 

c.  12.  it  extendeth   very  farre,  and  specially  where  the  Religion 



of  Mahumed  is  professed.     For  which  cause  (over  and 

besides  the  parts  above  mentioned,  in  which  it  is,  as   I 

said,  become  the  native  language)  in  all  the  Northerne 

part  of  the  Turkish  Empire  also,  I  meane  that  part  that 

lyeth    on    the    North    side    of  the    Mediterrane    Sea,  as 

likewise   among   the  Mahumetan    Tartars,  it   is   thought 

not  the   Vulgar    tongue,  yet    familiar    with    very    many, 

both    because    all    their    Religion    is    written     in    that 

language,  and  for  that  *  every  boy  that  goeth  to  schoole 

is  taught  it,  as  in  our  Schooles  they  are  taught  Latine 

and  Greeke :    Insomuch,  that  all  the  Turkes  write  their 

owne  language  in  Arabike  Characters.     So  that  you  see  of  the  Sfd- 

the  common   languages   of  the   Turkish   Empire,  to   be  ake  and  He- 

the    Slavonish,    the    Greeke,  the   Turkish,    and   Arabike  brew  tongues. 

tongues,    serving    severally    for  the    parts    that   I    men-  f^' 9-.     . 
^.     ^iilr  ^  *Masius  tn 

tioned  berore.  ^,    /• .  ^ 

prcefat.  Li  ram- 
mat.  Syric. 
THe  Syriacke  tongue  is   certainely  *  thought  to  have  Sixt.  Senen. 
had  beginning,  in  the  time  of  the  Captivitie  of  the  ^^^^^o^^- 
Jewes  in  Babylon,  while  they  were  mingled  among  the  ^^oce^Thar-" 
Chaldeans.      In  which  long  revolution  of  seventy  yeeres, 
the  vulgar  sort  of  the  Jewes  forgot  their  owne  language,  prafat.  Justi- 
and  began    to   speake  the  Chaldee :    But   yet   pronounc-  ^'^^-  ^y^'^-  ^''• 
ing  it  amisse,  and   framing   it   somewhat   to  their   owne      ""^^"'n/ 
Countrey   fashion,  in   notation   of  Points,   Affixes,  Con-  zoretA.  in 
jugations,   and    some   other   properties    of  their   ancient  Apparat.  ad 
speech,    it    became    a    mixt    language    of    Hebrew    and  Bibl.  Reg. 
Chaldee  :    a  great  part  Chaldee  for  the  substance  of  the  ^.^^f^'  ? 
wordes,    but    more    Hebrew    for    the    fashion,    and    so  igxic.  Syro- 
degenerating    much    from    both :     The    old    and    right  chalda'uum. 
Hebrew    remaining    after    that    time    onely   among    the  Genebrard.  I. 
learned   men,  and    being   taught   in   Schooles,  as  among  ^'  CJironog. 

^L       1  J  &  &  '  &    ad  An.  3690. 

US  the  learned   tongues   are   accustomed   to    bee.      And  Bellarm.  I.  z. 

yet,  after  the  time  of  our  Saviour,  this  language  began  de  verba  Dei 

much  more   to   alter   and   to   depart   further,  both   from  ^-4-  ^  'S- 

the  Chaldee  and  Hebrew,  as  receiving  much  mixture  of  ^^'  ^°"^^^"- 

Greeke,   some   of   Romane   and    Arabike    wordes,   as  in  i„  oictione  ^ 

the    Talmud    (named    of   Jerusalem)    gathered    by    R.  Bib/ia. 



Jochanan,  about  three  hundred  yeeres  after  Christ,  is 
apparent,  being  farre  fuller  of  them,  then  those  parts 
of  the  Chaldee  paraphrase  on  the  holy  Scriptures,  which 
[1.  i.  III.]  were  made  by  R.  Jonathan,  a  little  before  Christ,  and 
by  R.  Aquila,  whome  they  call  Onkelos  not  long  after. 
But  yet  certaine  it  is,  both  for  the  great  difference 
of  the  wordes  themselves,  which  are  in  the  Syriake 
tongue  for  the  most  part  Chaldee,  and  for  the  diver- 
sitie  of  those  adherents  of  wordes,  which  they  call 
praefixa,  and  suffixa,  as  also  for  the  differing  sound  of 
some  vowels,  and  sundry  other  considerations :  Certaine 
it  is  I  say  that  the  unlearned  Jewes,  whose  vulgar  speech 
the  Syriake  then  was,  could  not  understand  their  nitDIS 
&  mTtiDPi,  that  is  their  lectures  of  Moses  and  the 
Prophets,  used  in  their  Synagogues  in  the  Hebrew 
tongue.  And  that  seemeth  to  have  beene  the  originall 
reason,  both  of  the  pubUke  speeches  and  declarations 
of  learned  men  to  the  people,  usuall  in  their  Syna- 
gogues on  the  Sabboaths,  after  the  readings  of  the 
"Jet.  13.  15.  Law  and  of  the  Prophets,  whereof  in  the  °  New  Testa- 
ment wee  finde  some  mention,  and  also  of  the  trans- 
lation of  Jonathan  and  Onkelos,  and  others  made  into 
their  vulgar  language,  for  that  the  difference  betwixt 
the  Hebrew  and  the  Chaldee  was  so  great,  that  the 
tongue  of  the  one  Nation  could  not  bee  understood 
by  the  other.  First,  the  tongues  themselves,  which 
yet  remaine  with  us  may  bee  evident  demonstrations, 
of  which  wee  see  that  one  may  bee  skilfull  in  the 
Hebrew,  and  yet  not  understand  the  Chaldee,  and 
therefore  neither  could  they,  whose  speech  the  Chaldee 
then  was  (although  much  degenerated)  understand  the 
^'  Hebrew.  Secondly,  wee  find  that  when  pRzra,  at  the 
V.  7.  8.  9.  returne  from  the  Captivitie,  read  the  Booke  of  the  Law 
before  the  people,  others  were  faine  to  interprete  that 
which  was  read  unto  them.  And  thirdly,  the  answere 
made  to  Rabshakeh,  by  the  Officers  of  King  Hezekiah 
'^Reg.  1. 2.  ca.  may  put  it  out  of  question,  willing  him  '^  to  speake 
18.  f.  26.       y^|.Q    i-hej^    in   the    Chaldee    tongue,    that    the   common 



people    of  Jerusalem   (in   whose   hearing    it  was)    might 
not  understand  what  was  spoken.     But  yet  it  might  bee, 
that    as    at    this    day    the    Jewes    use    to    doe,    so    also 
in  Christs  time  of  conversing  on  the  Earth,  they  might 
also   read    the  Chaldee  Targamin  (and   certainely  some""  'Junius  in 
learned    men    affirme    they    did    so)    together    with    the  Bell^rm.Cont. 
Hebrew    lectures    of    Moses    and    the    Prophets;    for  ^ ^\   '  ^'    ^' 
certaine    it    is,    that    Jonathan    Ben    Uziel,    had    before 
the    birth   of  our    Saviour    translated,  not    the    Prophets 
onely  into   Chaldee,   (for    it    is   his   Paraphrase   that  wee 
have   at   this   day   on   the    Prophets,    and    the    Language 
which    wee    now   call    the    Syriake,   was    but    the  Jewish 
Chaldee,   although   in    the    after    times,   by    the    mixture 
of  Greeke,  and  many   other   forraine  wordes  it   became 
somewhat  changed,  from  what   in    the   times  afore,  and 
about    our   Saviours    Incarnation    it  had   beene)    but  the 
Pentateuch    also :    at    least,    if  it    bee   true   which   Sixtus  Sixt.  Senens. 
hath     recorded,     namely,     that     such    is    the    Tradition  Bibhoth. 
among  the  Jewes,  and  which  Galatine  writeth,  that  him-    f.^^f'    ot'/" 
selfe    hath    scene    that    translation    of  Jonathans,    beside  editio.' 
that    of    Onkelos,    the    beginning    of    both    which    hee  Galatin.  de 
setteth    downe,   differing    one   from   another  in   the  first  -^rcan. 
wordes.     Which  (namely,  touching   the  publike  reading  ^^'^^^j^'*' 
of  the    Chaldee    Targamin,    either    together    with    the 
Hebrew   Text,    or   instead   of  it)    I    may   as   well  con- 
ceive to  bee  true,  as  that  the  forraine  'Jewes,  dwelling  ^Vid.Sal- 
in   Alexandria  and  others  parts  of  iEgypt,  in  Asia  also,  "'^'""•P' 
and  other   Greeke  Provinces  abroad,    used    publikely  in  scTimra' Pro- 
stead  of  the  Hebrew,  which  now  they  understood  not,  Ugom.  3.  in 
the    Septuagints    Greeke    translation,    as    is    evident    in  Tomo.  i,  y 
Tertullian :    And  of  some   others  of  them   in   the   Con-  ^^  interpretat. 
stitutions   of  'Justinian.      Which    Jewes    for    that    very  l^^^f'^f^i, 
cause,  are  sundry    times   m   the  "  Acts  of  the   Apostles  /»//.  i„  jpoig. 

*  For  of  that    part    of  the   Chaldee  Paraphrase,  which  we  have  in  geiico.  ca.  1 9. 

the  Complutense,  and   King  Philips  Bibles,  on  the  Bookes  of  Moses,  ^Novell,  146. 

Onkelos  is  the  Author  :    of  that  on  Josuah,  the  Judges,  the  Booke  of  ""  ^ct.S.  i.  y 

the     Kings    and    of    the     Prophets,    Jonathan.       Of    that    on    Ruth,  9.29.^11. 

Hester,    Job,    the    Psalmes,  and    the    Bookes    of  Salomon,    R.   Joseph  20. 



Scalig.  in 
Euseb.  ad 
Annum  MD- 
i^  J  un. contra. 
Bellarm.  Con- 
irov.  I.  /.  2. 
c.  15,  §.  21. 
toritor.  I.  5. 
Annot.  ad. 
Act.  Ap.  6.  I . 

termed  EXXi/i/io-ra).  For  by  that  name,  in  the  judge- 
ment of  learned  men,  the  naturall  Graecians  are  not 
meant,  which  are  alwayes  named  EXX>;ve9,  not  EXXi/vto-Tat, 
But,  the  Jewes  dispersed  among  the  Gentiles,  that  used 
to  read  the  Greeke  Scriptures  in  their  Synogogues. 

And  here  shall  be  the  period  of  my  first  Enquiry 
touching  the  Languages,  and  beginning  of  the  second, 
concerning  the  sorts  of  Religions  abroad  in  the  World. 
In  discoursing  whereof  you  must  bee  content  to  accept 
of  Moderne  Authors,  because  I  am  to  intreate  of 
Moderne  Matters:  And  if  1  hap  to  step  awry  where 
I  see  no  path,  and  can  discerne  but  few  steps  afore 
mee,  you  must  pardon  it.  And  yet  this  one  thing  I 
will  promise  you,  that  if  either  they  that  should  direct 
mee,  mislead  mee  not,  or  (where  my  reason  suspects 
that  my  guides  wander,  and  I  am  mislead)  if  my 
circumspect  observing,  or  diligent  enquiring,  may  pre- 
serve mee  from  errour,  I  will  not  depart  a  haire  from 
the  way  of  Truth. 

[I.  i.  112.] 

Of  the  sundry 
parts  of  the 
World  inhabi- 
ted by  Chris- 

Chap.  10. 
Michov.  de 
Sarmatia.  I.  2. 
c.  3.  Boem.  de 
Morib.  gent. 
I.  3.  c.  7. 
Boter.  Relat. 
Par.  3./.  I. 

Chap.  XIII. 

Master  Brerewoods  Enquiries  of  the  Religions 
professed  in  the  World  :  Of  Christians,  Ma- 
humetans,  Jewes  and  Idolaters :  with  other 
Philosophical!  speculations,  and  divers  Annota- 
tions added. 

LI  Europe  is  possessed  by  Christians, 
except  the  utmost  corners  of  it,  toward 
the  East  and  the  North,  for  the  small 
company  of  Mahumetans,  inhabiting 
their  peculiar  *  Villages  about  Wilna  in 
Litunia,  or  the  scattered  *  remnants 
of  Idolaters  in  the  same  Province,  and 
in  Samogitia,  are  not  worthy  mentioning.  But  toward 
the  North,  Lappia,  Scricsinia,  Biarmia,  Corelia,  and  the 
North    part    of    Finmarke     (all    which    together    passe 



commonly    under    the    name    of  Lapland,    and    make  a  Ttegler.  in 
Region    about    nine    hundred    miles    in   circuit)    are    in-  ■5^^<"'^^'^-  <^-  '^'^ 
habited    by    Idolaters:     and    toward    the    East,    all    the  zflZrS. 
Kegion   betwixt  Tanais    and    Borysthenes,  along  Maeotis  tract,  de. 
and    the    Euxine  Sea  (the    true    native    Countrey  of  the  Lapepiis. 
ancient  Gothes)  being  more  then   twice  as   large  as  the  ^^<:hQv.  I.  2. 
former,   and   withall   much    better    peopled,    is    inhabited  ^^  f''um$ter 
by    the    Tartars,    called  Crimasi    or    Prascopitae,  who  are  Como.  1. 4.  c. 
all    Mahumetans,  excepting    onely  a  small   remainder   of  37.  Boter. 
Christians  in  some  parts  of  Taurica.  Relation  pa. 

But,   in    all    the    Turkes   Dominion   that   hee    hath  in   ^^g^'^^lf^ 
Europe,    inclosed    after    a    peninsular    figure,    betweene 
Danubius  and  the  Sea,   and   containing    in    circuit  about 
2300.   miles  (for  Moldavia,  Walachia,  and  Transilvania, 
I    reckon   not  for   the    parts   of  his   Dominion)  namely, 
from  above  Buda,  on  Danubius   side,  and  from  Ragusa 
on  the  Sea  Eastward,  to  the  utmost  bounds  of  Europe, 
as    also  in    the    lies    of  the    ^gaean   Sea,  Christians  are 
mingled    with    Mahumetans.     All    which    Dominion  yet 
of  the    Turkes    in    Europe,  though    so   much    in  circuit 
as    I    said,    is    neverthelesse   (measured    by    squares)   no 
greater  then  Spaine,  the   Continent   of  it   being   no  way 
answerable  to  the  Circumference :  both,  because  it  runneth 
farre  out  in  sharpe  angles,  toward  the  West  and  South, 
namely    in    Hungary    and     Moraea,    and    is    beside    in 
Greece  in  many  places  extraordinarily  indented  with  the 
Sea.     And  in   his   Dominion    of  the    Turks  in  Europe, 
such    is    notwithstanding    the    mixture   of   Mahumetans 
with   Christians,   that    the     Christians  *   make    two    third  *  Boter. Relat. 
parts    at    least    of  the    Inhabitants :    for    the    Turke,    so  P-  ^'  /•  4-  ^^^ 
that    the   Christians   pay  him   his   yeerely   tribute  (which  f^aTruno' 
is    one  fourth  part  of  their  increase,  and   a   Saltanie  for 
every    poll)    and    speake    nothing    against    the    Religion  Affliction. 
and    Sect  of  Mahumet,   permitteth  them   the    liberty  of  Christian,  sub 
their    religion.     And    even   in    Greece    it  selfe,  although  j^J^^^l''^''^^ 
more    dissolute   then    any  Region   of  Europe  subject  to 
the    Turke   (as   having    bin   anciently  more   wasted  with 
intestine  discord,  and  longest  groaned   under  the  Turks 
I  305  u 


*  Chitr^s  de 
statu  Eccle- 
sior.  non  longe 
ab  initio. 
Coiyat  hath 

Gerlach  in 
epist.  ad  Cms. 
I.  pag.  Concil. 
Carthag.  4. 
y  Conci. 
African,  sev. 
Carth.  6. 

Martin.  Po- 
lon.  Suppat. 
An.  475. 
^Vict.  I.  \.de 

Of  the  Chris- 
tianitie  of 
Africa,  see 
Santos  y 
inf.  I.  9.  c.  1 2. 

Pigafer.  hist. 
Regni  Con- 
gens.  I.  2.  c.  z. 

oppression)  there  remaine  yet  neverthelesse  in  *  Con- 
stantinople, the  very  Seat  of  the  Turkish  Empire, 
above  twenty  Churches  of  Christians,  and  in  the  Citie 
of  Salonichi  (Thessalonica)  above  thirty,  whereas  in 
the  later  this  Mahumetans  have  but  three,  beside  very 
many  Churches  abroad  in  the  Province  under  suffragan 
Bishops,  of  whom  the  Metropolitan  of  Salonichi,  hath 
no  lesse  then  ten  belonging  to  his  Jurisdiction,  as  there 
are  also  recorded  yet  to  remaine  under  the  Metro- 
politans of  Philippi,  one  hundred  and  fifty  Churches : 
of  Athens,  as  many :  Of  Corinth  one  hundred,  to- 
gether with  sundry  suffragan  Bishops  under  each  of 

But  in  Afrike,  all  the  Regions  in  a  manner,  that 
Christian  Religion  had  gained  from  Idolatry,  Mahu- 
metanisme  hath  regained  from  Christianitie :  Insomuch, 
that  not  onely  the  North  part  of  Afrike,  lying  along  the 
Mediterrane  Sea,  namely,  betwixt  it  and  the  Mountaine 
Atlas,  even  from  Spaine  to  -/Egypt,  where  Christianitie 
sometime  exceedingly  flourished,  as  there  wee  reade 
Synodes  of  above  two  hundred  Bishops  to  have  been 
gathered,  and  ^  three  hundred  Catholike  Bishops  to  have 
been  there  expelled  by  Gensericus  King  of  the  Wandales : 
And  in  some  one  Province  alone,  '^  Zengitana  by  name 
(it  is  that  wherein  Carthage  stood)  to  have  beene  one 
hundred  sixty  foure  Bishops  under  one  Metropolitan : 
Not  onely  that  North  part  of  Afrike  I  say,  is  at  this 
present  utterly  void  of  Christians,  excepting  a  few 
Towns  belonging  to  the  King  of  Spaine  (of  which  onely 
Septa  and  Tanger  are  Episcopall  Cities :)  but  even  in  all 
the  vast  Continent  of  Afrike,  being  about  thrice  as  large 
as  Europe,  there  is  not  any  Region  entirely  possessed  by 
Christians,  but  the  Kingdome  of  Habassia,  no,  nor  yet 
(which  is  more  lamentable)  any  other  where  Christians 
are  mingled,  either  with  Mahumetans,  but  onely  ^gypt : 
or  where  with  Idolaters,  but  the  Kingdomes  of  *"  Conga 
and  Angola  :  which  two  about  one  hundred  twenty  yeeres 
agoe,  ann.  149 1.  began  first  to  receive  Christianitie:   All 



the  rest  of  Afrike,  being  entirely  governed  and  possessed  I"  these  parts 

by  Pagans  or  Mahumetans.     To  which,  if  I  should  adde  Christianity  is 

those    i^Yi    places  in  Afrike  afore  mentioned,   neere    the 

Strait  of  Gibraltar,   which   the   Kings   of   Portugall    and 

Castile  have  conquered  from  the  Moores,  with  the  other 

few    dispersed   fortresses,   which   the    Portugalls    hold   in 

other   places   on   the    Coast    of  Afrike    (altogether    even 

betwixt    Spaine    and    India    are    but    eleven    or   twelve) 

I    know  not  where  to  finde  even  among  all    the  native 

Inhabitants    of  Afrike,    any    Christians    more.      For,    as 

for    the    large    Region    of  Nubia,    which    had    from   the 

Apostles  time    (as    is    thought)    professed    the    Christian 

Faith,   it  hath   againe    above    one    hundred    yeeres    since 

forsaken    it,    and    embraced    instead    of  it,    partly    Ma-  [i.  i.  113.] 

humetanisme,    and    partly    Idolatry,    and    that    by    the 

most     miserable     occasion     that     might     befall,     namely 

famine  of  the  word  of  God  through  lacke  of  Ministers : 

for  as  Alvarez  hath  recorded,  at  his   being  in  the   King  Alvarex.  hist. 

of  Habassia    his   Court,    there    were    Embassadours    out  ^^thiopic 

of  Nubia,  to  intreate  him  for  a  supply  of  Ministers,  to  ^-  '37- 

instruct   their  Nation,  and  repaire   Christianitie   gone   to 

ruine  among  them  :   but  were  rejected. 

And  yet  are  the  Christians   of  i^gypt,   namely   those 
of  the    native    Inhabitants,   but    verie    few  in  respect  of 
that  infinitenesse  of  people,  wherewith  ^Egypt  doth,  and 
ever  did  abound,  as  being  esteemed  not  to  passe*  50000.   *Boter.  Re/at 
And,   as    touching    the    Kingdome    of  Habassia,    neither  ■^'^- '•  ^- 3- f*^- 
is  it  all  Christians  but   a  great   part  of  Gentiles,   namely  ^giETtto^ 
toward    the    West,   and   South   bounds   of  it,   and   some  Thom.  a  Jes. 
part  Mahumetans,  toward   the   East   border :    neither  so  de  Convers. 
large  and  spacious,   as   many  mens   relations   have  made  g^»i- i- 1  •  par. 
it    thought    to    be.       For    although    I    cannot    assent    to   ^Bol'er''Relat 
them,  who   assigne   to   that  great  Kingdome,   but  about  ^.  i. /.  3.  r. 
662.  leagues  of  compasse,  by  which  reckoning  (suppose  de  Abassia. 
they    were    Spanish    leagues)    it    should    be   little    larger 
then     Germany    (for    I     know    full    well,    by    infallible 
observations,    that    sparing    limitation    of  others,    to     be 
untrue)  yet,  neither  can  I  yeelde  to  them,  who  esteeme 



*  Horat. 

Malaguz.  ncl 
discorse  de  i. 
cinque  mass'ini 

See  hereof 
later  and  bet- 
ter intelligence 
I.  7.  c.  7.  y 
8.  Abassia  is 
reduced  now  to 
a  small  circuit. 

Boter.  loco 
proxm.  citato. 
Sommar.  dei 
regni  Orien- 
tal, apud 
Ramos,  vol.  i. 

pag-  32+- 
Boter.  Relat. 
p.  I.  /.  3.  c. 
Loango.  An. 

I  doe  not  think 
it  now  to  con- 
taine  halfe  so 
many  Chris- 
tians {which 
yet  are  but 
halfe  Chris- 
tians) as  any 
one  of  those 
foure.      The 
alloweth  too 
much.,  as  Piga- 
fetta  also,  l5 
in  these  times, 
it  is  little, 
except  in 
misery.    Bet- 
ter relations  of 
these  parts  are 
since  our 
authors  death 
published  by 

it  *greater,  then  the  vaste  dominions  of  the  Emperours 
of  Turkie  or  of  Tartaric,  &c.  Or,  to  them,  that 
extend  it  from  the  one  Tropique  to  the  other,  and 
from  the  red  Sea,  almost  to  the  West  Ocean.  For  first, 
certaine  it  is  (that  I  may  speake  a  little  of  the  limits 
of  this  Kingdome)  that  it  attaineth  not  to  the  red  Sea 
(Eastward)  neither  within  the  straits  of  Babel  mandel, 
nor  without :  for  within  those  straits,  along  the  Bay 
of  Arabia,  there  is  a  continuall  ledge  of  Mountains, 
known  to  be  inhabited  with  Moores,  betwixt  that  Bay, 
and  the  dominion  of  Habassia:  So  that,  onely  one  Port 
there  is,  along  all  that  coast  (Ercoco  by  name)  where 
those  Mountaines  open  to  the  Sea,  that  at  this  present 
belongeth  to  it.  Neither  without  those  Straits  doth  it 
any  where  approach  to  the  Ocean.  All  that  coast,  as  farre 
as  Mozanbique,  being  well  knowne  to  be  inhabited  with 

And  as  touching  the  west  limits  of  Habassia,  I  cannot 
finde  by  any  certaine  historie  or  relation  (unskilfuU  men 
may  rumour  what  they  will,  and  I  know  also  that  the 
common  Charts  represent  it  otherwise)  I  cannot  finde 
I  say,  that  it  stretcheth  beyond  the  River  Nilus,  so 
farre  commeth  it  short  of  the  West  Ocean.  For  it  is 
knowne,  that  all  the  West  banke  of  Nilus,  from  the 
River  of  Zaire  to  the  confines  of  Nubia,  is  possessed 
by  the  Anzichi,  being  an  idolatrous  and  man-eating 
Nation,  and  subject  to  a  great  Prince  of  their  owne; 
thus  then  it  is  with  the  bredth  of  the  Empire  of  Habassia, 
betwixt  East  and  West.  And  now  to  speake  of  the 
length  of  it,  lying  North  and  South,  neither  doth  it 
approach  Northward  on  Nilus  side,  further  then  the 
South  end  of  the  Isle  of  Meroe  (Meroe  it  selfe  is  in- 
habited by  Mahumetans,  and  the  deadly  enemies  of  the 
King  of  Habassia)  nor  on  the  Sea  side  further  then 
about  the  port  of  Suachem.  And  toward  the  South, 
although  the  bounds  of  that  Kingdome  be  not  perfectly 
knowne,  yet  that  it  approacheth  nothing  neere  the  circle 
of  Capricorne,  as   hath   bin   supposed,   is  most   manifest, 



because  the  great  Kingdomes  of  Moenhemage,  and  Beno-  Gadignus,  and 
motapa,  and  some  others,  are  scituate   betwixt  Habassia  ""'"  °f^^"^ 
and  that  circle.     But,  as  neere  as  I  am  able  to  conjecture,  ^^j^^^.  i^  » 
having  made  the  best  search  that  I  can,  in  the  itineraries  c.  ult. 
and   relations,  that  are  extant  of  those  parts,  the   South 
limit  of  that  Empire,  passeth  not  the  South  parallell  of 
six    or    seven    degrees    at   the   most,   where   it   confineth 
with   Moenhemage.     So  that  to   make   a  respective  esti- 
mate  of  the  largenesse  of  that  dominion,  by  comparing 
it    with    our    knowne    regions    of   Europe,     it    seemeth 
equall   to   Germany   and   France,   and   Spaine,   and   Italic 
laid    together :    Equall   I   say   in    dimension    of  ground, 
but  nothing  neere  equall  in   habitation  or  multitude   ot 
people,   which   the   distemperature    of  that    climate,    and 
the   dry  barrennesse  of  the  ground,  in  many  regions  of 
it,   will    not  allow.     For   which   cause    the    torride  parts 
of  Afrique  are  by  Piso  in  Strabo  resembled  to  a  Libbards  S,trab.  /.  2. 
skinne,  the  distance  of  whose  spots,  represent  the  disper- 
sednesse    of  habitations   or  townes    in    Afrique.     But    if 
I   should  absolutely  set  downe  the  circuit  of  that  whole 
dominion,    I   esteeme    the    limitation    of  Pigasetta,    nere  Pigafett.  de 
about   the  truth,   namely,   that   it   hath   in  circumference  ^^<?-  ^'"'<?  ^• 
4000.    miles    (about    1 500.    in    length,    and    about    600.     •  '^-  ^  • 
in    breadth)    being    inclosed    with    Mahumetans    on    the 
North,  and  East,  and  with  Idolaters,  on  the  West  and 

Such  then  as  I  have  declared,  is  the  condition  of 
Christians  in  the  continent  of  Afrique :  but  the  In- 
habitants of  the  Isles  along  the  West  coast  of  Afrique, 
as  namely  Madera ;  the  Canaries,  the  Isles  of  Cabo 
verde,  and  of  S.  Thomas,  and  some  other  of  lesse 
importance,  are  by  the  Portugals  and  Castilians  instruc- 
tion, become  Christian :  but  on  the  East  side  of  ^  _  ,  , . 
.  /-  .  .  y     :it  rj  ,  •  ^,    .     .         * Faul.  l^enct. 

Arrique,  exceptmg  onely  *Zocotora,  there  is  no  Christian  /  ,  ^  ,§ 
Isle.  •  3-   .  3  . 

Even  such  is  the  state  of  Christians  in  the  firme  land,  ^^^^o.'z.l.z. 

and  the  adjacent  Isles  of  Afrique.     And  it  is  not  much  ^V^^^  Russian 

better  in  Asia,  for  excepting  first  the  Empire  of  Russia  Christianity. 



Jacob  a  Vit- 
riaco  Hist. 
07-ient.  c.  7. 

[I.  i.  1.4.] 

Since  the  Tar- 
tarian times 
is  neere  ex- 
tirpate out  of 

Paul.  Venct. 
I.  1.  c.  8. 

(and  yet  of  it,  a  great  part  is  Idolatrous,  namely  the 
region  betweene  the  Rivers  of  Pechora  and  Ob,  and 
some  part  of  Permia)  secondly,  the  regions  of  Circassia, 
and  Mengrelia,  lying  along  Moeotis  and  the  Euxine  Sea, 
from  Tanais  Eastward  as  farre  as  the  River  Phasis. 
Thirdly,  the  Province  of  Georgia,  and  fourthly  the 
Mountaine  Libanus  in  Syria  (and  yet  the  last  of  these 
is  of  the  Turkes  Dominion)  excepting  these  few  I  say, 
there  is  not  any  region  in  all  Asia,  where  Christians 
live  severall,  without  mixture,  either  of  Mahumetans  or 
of  Pagans,  for  although  Vitriacus  a  man  well  experi- 
enced in  some  parts  of  the  orient  (as  being  Bishop  of 
Aeon  and  the  Popes  Legate  in  the  East,  at  what  time 
Palestina  and  Syria  were  in  the  hands  of  Christians)  hath 
left  registred,  that  the  Christians  of  the  Easterlie  parts 
of  Asia,  exceeded  in  multitude  the  Christians  of  the 
Greeke  and  Latine  Churches :  yet  in  his  time  (for  he 
writ  almost  foure  hundred  yeeres  agoe)  Christianitie 
began  to  decline,  and  since  his  time,  it  hath  proceeded 
infinitely  to  decay,  in  all  those  parts  of  Asia :  first,  by 
the  inundation  of  the  Idolatrous  Tartars,  who  subdued 
all  those  Regions,  and  after  by  the  intertayning  of 
Mahumetanisme  in  many  of  them.  The  time  was 
indeede,  (and  but  about  foure  hundred  yeeres  agoe) 
when  the  King  of  Tenduc,  whom  the  histories  of 
those  times  name  Presbyter  Johannes  a  Christian,  but 
a  Nestorian  Prince,  ruled  farre  and  wide  in  the  North- 
east part  of  Asia :  as  having  under  his  dominion,  beside 
Tenduc,  (which  was  his  owne  native  and  peculiar  King- 
dome)  all  the  neighbouring  Provinces,  which  were  at 
that  time  for  a  great  part.  Christian :  but  after  that 
his  Empire  was  brought  to  ruine,  and  he  subdued  by 
Chingis  a  rebell  of  his  owne  Dominion  (and  the  first 
founder  of  the  Tartarian  Empire)  which  happened  about 
the  yeere  11 90,  the  state  of  Christian  Religion  became 
in  short  time  strangely  altered  in  those  parts,  for  I  finde 
in  Marcus  Paulus  who  lived  within  fiftie  yeeres  after 
Vitriacus,  and   was  a  man  of  more   experience  in   those 



parts  then  he,  as  having  spent  seventeene  yeeres  together 
in  Tartaric,  partly   in  the  Emperours   Court,  and   partly 
in  travailing  over  those  Regions,  about   the  Emperours 
affaires,   that   except   the   Province   of  Tenduc,  which  as 
I   said  was   the  Kingdome  of  Presbyter  Johns   residence 
(for  it  was  the  Prince  of  that  Kingdome,  which  is  rightly 
and  usually,  by  the  ancienter   Historians   named  *Pres- 
byter  John,  howsoever  the  mistaking  fantasies  of  many, 
have    transported   it   out   of  Asia    into    Africke    and   by 
errour  bestowed  it  on  the  King  of  Habassia)  except  that 
Province  of  Tenduc  I  say,  wherof  *  Marcus  Paulus  con- 
fesseth  the  greater  part,  to  have  professed  the  Christian 
Religion  at  his  being  in  Tartarie,  the  rest  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants,  being   partly    Mahumetans,   and    partly    Idolaters : 
in  all  the  other  Provinces  of  those  parts  beside,  that,  hee  a^^^n^^  His 
observeth  the  Christians  to  bee  but  few,  as  namely  in  the  tor.  Orient. 
Kingdomes  of  ^  Tanguth,  of  ^  Chinchintales,   of  Succuir,  c.  78.  Otho. 
of  ''Caraiam,  of  ^  Cassar,  of  ^Carcham,  of  ^Ergimuli,  of  Phnsingens. 
^Corguth,    of  Egrigaia,    and    in    the    other    Regions    of  iJ'Jii^^' 
Tartarie   mentioning  no    Christians   at   all.      Two   Cities  ^L.i.c.A.i 
onely  I  finde  in  him  excepted,  the  one  was  ^  Cingiangifu  "L.  i.  r,  47 
in  Mangi,  (that  is  China)  where  hee  noteth,  that  many  "^L.  i.r.  48 
Christians  dwelt,  and  the  other  '  Quinsay,  in  which  later  f'  ^' '^'  ^^ 
yet,  (although  the  greatest  Citie  in   the  world)  he  hath  g^"_  j*  /  .^ 
recorded    to    bee   found    but    one   Church   of  Christians.  ^L.i.cSz 
But  these  places  excepted  before  mentioned,  I  can  finde  \L-  i-  ^-  63 
no  certaine   relation,   neither   in   Paul  Venetus,  nor   any  iT"^'^'^' 
other,  of  any  Christians  of  the  native  Inhabitants,  in  all 

*  For    Scaligers    imagination,  that   it   was   the   King   of  the   Habas-    Scaliger.  de 
sines,  that  inlarged  his  Dominion  so  farre,  in  the  North-east  of  Asia,    Emendat. 
till  he  was  driven  into  Africk  by  the  Tartars,  hath  neither  any  foun-    tempor.  I.  7. 
dation   at   all   in  historic,  nor  probabilitie  in  reason.     Namely  that   a    Annot.incom- 
King  in  Africke  should  subdue  the  most  distant  parts  of  all  Asia  from  put,  Ethiop. 
him,  and  there  hold  residence  all   the   Regions   betwixt  belonging   to 
other  Princes.      Moreover  it  is  certainly  knowne  of  Presbyter  John  of 
Asia,  that    hee   was   a    Nestorian,   whereas   hee    of  Habassia    was,   and 
still    is,  a  Jacobite.       Besides,    it    hath    beene    recorded    from    time    to 
time,  of  the  Christians  of  Habassia,  that  they  were  circumcised,  which 
of  those  of  the  East,  was  never  reported  by  any,  &c.      Scaliger  him- 
selfe  in  his  later  edition,  hath  altered  his  conceit. 



the  East   of   Asia,   but   Idolatrie   keepeth   still    her    olde 
possession,  and  overspreadeth  all. 

But  yet  indeede,  in  the  more  Southerly  parts  of  Asia 
(especially  in  those  where  Christianitie  was  first  planted, 
and  had  taken  deepest  roote)  as  Natolia,  Syria,  Palestine, 
Chaldaea,  Ossyria,  Mesopotamia,  Armenia,  Media,  Persia, 
the  North  part  of  Arabia,  and  the  South  of  India, 
Christians  are  not  onely  to  be  found,  but  in  certaine 
of  those  Regions,  as  in  Natolia,  Armenia,  Syria,  Me- 
sopotamia, somewhat  thicke  mingled  with  Mahumetans : 
as  they  are  also  in  the  South  of  India  not  farre  from 
the  Promontorie  of  Comoriin,  in  some  reasonable  number, 
in  the  Kingdome  of  Contan,  of  Cranganor,  and  of  Choro- 
mandel,  but  mingled  with  Idolaters.  But  yet,  is  not  this 
mixture  of  Christians  with  them  of  other  Religions,  in 
any  part  of  Asia,  after  the  proportion  of  their  mixture 
in  Europe  (where  I  observed  the  Christians  to  make 
the  prevayling  number)  but  they  are  farre  inferiour  to 
the  multitude  of  the  Mahumetans,  and  of  the  Idolaters, 
among  whom  they  are  mingled,  and  yet  touching  their 
number,  decrease  every  day,  in  all  the  parts  aforesaid, 
India  onely  excepted.  Where  since  the  Portugals  held 
Goa  (which  they  have  erected  into  an  Archbishopricke) 
and  entertayned  Malabar,  and  some  other  parts  of  India, 
what  with  commerce,  and  what  with  amitie,  the  number 
of  Christians  is  greatly  multiplied,  in  sundrie  places  of 
that  Region,  but  yet  not  so,  as  to  compare  in  any  sort 
with  the  Mahumetans,  and  much  lesse  with  the  Idolaters 
among  whom  they  live. 

Thus  it  is  with  Christians  in  the  firme  land  of  Asia : 
but  in  the  Hands  about  Asia,  Christianitie  is  as  yet  but 
a  tender  plant :  for  although  it  hath  made  some  entrance 
into  the  Isles  called  Philippinas,  namely  into  thirty  of 
them,  for  so  many  onely  of  iiooo.  termed  by  that 
name,  are  subject  to  the  King  of  Spain,  (Th.  Jes.  de 
Conu.  gent.  1.  i.  c.  i.)  by  the  industry  of  the  Castilians, 
as  also  by  the  preaching  of  the  Portugals,  into  Ormuz 
in  the  Bay  of  Persia,  and  into  Ceilan  in  the  Sea  of  India, 


•>  T  Y  P  U  S~0  R  B  1  S     TERR  A  R  U  M 


<  ^M^ • f  MHWIC — ow^JVW ^ ~j 

yDjvuiii  e^r  unu  '^jVcmtiuL  cnis.orhis  tcrt\inim,Cs' tinircrsi  Jiu  hubitdtit  in  eo.   J^'Jalnio  ^4.   o 



and  some  few  other  of  the  infinite  multitude  of  Islands, 
dispersed  in  that  Easterne  Sea,  yet  hath  it  hitherto  found 
in  all  those  places,  rather  some  faire  beginning,  then 
any  great  proceeding.  Onely  in  Japonia  Christianity 
hath  obtained  (notwithstanding  many  hinderances  and 
oppositions)  more  prosperous  successe.  Insomuch  that 
many  yeeres   since,   there   were  recorded  to   have   beene 

by  estimation,  about  ''200000.  Christians  in  Japonia.  [Li.  115.] 

Lastly,  in  America,  there  be  foure  large  regions,  and  ^P^^^-  ^(^ 

those    of  the    most   fruitful!    and    populous    part    of  it,  ^^J'  ^^^^' 

possessed  and  governed  by  the  Spaniards,  that  is,  Nueva  ^ap.  30. 

Espana,  Castilla  del  Oro  (otherwise  termed  Nuebo  Reino)  OrdatJudcem 

Peru,  and  part  of  Brasil,  the  first  three,  by  the  Castilians,  (ippella  Jcsu- 

and  the  fourth,  by  the  Portugals,  all  which  together,  may  J^^^'y^"^^^' 

by  estimation,   make  a  Region  as  large  as  Europe.     In  ^ij^  ^-^  ^^^gi^ 

which,    as   also   in    the   Islands,   specially   in   the    greater  ling  their  owne 

Islands   of  Hispaniola,   Cuba,  Jamaica,  and    Puerto-rico,  exploits. 

the  Christian  Region  is  so  largely  spred,  that  *one  hath  ^^"^ ^'^'. 
presumed,    to    equall    in    a    manner,    the    Christians    of  fjnit'i  hath 

America,    to    those    of  the    Latine    Church    in    Europe :  there  gone 

And    *  another,    hath    left    recorded,   that    within    a    few  backward.  See 

yeeres   after   the   entrance   of  the   Gospell   among   them,  ^-  5-  ^-  2-  ^ 

there  were    no  lesse   then    seven   Millions,   or  as   others  ^^jmlndZh-- 
reported   foureteene   Millions,   that  in   the  Sacrament   of  ic.  in  Chro. 

Baptisme  had  given  their  names  to  Christ.     But  especi-  (fit.  An. 

ally  in    the   Kingdome  of  Mexico   (or  Nueva   Espanna)  ]^^^\     . 

Christian  Religion  obtained  that  plentiful!  and  prosperous  chr^^ad^An 

successe,     that    we    finde    recorded    of    sundry    of    the  chr.  1558. 

Preachers,  emploied  about  the  conversion  of  that  people,  Vid.  epist. 

that   they    baptised    each  one    of   them,    above    1 00000.  Petri  Gauden. 

and  that  in  few  yeeres :  Insomuch  that  (as  is  storied  by  ^Seduliiadvi- 

Surius)  it  is  to  be  found  among  the  records  of  Charles  the  tam.  S.  Fran- 

fift,  that  some  old  Priest  hath  baptised  700000.  another  m./.  219,  y 

300000.  and  certaine  others  very  great  multitudes.     But  ^/'-  ^^''^:  ^ 

yet,  what  maner  of  Christians  many  of  those   proselites  f^^^a  ^'^^'^ 

were,   I   am   loath   to  remember,  or  report   (and   it  may  ^      .  ' 

be  by  this  time,  they  are  better  affected  and  instructed  ^^,.  Ynd  Occi- 

then  they  were)  for  certainly,  Oviedo,  and  Benzo,  men  dent.l.ij.c^. 



Benz.  hist.       that  had  long  lived,  and  were  well  experienced  In  those 
Nov.  Orbis.     parts,  have  left  recorded,  the  first  of  *=  Cuba,  that  there 
SeeTo  2^  /     ^^^  scarce  any  one,  or  but  very  few,  that  willingly  became 
5.  c.  3.  6-  /.  Christians,  and  both  Oviedo  of  them,  and  Benzo  of  the 
7.^.12.6-    Christians    of   Nueva    Espanna,    that    they    had    nothing 
/.  8.  f.  4. 6>'<r.  almost    belonging    to   Christianitie,    but    onely    the    bare 
name    of  Christians,    being    so    utterly    mindelesse,    and 
carelesse  of  Christian  religion,  that  they  remembred  not 
any  thing  of  the    convenant    and   profession   they  made 
in  their  baptisme :   Onely  they  kept  in  minde,  the  name 
they   received  then,  which  very   name  also,   they  forgot 
soone    after.     But  all   the   rest    of  America,   except   the 
regions   afore  mentioned,   which  compared   to    the   parts 
possessed  by  the  Castilians  and  Portugals  (to  make  esti- 
mation by  the  Maps  that  we  have  of  those  regions,  for 
the    North    and    West    coasts   of  America,    are    not   yet 
perfectly  discovered)  may  be  as  six  to  one,  is  possessed 
by  Idolaters. 

[I.  i.  116.] 
Of  the  parts 
of  the  luorld 
possessed  by 
Ch.  II. 
The  Religious 
of  the  World 
brought  to 
foare  heads  or 
general!  kinds. 

^Mathia  Mi- 
chov.  de  Sar- 
mat.  I.  2.C.  3. 

HAving  declared  the  amplitude  of  Christianitie,  I 
will  proceed  to  shew  the  state  of  other  Religions 
in  the  World,  and  with  all,  what  parts  of  it,  the  Pro- 
fessours  of  those  Religions  doe  severally  inhabit;  and 
lastly,  what  proportion  they  may  have  each  to  other,  and 
all  of  them  to  Christians.  To  indevour  therefore  your 
satisfaction  in  this  behalfe.  There  are  foure  sorts  or 
sects  of  Religion,  observed  in  the  sundrie  Regions  of  the 
World,  Namely,  Idolatry,  Mahumetanisme,  Judaisme,  and 
Christianitie.  Of  Christians  I  have  alreadie  spoken  :  now 
therefore  will  I  relate  for  your  better  contentment,  of 
the  other  three  ;  and  first  of  Mahumetans. 

Mahumetans  then  possesse  in  Europe,  as  I  said  before 
(having  in  that  part  but  small  mixture  of  Christians) 
all  the  Region  betwixt  Tanais  and  Boristhenes  (Don  and 
Nieper  they  are  now  called)  being  about  a  twentieth 
part  of  Europe  :  beside  ^  some  Villages  in  Lituania  about 
Wilna,  where  the  use  of  their  Religion  is  by  the  King  of 
Poland  permitted  them,  for  in  Greece,  Macedon,  Thrace, 



Bulgaria,  Rascia,  Servia,  Bosina,  Epirus,  the  greatest  part 
of  Hungaria,  and  some  part  of  Dalmatia  (which  may  be 
together  about  one  fourteenth  part  of  Europe)  although 
the  government  be  wholy  the  Turkes,  yet  Mahumetans 
scarcely  passe  one  third  part  of  the  Inhabitants. 

But  in  Afrique,   Mahumetanisme  is   spread   exceeding 
farre ;  for,  first  to  consider  the  maritime  Coast :   It  pos- 
sesseth  all  the  shoare  of  the  Atlantique  Ocean,  from  Cape 
Blanco *"  to  the  Strait  of  Gibralter,  being  about  i  loo.  miles.  ^They  reach 
Secondly,  on  the  shoare  of  the  Mediterraine,  all  from  that  ^°  ^"'^,  %ow^ 
Strait  to  Egypt,  about   2400.  miles,  excepting  onely  on  ^^^^^^J^  5 
the  one  Coast,   and  on  the  other,   some  seven  Townes,  jobson  infra. 
in  the  possession  of  the  Spaniards.     Thirdly,  on  the  East  /.  9.  c.  13.  as 
side  of  Afrike,  all  the  Coast  of  the  Bay  of  Arabia,  even  ^i^emse  on  the 
from  Suez  to  Cape  Gardafu,  about  1600.  miles,  excepting  ^^^^  ^oSofala. 

1  -r*  f-r-  \    1      •  /-      1         x^  •     •  /•      ,         Santos  I.  Q.  c. 

onely  one  rort  (Ercoco)  bemg  or  the  Dommion  of  the   xz, further 
King   of  Habassia.     And    thence   (doubling   that    Cape)  then  our 
Southward,    all   the    shoare    of  the    i^thiopique   Sea,    as  ^«^'^<"'  f^^^^^ 
farre  as  Mozambique   (that  is  over   against  the  middest  ^"''^^'^• 
of   Madagascar)    about    1800.    miles.      And    in    all    the 
Coasts   of  Afrike    hitherto   mentioned,    being    altogether 
about  7000.  miles  (that  is,  by  some  excesse  more  then 
halfe    the    circumference    of  Afrike)   the    Professors   of 
Mahumeds  Religion,  have  both  possession  and  dominion, 
together  with   the  "  Maritime  parts,  of  the   great   He  of  ^Paul  Venet. 
Madagascar,  and  many  other  Hands  along  the  Coast  of  '^-  3-  ^-  39- 

And  yet,  even  beyond  Mozambique  also  as  farre  as 
to  the  Cape  das  Corrientes,  it  is  under  the  Circle  of 
Capricorne)  although  they  have  there  no  rule,  yet  they 
are  found  mingled  with  Idolaters.  But  yet  neverthelesse, 
observed  it  is,  that  along  the  East  shoare  of  Afrike, 
namely  from  Suachem  to  Mozambique  (being  towards 
3000.  miles  of  the  mentioned  Coast)  Mahumetans  pos- 
sesse  onely  the  Margent  of  the  Land,  on  the  Sea  shoare, 
and  have  gotten  but  little  footing  in  the  Inland  parts, 
except  in  the  Kingdomes  of  Dangali  and  Adel,  confining 
together,   the    first   within   and    the   second   without    the 



Strait  of  Babel  Mandel,  which  yet  are  but  small  Pro- 
vinces. And  this  also  (to  extenuate  their  number)  is 
also  true,  that  from  the  Kingdome  of  Adel,  and  Cape 
Guardafu,  to  Mozambique,  there  is  found  among  the 
Mahumetans,  some  mixture  of  Idolaters,  although  the 
Dominion  be  onely  in  the  Mahumetans  hands. 

But  yet   on  the  North  and  West   parts  of  Afrike,  it 

is    farre    otherwise,    and    farre    worse:     Mahumetanisme 

having  over-spread   all  the   maine  Land    of  Afrike,   be- 

tweene  the  Mediterrane  Sea,  and  the  great  River  Niger : 

and  along  the    course   of  Nilus,   as  farre   as   the   He    of 

Meroe,  which  lieth  also  about  the  same  parallel  with  the 

River   Niger,    and    is   possessed    by   Mahumetans.     And 

^Leo  Afric.  I.  yet  ^  beyond  Niger  also,  it  hath  invaded  and  obtained,  all 

x.c.deRelig.  the  Kingdoms  of  the  Nigrites  that  border  on  that  River. 

^'^''^^'  So  that  all  Barbarie  and  Biled-elgerid,  and  Libya  deserta, 

and  the  Region  of  Negroes,  are  become  of  that  Religion. 

Excepting  first  some   Maritime  parts  toward   the  Atlan- 

tique  Sea,  namely   from  Cape  Blanco  Southward,  which 

are  inhabited  by  Gentiles.     Secondly,  the  Kingdome  of 

Borno,  and   some  part  of  Nubia:    And   thirdly,   certaine 

scattered   multitudes  of  the   olde  African  Progenie,  that 

still  retaine  their   ancient   Gentilisme,   and   are  found   in 

divers    places    heere   and    there    in    the   Mountaines  and 

wilder  parts  of  Barbarie,  of  Biled-elgerid,  and  of  Libya. 

These  I  say,  being  excepted,  all  Afrike  beside,  from  the 

Mediterraine  Sea,   somewhat   more    Southward    then  the 

River    Niger,   is   over-spread    with   Mahumetans :    which 

The  Mogol     (adding  these   before  mentioned,   along   the   East    Coast 

as  great  a        of  ^Ethiopia)    may    by    estimation,   take    up    foure    nine 

Prince  as         parts  of  Afrique. 

^^n\  /— '"''^  And  yet  in  Asia,  Mahumatisme  is  farther  spred,  being 
lut/iis'^eausi  imbraced  and  maintained  chiefly,  by  foure  mightie 
Commanders  Nations,  namely,  the  Arabians,  Persians,  Turkes,  and 
and  best  Soul-  Tartars.^  Arabia  was  indeed  the  Nest,  that  bred  and 
'^^^"hAjT''  fostered  that  uncleane  Bird,  and  had  it  beene  the  Cage 
Zetans:  V'ea  ^^^o,  for  ever  to  enclose  it,  it  had  beene  but  too  much 
his  sonnes,dr'c.  space  and  libertie,   for  Arabia  is   m  circuit   above  4000. 



miles,  and  except  a  small  mixture  of  Christians  in  Eltor/    See  of  these 
a  Port  Towne   toward  the  inmost  Angle  of  the  Bay  of  ^^'^'^'^'"-^''- ^• 
Arabia;    and  Petra   (Krac   now   it  is  called)   a   mid-land 
Towne;    and  two  Monasteries  about  the  Hill   of  Sinai, 
all    is    possessed   with   Mahumetans.       But   from   Arabia 
that  poyson  hath  in  such  sort  dispersed  it  selfe  through 
the  veines   of  Asia,  that  neere  the  one  halfe,   is  at  this 
day  corrupted  by  it.     For  although  it  hath  not  hitherto 
attained  to  the  North  Coast  of  Asia,  which  is  partly  in- 
habited by  Christians,  namely,  from  the  River  of  Dwyna 
to  Pechora,  and  partly  by  Idolaters  from  Pechora  to  the 
East  Ocean  :   nor  yet  to  the  East  Coast,  which  from  the 
most  Northerly  part  of  Tartary,  to  the  most  Southerly 
part  of  India  ^  (except  some  few  places  in  the  Kingdome  ^Boter.  Rel 
of  Siam)    Idolaters    in    like    sort  generally  obtaine :    yet  /"•  3-^- z-^-'^^ 
neverthelesse,   it  is  as  I  said,  namely,  that  a  very  great      ^  ometant. 
part  of  Asia  is  infected  with   that   pest